10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

Chapter Notes and Summary• process converting raw material into useful goods with help of technology or machines is called manufacturing.
• Manufacturing sector is considered to be backbone of economic development of a nation.
• Trade and commerce expands with export of manufactured goods.
• Agriculture and industries move hand in hand, they are not exclusive of each other.
• Growth in manufacturing sectors and service sectors help to bridge gap between rich and poor.
• distribution of industries over a vast geographical region
(area) influenced by availability of raw material, capital,
power and market etc is known as industrial location.
• Industrial location is influenced by both physical factors and human factors.
• Power resources, easy availability of raw material and suitable
(favourable) climate are major three physical factors influencing location of an industry.
• Labour, capital, transport and communication facilities are major human factors that influences industrial location.
• On basis of sources of raw material industries are classified into agro-based industries and mineral based industries.
• On basis of role that industries play in supplying raw material to another industries are divided into basic industries and consumer industries.
• Basic industries supply raw materials for manufacturing of other goods, e.g., Iron and Steel Industry.
• Consumer industries are those industries which produces goods for direct use of consumers. e.g., sugar, sewing machine,
bicycle, etc.
• One basis of size of labour employed industries are of three types
1. Large Scale Industries
2. Medium Scale Industries
3. Small Scale Industries
• On basis of raw material used in industries, these are of two types
1. Heavy Industries
2. Light Industries
• On basis of their ownership industries are of four types
1. Private Sector Industries These are owned and controlled by private individuals or groups.
2. Public Sector Industries These industries are owned supervised and controlled by states or its agencies.
3. Joint Sector Industries These industries jointly owned by government and private individuals or groups.
4. Co-operative Sector Industries These are run by co-operative societies.
• In Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Paschim Banga and Uttar Pradesh most of cotton textile industries are located.
• In Indian first modern cotton textile mill was set up at Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1818.
• Bombay (now Mumbai) is known as ‘cottonpolls of India’. It is oldest centre of cotton textile industry.
• Ahmedabad (in Gujarat) is known as ‘Manchester of India’,
while Kanpur in (Uttar Pradesh) is known as ‘Manchester of Northern India’.
• India occupies 2nd position as an exporter of jute after Bangladesh.
• First jute mill in India was set up at Rishral (near Kolkata) in
• West Bengal (Paschim Banga is largest jute producing state. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha and Asom are minor jute producing states of India.
• India is regarding as birth place of sugarcane and sugar.
At present, India occupies first place in production of Gur and Khandsari.
• In India, per capita comsumption per annum of sted is only
32 kg.
• At present, there are ten integrated and more than 200 mini steel plants in India.
TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) markets its steel through Tata steel. All other steel plants are public undertaking and markets their steel through SAIL (Steel Authority of India)
• Aluminium is obtained from bauxite. Aluminium smelting is second most important metallurgical industry in India.
• There are eight aluminium smelting plants in India, They are situated at Odisha, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Maharashtra and Chhattishgarh.
• chemical industries of India occupies 12 position in world.
• Fertilizers industries of India mainly centred around nitrogen fertilizers, phosphatic fertilizers and diammonium phosphate.
More than half of fertilizers production comes from Punjab,
Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Kerala.
• Limestone is basic raw material used in cement industry.
This industry is both in private and public sector.
NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) a Government of India undertaking has been adopted an aggressive approach to task of preserving and protecting our national environment.

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