10 Political Science Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Chapter Notes and Summary• A loose organisation that attempts to influence politics rather than directly taking part in electoral competition is called a
movement.
Third wave countries are those countries which had won democracy in recent part from either monarchy,
dictatorship or from colonial rule.
• Nepal witnessed an extra-ordinary movement in April 2006,
which aim at restoration of democracy and to regain control from King Gyanendra who was using oppressive methods to crub political parties.
Manarchy is a form of government in which head of state is an hereditary king.
• With efforts of Maoists (the follower of ideology of Mao,
the leader of chinese revolution, who wanted to overthrow government through an armed revolution) and Seven Party Alliance (SPA) democracy was restored in Nepal.
Bolivia is a small and poor country in Latin America. government sold water rights of city ‘Cochabamba’ to a multi-nation company which immediately increased water prices by four times. As a result a spontaneous popular protest erupted here. It led to cancellation of water contract of MNC and water supply was restored at old rates.
• Both struggles i.e., restoration of democracy in Nepal and restoration of water supply by municipality in Bolivia shows that democracy evolves through popular struggles and conflicts in democracy resolved through mass mobilisation.
FEDECOR is an organisation which comprises of local professionals including engineers and environmentalists. organisation was founded to spearhead protest against water privatisation in Bolivia.
BAMCEF stands for Backward And Minority Communities Employees Federation and mainly constituted of government employees who compaign against caste discrimination.
NAPM, this term stands for National Alliance for People’s Movement. This organisation co-ordinates activities of a large number of people’s movement in India.
• A movement which seeks to achieve a broad goal in very long term is called generic movement.
• movements which seeks to achieve a single objective within limited time frame is called Issue Specific Movement
(ISM).
Pressure group is an organisation that attempts to influence government policies without attempting to place their members in formal government capacity. It uses extra constitutional measures to influence and coerce government.
• A sectional interest group is a pressure group which represents interests of particular section of society. Trade Unions, Business Association and Professionals Bodies are some of example of sectional interest groups.
• A group of people which promotes interest of people of society rather than a particular section of society are called public interest groups. They are also called promotional groups because they promote collective rather than selective goods.
• A social movement is particular form of collective behaviour in which motive to act comes largely from attitudes and aspiration of members, typically acting with in loose organisational framework.

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