10 Political Science Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity

Chapter Notes and SummaryCivil Rights Movement in USA (1954-1968) It is a set of events and movements which abolished legal racial discrimination against African-Americans, led by Martin Luther king Jr, it practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
• term black mainly refers to descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between 17th century and early 19th century.
Black Power Movement It started in 1966 and lasted in
1975, it was a more militant and anti racist advocating violence if necessary to end racism in US.
• examples of Belgium and Sri Lanka show both regional and social divisions.
In Belgium, we found that people of different regions speak different languages.
And in Sri Lanka there was linguistic as well as religious differences.
Thus, social diversity can take different forms in different societies.
Social Division Division of people on basis of language, region, caste, colour, race and sex. It signifies linguistic and regional diversity.
Origins of Social Differences
1. Most of social differences are based on accident of birth.
2. We belong to a community because we were born into it.
We don’t choose to belong to it.
3. Normally, we all face social differences based on accident of our birth in our daily lives.
4. People around us are tall and short, they are male or female, they have different types of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities.
5. All social differences are not based on accident of birth some of them are based on our choices.
For example We choose to follow a religion other than one in which we were born. We choose what to study, which occupation to take up etc.
6. All these lead to formation of social groups which are based on our choices.
7. Social differences divide similar people from one another,
but they also unite very different people.
8. It is quite common for people belonging to some religion to feel that they do not belong to same community,
because their caste is different.
9. Very often persons of some family do not keep close relations because of richness and poorness. They feel that they are different.
Overlapping Differences Social differences which overlap other differences are known as overlapping differences. e.g. ,
difference between blacks and whites became a social division in US because blacks tend to be poored homeless and discriminated against.
In our country, Dalits tend to be poor and landless.
Cross-Cutting Differences If social differences cross-cut one another it is known as cross-cutting differences. In another way in this situation groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides on a different issue,
Homogeneous Society A society that has similar kinds of people or inhabitants, and that signifies that there are no significant ethnic differences.
Migrants Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country for purpose of work or other economic opportunities.
Politics of Social Divisions Democracy involves competition among various political parties which tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it may change into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
Determinants of Social Division Three factors are crucial in deciding outcome of politics of social divisions.
1. outcome depends on how people perceive their identities if they see it in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.
2. It depends on how political leaders raise demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands which are with in constitutional framework and are not at cost of another community.
3. It depends on how government reacts to demands of different groups.

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