Chapter Notes and Summary• Importance of Agriculture
1. 64% of total work force is still engaged in this activity.
2. Agriculture contributes 26% of net national product.
3. Agriculture is responsible for feeding our more than
1,027 million population and provides fodder to over
13 crore animals.
4. India is world’s largest producer of tea, sugarcane,
coarse grains and some oil seeds.
5. It is world’s second largest producer of rice, jute, jowar and bajra; third largest producer of tobacco.
6. It is forth largest producer of wheat, cotton and silk.
• Types of Agriculture in India
1. Subsistence Agriculture
2. Shifting Agriculture
3. Intensive Agriculture
4. Extensive Agriculture
5. Plantation Agriculture
• Agriculture Seasons
1. Rabi crops
2. Kharif crops
3. Zaid crops
Crops in India
• Food Crops in India
1. Rice India is second largest producer of rice in world after China.
(a) It is a Kharif crop, in North and in South it can be cultivated throughout year if irrigation is available.
(b) temperature of about 20C with minor variation during sowing, growing and harvesting season is suitable.
(c) Rice needs abundant rainfall, ranging between 150 cm to 300 cm.
(d) It grows in a variety of soils including, silts, loams and gravels.
(e) Paschim Banga is largest rice producing state in India.
(f) Paschim Banga, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Punjab, Odisha, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Asom are main rice producing states.
2. Wheat Wheat is second most important food crop of India.
(a) India is fourth largest producer of wheat in world after Russia, USA and China.
(b) Wheat is a Rabi crop, it is grown in Northern parts of India.
(c) It grows well in areas having mean monthly temperature of 24C. ideal temperature is 10C to
15C during growing season and about 25C to
28C at time of ripening.
(d) In India, it is grown in winter. It is sown in October-November and harvested in March-April.
(e) Wheat requires rainfall ranging between 50 cm to
(f) Wheat grows in well-drained fertile soil, heavy textured soil with some amount of lime. It also grows in clayey, loamy soil and black soil.
(g) Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are three major producers of wheat.
(h) Uttar Pradesh has largest area under wheat cultivation whereas per hectare yield is highest in Punjab.
3. Millets Jowar, Ragi and Bajra are some of important millets grown in India.
(a) Jowar It is third most important food crop of India with respect to area and production.
• Maharashtra is largest producer of jowar in India.
• Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are other largest producer of jowar in India.
(b) Bajra Bajra is a dry crop which grows well on sandy and shallow black soil.
• Rajasthan is largest producer of bajra.
• Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana and Gujarat are other leading producers of bajra.
(c) Ragi Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
• Karnataka is largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu.
• Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh are other important ragi producing states.
4. Maize It is a coarse grain used both as food and fodder crop.
(a) It is a Kharif crop.
(b) It requires temperature between 21C to 27C.
(c) It grows well in old alluvial soil.
(d) Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
5. Pulses Pulses help in restoring soil fertility because there are certain bacteria in roots of pulses
(leguminous plants) which have ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to form nitrogen compounds.
(a) Masur, peas and gram are grown as Rabi crops.
(b) Tur, urad and moong are grown as Kharif crops.
(c) Pulses can be grown in all types of soil but dry soil is most suitable in areas of low to moderate rainfall
i.e., 50 cm to 25 cm.
(d) It needs temperature between 20C to 30C.
(e) It matures in 4 to 5 months.
(f) Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Rajasthan, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh are important pulses producing states.
• Food Crops Other than Grains
1. Sugarcane Sugarcane is a tropical crop and is indigenous to India.
(a) sugarcane plant belongs to grass family.
(b) India has largest area under sugarcane but due to low per hectare productivity, it is second largest producer after Brazil.
(c) It needs hot and humind climate with temperature ranging between 21C to 27C.
(d) It needs a rainfall of 75 cm to 150 cm.
(e) It can grow on a variety of soils including black,
alluvial, loamy and raddish loam.
(f) Uttar Pradesh is largest producer of sugarcane.
(g) Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are other sugarcane producing states.
2. Oil Seeds Oil seeds constitute a very important group of commercial crops in India.
(a) India is leading oil seeds producing country of world.
(b) Most of these are edible and used as cooking medium.
(c) Extracted oil is also used as a raw material for manufacturing large number of items like paints,
varnishes, hydrogenated oil, soaps, perfumes,
(d) Oil cakes which is by-product of oil used as fertilizer and as an excellent cattle feed.
3. Beverages Tea and coffee are most important beverage crops of India.
(a) Tea India is largest producer of tea in world.
China and Sri Lanka are other important producers.
• It is a type of plantation agriculture in India.
• It is a tropical and sub-tropical shrub and thrives well in hot and humind climate.
• Tea plant can grow in temperature ranging between
20C and 35C but 25C is ideal temperature.
• It needs heavy rainfall ranging between 150 cm to
• plant requires a light loamy soil. soil should be rich in humus and iron content.
• Asom, Paschim Banga (Hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri Districts) Tamil Nadu and Kerala are major tea-producing states.
• Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea-producing states in country.
(b) Coffee Britishers introduced systematic cultivation of coffee in plantations in 1830.
• first plantation was set up in Karnataka.
• Arabica variety of coffee is most important which was brought from Yemen.
• It grows best at altitudes ranging from 1100 m to
• It grows in temperature ranges from 14C to 26C.
• It needs rainfall ranging between 125 cm to 250 cm.
Coffee plant grows well in deep, porous soil with high humus content. In India, coffee is grown on red and laterite soil.
• India produces about 4% of world’s coffee.
• Karnataka (Nilgiri Hills) is largest producer producing more than 70% of total production.
• Tamil Nadu and Kerala are other two producers.
4. Horticulture Crops India is largest producer of fruits and vegetables in world.
(a) India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
(b) Following fruits are in great demand.
(c) Mangoes-Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Paschim Banga.
(d) Oranges-Nagpur and Cherrapunjee.
(e) Banana- Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
(f) Lichi and guava-Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
(h) Grapes-Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
1. Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are in great demand.
(j) India produces about 13% of world’s vegetables.
(k) It stands first in production of pears and cauliflower, second in onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and fourth in potato.
5. Rubber Natural rubber is an equatorial crop native of Amazon equatorial forest.
(a) Kerala is largest producer and contributes 90% of total rubber production of country.
(b) It is a tree of tropical forests and requires a temperature about 25C.
(c) It needs rainfall ranging between 200 cm to 400 cm.
(d) It requires alluvial or laterite soil.
(e) India ranks fifth among world’s natural rubber producers.
(f) Kerala is largest producer of rubber. It accounts for about 91% of total area under rubber plantation.
(g) Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Garo Hills, of Himalayas are other producers.
6. Fibre Crops Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are most important fibre crops of India.
(a) Cotton India is second largest producer of cotton in world after China.
• USA and Russia are other two important producers.
• It is cultivated as a Kharif crop and requires 6 to 8
months to mature.
• Temperatures of 21C to 27Cand abundant sunshine in necessary during growth of plant.
• Rainfall ranging between 50 cm to 80 cm is adequate.
• Cotton can be grown on a variety of soils but black cotton soil of Deccan Plateau which has ability to retain moisture is most suitable.
• It also grows well in alluvial soils of Sutlej-Ganga Plain.
• leading cotton producing are Gujarat,
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh.
• Punjab and Haryana grow long staple variety.
(b) Jute India is second largest producer after Bangladesh.
• Jute is a tropical fibre plant and grows well in delta region of Ganga-Brahmaputra valley.
• Jute is used in making gunny bags, nets, ropes, yarn,
carpet and other ornamental arte facts.
• Many commodities are now packed in polythene bags rather than sacks.
• Factors Responsible for Low Productivity in India
1. Over Crowding in Agriculture Since 1901, proportion of people dependent on agriculture has almost remained constant i. e. , 70%.
2. Size of Land Holdings average size of holding in India is very low, less than two hectares or five ares.
Small sized holdings leads to great waste of time, labour and cattle power.
3. Problem of Inputs Indian agriculture has suffered because of inadequacy of finance, seeds, marketing,
fertilizers, transportation etc.
4. Poor Techniques of Production There is shortage of efficient methods and techniques of production, high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc.
• Technical and Institutional Reforms
1. Comprehensive Land Development Programme.
2. HYV Seeds and Agricultural Universities.
3. Launching of Irrigation Schemes.
4. Public Procurement Systems and Agriculture, Price Commission.
5. Crops Insurances and Agriculture Finance.
Chapter Notes and Summary• Importance of Agriculture