10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing

Chapter Notes and SummaryPower Sharing It is distribution of power among legislature, executive and judiciary. sharing of power can become a major factor for disintegration of a country if people belonging to different ethics, religion, caste etc are not given proper share in running country.
1. We can give examples of power sharing like Belgium and Sri Lanka.
2. ethnic composition of Belgium–59% lives in Flemish region and speaks Dutch language. 40% live in Wallonia region and speaks French. Remaining 1% speaks German.
3. Capital of Belgium is Brussels where 80% (majority)
speaks French, while 20% (minority) are Dutch speaking.
4. A conflict was started between Dutch and French speaking communities during 1950s and 1960s.
5. Sri Lankan has a composition of Sinhalese 74%, Tamils
18%. In other words, we can say that Sinhalese are in majority while Tamils are in minority.
6. Tamils have two sub-groups—Tamil natives (13%) and Indian Origin Tamil (5%).
Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka Majoritarianism is a concept which signifies a belief that majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants.
1. Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948.
2. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognise Sinhala, as only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.
3. government followed policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
4. With a new Constitution, Buddhism was adopted as a state region.
5. Denial of citizenship to estate Tamils.
Accommodation in Belgium Between 1970 and 1993, Constitution of Belgium was amended four times.
Following steps were taken to accommodate people belonging to different origins
1. Equal number of ministers for both groups.
2. More powers to State Governments.
3. Equal representation at state and central level.
4. Formation of community government.
Major Forms of Power Sharing idea of power sharing emerged from notions of undivided, political power. It was felt that in a democracy political power should be distributed among many citizens as possible.
Following are forms of power sharing
1. Power sharing among different organs of government i. e. ,
horizontal power sharing.
2. Power sharing among government at different levels i. e. ,
vertical power sharing.
3. Power sharing among different social groups.
4. Power sharing among political parties, pressure groups and movements.
Why Sharing of Power is Desirable?
1. To avoid conflict (Prudential reason).
2. Decreases possibility of arbitrariness.
3. Accommodates diversities.
4. Promotes people’s participation in government.
5. Provides right to be consulted on how they are to be governed (moral reason).
6. It acquires a legitimate government.

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