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# Phrase Replacement

Directions: Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct?
If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, mark No change required.
(BOB Manipal School of Banking Officer Online Exam, 14.08.2014)
1. He has emphatic always opposed to the proposals.
(a) always emphatically opposed
(b) emphatically always oppose
(c) always emphatic opposed
(d) emphatically opposed always
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
always emphatically (Adv.) opposed is the right usage.
2. Sometimes taking the most basic ingredients and using the simple for cooking technique can produce marvellous taste.
(a) simple for cooking technique
(b) simplest of cooking techniques
(c) simplest of cooking technique
(d) simplest for cooking techniques
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
simplest of cooking techniques (Plural) is the right usage. The is used before Superlative Degree.
3. To lie anytime is a sin and it is worse to utter a lie while performing a yoga.
(a) anytimes is sin
(b) sometime was a sin
(c) anytime has a sin
(d) always has a sin
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
4. The flyovers of city was built by ensuring smooth traffic flow .
(a) were built by ensuring
(b) was built for ensuring
(c) were built to ensure
(d) was built to ensure
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
were built to ensure is the right usage. Infinitive (purpose) should be used.
5. The technologies may astonished, its social and economic value is less so.
(a) may be astonishing
(b) may astonishing
(c) will astonished
(d) will be astonished
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
may be astonishing (Adj.) is the right usage.
6. A man convicted by stealing goods from the godowns.
(a) is convicting of stealing
(b) was convicted of stealing
(c) was convicted of stolen
(d) was being convicted for steal
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
was convicted of stealing (Gerund) (Passive) is the right usage.
7. A devotee pays obeisance for God on the occasion of festival.
(a) obeisance with God
(b) obeisance by God
(c) obeisance to God
(d) obsession of God
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
obeisance to God is the right usage. obeisance agrees with Prep.- to.
8. A generous king once announced that he would gave gifts by the deserved.
(a) give gifts to the deserving
(b) gave gifts to the deserving
(c) given gifts to the deserving
(d) give gifts by the deserving
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
give gifts to the deserving (Adj.) is the right usage. After would, Infinitive without to is used.
9. Renewables can play a greater role for a sustained energy by future prospects.
(a) by a sustained energy to
(b) in a sustainable energy for
(c) in a sustained energy for
(d) in a sustained energy by
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
in a sustainable energy for is the right usage.
10. The ministry wi ll be soon launched a communication strategy for Amaranth Yatra to spread awareness among pilgrims.
(a) will have soon launching
(b) will be soon launching
(c) will have soon been launched
(d) shal l have soon been launched
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
will be soon launching is the right usage. The sentence structure is as follows : Subj. + will be + V–ing.
Directions:
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct?
If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, mark No change required.
(SIDBI Bank Officer Exam, 03.09.2014)
11. The latest UN report places India’s maternal mortality as the high in a world at 17% of global maternal mortality.
(a) as the highest in the world
(b) higher in a world
(c) as higher of the world
(d) for the highest in the world
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
as the highest in the world is the right usage. Article-the should be used before world.
12. India is a country where the human sound has carried meaning, often deep, for millennia.
(a) sound have carried meaning
(b) sound have carried mean
(c) sound will have carried meaning
(d) sound has been carried away meaning
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required.
13. It certainly is annoying to living for a street with odd or offensive name such as sewer road.
(a) live on a street with odd
(b) to live for a street with even
(c) live on a street for odd
(d) living on a street with odd
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
(Infinitive = to + V1) live on a street with odd is the right usage.
14. The unit for inter sector interventions should block , and not the district as the former is more compact .
(a) sector interaction should block
(b) sector interventions should be block
(c) sectoral interventions should be block
(d) sectoral interventions should be the blocked
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
sectoral (Adj.) interventions (Noun) be the block (Noun) is the right usage.
15. Many Indian art forms are ritual as well as enriched with artistic flavor.
(a) are ritualistic as
(b) is ritual as
(c) is ritualistic as
(d) are ritualistic that
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
are ritualistic (Adj.) as is the right usage.
Directions:
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct?
If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, mark No change required.
16.
Whether people change or not is largely determines by ‘why’ they change.
(a) largely determined by
(b) large determinant of
(c) large determination by
(d) larger determinant for
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
largely determined by is the right usage. In PV, Past Participle form of Verb should be used.
17. With the night mentoring at the top, everyone stands to gain.
(a) to gaining
(b) for gain
(c) of gained
(d) to gained
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
18. The best leaders know how to kept moving forward even in ambiguous situations.
(a) knows how to keep
(b) know how to keep
(c) know how for keeping
(d) knowing what to keep
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
know how to keep (Infinitive = to + V1) is the right usage.
19. Asking questions helps us better understand what has been say.
(a) has been said
(b) has being said
(c) have been say
(d) has been saying
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
has been said is the right usage.
20. A high performer is four hundred times much productivity than the average performer.
(a) productive more
(b) more produce
(c) more productive
(d) much products
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
more productive (Adj.) is the right usage. For comparison between two things, Comparative Degree should be used. The word productivity is aNoun.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentence should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, select No change required.
21.
Some countries that missing the first Green Revolution due to poor policies are now witnessing a change and are becoming more self-sufficient.
(a) have missing
(b) that were missing
(c) which missed out on
(d) being missing
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
miss out on something : to fail to benefit from something useful by not taking part in it. which missed out on is the right usage. This Clause shows Past time.
22. Online shopping is projected to increase by 350 percent during peak festival seasons on account of the unbelievably low prices offered by retailers.
(a) lowest unbelievable price
(b) unbelievable low price
(c) unbelievably lowering price
(d) prices being unbelievably low.
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
23. Asian firms need to spend 50 percent more than the research and development and coming with breakthrough innovations to be competitive.
(a) have come through
(b) came into
(c) are having
(d) come up with
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
come up with (Infinitive) is the right usage.
24. An audit of private electricity distribution companies will be undertaken before the government announces to hike up to tariffs.
(a) a hiking tariff
(b) hike tariffs
(c) on hiking tariffs
(d) any hike in tariffs
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
hike tariffs is the right usage. hike (V.) : to increase prices
25. Sustain level growth required to lift millions of people out of poverty will require rethinking of country’s economic policy.
(a) Sustaining the level of
(b) To sustain level
(c) Sustainable levels through
(d) If we sustain levelling
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Sustaining the level of is the right usage.
Directions:
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct?
If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, mark No change required.
(BOB Junior Management Grade/Scale–I Exam. 18.04.2015)
26. Whether people change or not is largely determines by ‘why’ they change.
(a) largely determined by
(b) large determinant of
(c) large determination by
(d) larger determinant for
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
In PV, Past Participle form ofVerb should be used. Therefore, largely determined is the right usage.
27. With the night mentoring at the top, everyone stands to gain.
(a) to gaining
(b) for gain
(c) of gained
(d) to gained
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
28. The best leaders know how to kept moving forward even in ambiguous situations.
(a) knows how to keep
(b) know how to keep
(c) know how for keeping
(d) knowing what to keep
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
Infinitive = to + V1 Therefore, know how to keep is the right usager.
29. Asking questions helps us better understand what has been say.
(a) has been said
(b) has being said
(c) have been say
(d) has been saying
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
In PV, V3 i.e. has been said is the right usage.
30. A high performer is four hundred times much productivity than the average performer.
(a) productive more
(b) more produce
(c) more productive
(d) much products
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
The word Productivity is a Noun. Therefore, more productive (Adj.) is the right usage. For comparison between two things, Comparative Degree (more) is the right usage.
Directions:
Which of the phrase given against each sentence should replace the word/phrase, given in bold in a sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, choose No change required.
31.
It is important to teach children that discriminating on any particular culture is not acceptable.
(a) discriminating against
(b) discrimination for
(c) to discriminate towards
(d) discriminated of
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Discriminate agrees with Prep. – against. Therefore, discriminating against is the right usage.
32. Although official orders, work of re-survey of out-of-school children has not yet been undertaken in many parts of the State.
(a) In spite of
(b) Even though
(c) While
(d) However
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
in spite of (Prep.) : Despite In spite of will replace Although
33. Ayurveda believes that herbs when ingested bring about changes in the energy of a human body.
(a) ingested when
(b) when it is ingest
(c) while being ingest
(d) when one ingesting
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
34. The owners of commercial establishments in the city were given orders to furnished detailed information of their tenants.
(a) ordered for furnishing
(b) furnished orders
(c) ordered to furnish
(d) orderly furnished
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
Infinitive = to + V1 Therefore, ordered to furnish is the right usage.
35. Traffic snarls along the highway have started again, despite the area is declared a ‘no parking zone’.
(a) has been declared
(b) declaration on
(c) being declared
(d) has to declare
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Present Perfect (Passive) is the right usage. The past has effect on the present. Therefore, has been declared is the right usage.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against each sentence should replace the word/phrase, given in bold in a sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, choose No change required.
36.
Your tone of voice is as important as the content for which you have to say.
(a) of what
(b) for what
(c) to what
(d) by which
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
of what is the right usage.
37. It is impossible to say at what point along the continuum a dialect became a separately language.
(a) becomes separately
(b) becomes a separate
(c) became a separate
(d) becomes separated
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
As the sense suggests, Present Simple i.e., becomes a separate (Adj.) is the right usage.
38. The number of cheating and forgery cases in disguise of running private commercial establishments has increased significantly.
(a) under the guise of
(b) disguising as
(c) in guise for
(d) disguised in
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
under the guise of is the right usage. guise (N.) : a way in which something appears, often in a way that is different from usual.
39. It is not very difficult to dishing out a simple recipe for your child’s lunchbox.
(a) to dish out
(b) for dishing about
(c) in order to dish
(d) to out dish
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Infinitive = to + V1. to dish out is the right usage.
40. The city’s IT hub isn’t just decoding data or counting its export figures these days, but is rather aggressively beefed up exsecurity both online and offline.
(a) beef up
(b) beefing
(c) is beefing up
(d) was beefing
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
As the first Clause is in Present Progressive, same tense is the right usage in the second Clause. Therefore, is beefing up is the right usage.
Directions:
In the following questions, which of the phrases given below should replace the phrase given in bold in each sentence to make the sentence grammatically meaningful and correct? If the sentence is correct as it is and no change is required, SelectNo change required.
41.
According to our analysis, allocation for the agriculture sector being high from last year.
(a) is higher than
(b) is as high
(c) was higher to
(d) can be high
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Comparative Degree i.e. is higher than is the right usage.
42. He did not invest wisely and has lost his entirely life savings.
(a) live savings entirely
(b) entire life savings
(c) savings for entire life
(d) entire lifetime of savings
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
entire life savings is the right usage. Adv. (entirely) is inappropriate.
43. It would be worthwhile to educate teenagers about the consequences of drinking to drive.
(a) drunk and driving
(b) drunk for driving
(c) drink to drive
(d) drinking and driving
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
drinking and driving or drunk driving is the right usage.
44. Hearing rumours of a fraud, investors begun to pull out their money in panic.
(a) began putting in
(b) beginning pulling out
(c) will begin by putting
(d) began to pull out
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
Past Simple i.e. began to pull out is the right usage.
45. There are a large number of employees whom took the option of voluntary retirement.
(a) which taken
(b) who is taken
(c) who took
(d) that will be taken
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
Who (Rel. Pro.) is used to show which person you mean. Therefore, who took is the right usage.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against each sentence should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, select No change required.
(Marketing) CWE 01.02.2016)
46. Ultimately, the only way to sustained a competitive advantage is to upgrade it.
(a) sustainable ways
(b) ways to sustain
(c) way to sustainable
(d) way to sustain
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
Infinitive Þ to + V1 (Plural) Therefore, way to sustain is the right usage.
47. What exactly have the managers being doing wrong?
(a) been doing wrong
(b) doing wrong been
(c) been wrong doing
(d) wrongly being doing
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Structure of Present Perfect Continuous : What + has/have + Subj. + been + V–ing Therefore, been doing wrong is the right usage.
48. Success in trade is the result on patient and meticulous preparations.
(a) is resulting of
(b) are result of
(c) is the result of
(d) results of the
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
It is Prep. related error. Therefore, is the result of is the right usage.
49. Competitors will eventually and inevitably overtake any companies that steps improving and innovating.
(a) any companies who
(b) any company that
(c) any company
(d) many company that
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
any company (Singular) that is the right usage.
50. The giant search engine has been flirting with virtual reality but has never quite full dived into it until now.
(a) but has never quite fully
(b) yet never fully quite
(c) but ever fully
(d) never has but full quietly
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
but has never quite fully (Adv.) is the right usage, because it modifies dived (Verb).
51. Under the agreement, the government of Japan is committed to provide a soft iron of 19,864 billion dollars to its neighbouring country.
(a) provides to commit
(b) committing to provide
(c) provides committing
(d) commitment to provide
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
52. By its very nature, innovative design is initially destructive of capital- either in the form for labour skills or capital equipment.
(a) in either forming of
(b) either in the form and
(c) neither form on
(d) either in the form of
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
It is Prep. related error. Therefore, either in the form of is the right usage.
53. A teenager has work out how germs travel on airplanes and what can be done to stop them.
(a) have worked on
(b) has worked out
(c) worked in
(d) has been worked out
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
Structure of Present Perfect : Subj. + has/have + V3 Therefore, has worked out is the right usage.
54. Ordinary salary is just one factor to consider when it come to choosing a university, exclaimed the Director of Civic University.
(a) when it comes to
(b) when it come to
(c) when that comes to
(d) when it coming to
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Singular Subj. agrees with Singular Verb. Therefore, when it comes to is the right usage.
55. There have been large cuts in government funding of science research.
(a) of scientific research
(b) for science research
(c) for scientific research
(d) for scientifically research
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
for scientific (Adj.) research (Noun) is the right usage.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentence should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no change is required, mark No change required.
56.
Astronomers determined that the planet spin faster than any other object in our solar system, with a rotational velocity of about 56,000 miles per hour.
(a) spinning faster then
(b) spins fast then
(c) spins faster than
(d) spins very faster than
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
Subj. (planet) is Singular. Therefore, Singular Verb i.e. spins faster than is the right usage.
57. While following the leaders is hardly an innovative idea, there is much to be learnt from companies that excel at innovation management.
(a) much to be learning
(b) more to be learn
(c) much learning
(d) nothing to learning
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required
58. The latest device developed by IBM increases speed of the internet by 200 Gigabits per second at very lowly power.
(a) very lower power
(b) every low power
(c) very low power
(d) powered very low
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
Therefore, very low (Adj.) power is the right usage. low (Adj.) : below the average value. lowly (Adj.) : low in status or importance ; humble
59. China’s economy grew at its lowest pace in a quarter of a century last year, raised expectations of a further devaluation of the Yuan.
(a) raising expectations
(b) rising expectation
(c) expectations rose
(d) expecting rise
(e) No change required
Ans: (a)
Therefore, Gerund i.e. raising expectations is the right usage. raise (V.) : to cause or produce something; to make something appear.
60. The fact that shopping is now happening across various channels is only adds to the complexity of the business.
(a) adding up to only
(b) only adding to
(c) only adding up
(d) just adds to
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
Therefore, only adding to is the right usage add to (Phr.V.) : to give a particular quality to an event, a situation etc. Structure of Present Continuous Subj. + is/am/are + V-ing.
61. As global growth slows down, people look towards innovation in technology to get it back on track.
(a) backup with tracks
(b) backed on track
(c) tracking back
(d) tracing back with
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No change required back on track (Id.) : going in the right direction again after a mistake, failure etc.
62. We operates in business and societal environments that are complex, dynamic and uncertain.
(a) operates on
(b) operating on
(c) operating for
(d) operate in
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
Subj. (We) is Plural. Therefore, Plural Verb i.e. operate in is the right usage.
63. According to research, ethnically diverse teams could been less productive than more homogeneous teams.
(a) could least
(b) can being least
(c) can be low
(d) can be less
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
Therefore, can be less is the right usage. less (Adv.) : to a smaller degree ; not so much. Look at the structure : Subj. + can be + Adv. + Adj.
64. ‘What happening is to the world of innovation these days?’ asked the worried CEO.
(a) What is happened
(b) What is happening
(c) Where happening is
(d) What are happening
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
Clause i.e. What is (Singular) happening is the right usage.
65. He has let himself gone for he has lost his job.
(a) going for
(b) go for
(c) go since
(d) gone since
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
Look at the structure : Let + Obj.ive Case + V1 Therefore, go since is the right usage. For shows period of time, not point of time.
Directions:
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below should replace the phrase given in bold in the following sentences to make the sentence grammatically meaningful and correct. If the sentence is correct as it is and no correction is required, mark (e) as the answer.
(SIDBI Officer Online Exam.24.02.2016)
66. The poor Brahmin led a hand to mouthful existence and could use any job which paid him a little.
(a) hand to mouth existence
(b) handful to mouthful existence
(c) handing for mouthful existing
(d) hand and mouth exist
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Hand to mouth existence = living life in want Mouthful = an amount of food/ drink that you put in your mouth at one time. Look at the sentence : She took a mouthful of water.
67. In order to earning decent living we need to have a good job which pays a substantial amount of money.
(a) earning decency live
(b) earned decency life
(c) earn a decent living
(d) earned decently life
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
infinitive i.e., to earn a decent living …… should be used. Infinitive = to + V1
68. You tell somebody to get a move on when you want them to be hurried.
(a) to be hurry
(b) to hurry
(c) to be hurrying
(d) have hurried.
(e) No correction required.
Ans: (b)
infinitive i.e., to hurry (V1) …… should be used. Passive should not be used here.
69. Akshay considered Suresh a complete pain in the neck as he kept asking baseless questions.
(a) painless neck.
(b) paining in the neck.
(c) painful necks.
(d) pain in necking.
(e) No correction required.
Ans: (e)
No correction required
70. Jump through hoop to finish this project in time but was not rewarded adequately.
(a) jumping for hooping.
(b) jumped through hoops.
(c) jumped on hoop.
(d) jumping from hoop.
(e) No correction required.
Ans: (b)
Jump through hoops = to do something difficult in order to achieve something. The sentence shows past time. Therefore, Past Simple …… should be used.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentence should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, select ‘No correction required’ as the answer.
(United Bank of India PGDBF Manipal Exam,07.08.2016)
71. India is making progress on the openness of its government but it needed to improving security and reduce political violence.
(a) needs to improve
(b) needs improve
(c) needs to improving
(d) needed to improve
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Present Simple i.e. needs to improve (infinitive) …. should be used.
72. We had been always looked upon BRICS as a template for a new approach to global governance in 21st century.
(a) have been alway looked for
(b) have always looks for
(c) have always looked upon
(d) has always looked
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
Present Perfect (Active) i.e. have always looked upon ….. should be used.
73. The number and types of attacks, the duration of attacks and the complexity of hackers are all on the rise.
(a) on all the rising
(b) on all the rise
(c) all on the raise
(d) all in the raise
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
74. It has been described as one of most contentiously, tawdry and angry presidential elections in history.
(a) One of the most contentious
(b) One of the contentiously
(c) One of most contentious
(d) One most contentious
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
‘the’ should come before most (Superlative). Moreover. Adj. (Contentious) should be used.
75. If companies cannot beat estimates in this low rate environment, it raises the question of what will happen rates rises.
(a) happens what rates rise
(b) happen when rates rise
(c) happen what rates rise
(d) happen that rates raise
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
happen (V1) when rates rise …. should be used.
Directions:
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, mark (e) as the answer.
76.
The drought preceding winter has played spoilsport with regard to the sowing of winter crops such as wheat, pulses and oilseeds.
(a) are being playing spoilsports
(b) playing spoilsport
(c) has been spoilt
(d) to play spoilsport
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
Play spoilsport = to spoil/ destroy other people’s enjoyment.
77. Evidence indicates that businesses are holding off on investment as they await clearly about this country’s future relationship with the European Union.
(a) clearly waiting
(b) they wait for clarity
(c) their waiting clearly
(d) to wait for clarity
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Await = to wait for somebody/ something. Therefore, they wai t for clari ty (Noun) …… should be used here.
78. Over the past three years, the government has been urging civil servants to open bank accounts to which they pay transferred directly.
(a) their paying to be
(b) they are paid
(c) their paying can be
(d) it has been paid
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
PV i.e. their paying (payment) can be …… should be used.
79. Scientists at an American University have discovered a fabric that keeps the skin 2 degrees cooler which will be good for the wearer serve to reduce energy bills
(a) and also serve to reduce
(b) by serving reduced
(c) to serve reduce
(d) by serving a reduction
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
by serving (Gerund) reduced (Adj.) should be used.
80. Newly created a vaccine from scratch is a huge undertaking, but in the case of Ebola, several vaccines were already on the shelf, thanks to the work of the army.
(a) Creation from a new
(b) Creating a new
(c) To create newly
(d) The new creation
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Gerund i.e. creating a new …… should be used.
81. As per the World Giving index, India came down in the rankings from 93 in 2013 to 106 in 2014 demonstrating an overall reduction in Indian philanthropy.
(a) how to reduce overall
(b) that reducing overall
(c) that an overall reduction of
(d) if there is overall a reduction
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
82. The company has been testing self-driving cars on the roads of the capital for months and will soon begin offering customers request chances rides in one.
(a) to request chance
(b) a chance request
(c) a chance to request
(d) requesting a chance
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
Here infinitive i.e. a chance to request …. should be used.
83. They became much involved in the rescue and relief work that they refused to be evacuated.
(a) very involved
(b) so involved with
(c) more involved with
(d) too involved that
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
so ….. that should be used.
84. To appreciate the social transformations that took place in Europe between 1815 and World War I, it is importantly considered its towns and cities evolved.
(a) to be considered importantly
(b) considered of importance that
(c) important to consider how
(d) considered how important
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
important to consider how ….. should be used. Look at the sentence : I know how to ride a bicycle.
85. When a country became richer, they tend to move away from the use of cash on grounds of security, convenience and cost.
(a) Until rich country becomes richer
(b) When rich countries
(c) A country which is rich
(d) As countries become richer
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Present Simple i.e. As countries become richer ….. should be used.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentence should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, select ‘No correction required’ as the answer.
86.
Both ayurvedic and herbal products has gaining popularity among consumers nowadays.
(a) is gained popularity
(b) have gained popularity
(c) will have gains popularity
(d) is being popular
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Subj. (… and herbal products) is plural. Therefore, have gained popularity …. should be used.
87. He is sad to had defrauded many people of lakhs of rupees till date.
(a) defraud
(b) be fraud of
(c) be in defraud of
(d) have defrauded
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
to have defrauded should be used.
88. Ring network technology requires many wiring and is not feasible for connecting too many nodes.
(a) required too more wiring
(b) require most wiring
(c) require much of wires
(d) requires a lot of wiring
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
requires a lot of wiring should be used. A lot of = a large number or amount of somebody/ something.
89. Wi thin the next decade, healthcare is going to be one of the most lucrative sectors in India.
(a) has gone in
(b) will go on to
(c) has been going to be
(d) have become
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
90. Of late, there have some things or the other going wrong in the recruitment department of the organisation.
(b) have been something
(c) are something
(d) has been something
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Singular Verb i.e. has been something …. should be used.
91. Predicting consumer behaviour and taking business decisions accordingly makes this company so successful.
(a) accordingly make business decision
(b) taking according business decisions
(c) take according business decision
(d) make business according decisions
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
92. A recent study has revealed that eight out of ten people suffers as vitamin D sufficiency.
(a) suffer from
(b) is suffering in
(c) may be suffered of
(d) will be suffering to
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Subj. (eight out of the people) is plural. Therefore, Plural Verb i.e. suffer from …. should be used.
93. From the sweet notes of classical music to the rings of its temple bells, the melody of this area can move you.
(a) rings of temple bell
(b) ring of bell temple
(c) ringing of temple bells
(d) ringing bells of temple
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
ringing (Adj.) bells of temple should be used. It is proper use of possessive case.
94. Diwali is gaining increasingly popular today and is being celebrated all over the world.
(a) gaining increasing popularity
(b) became increasingly popularly
(c) gained populous
(d) so more popular than
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
gaining increasing (Adj.) popularity (Noun) …. should be used.
95. You will lose your deposit if you will cancel the order.
(a) cancel
(b) cancelled
(c) shall cancel
(d) will be cancelling
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
In such structure, conditional clause should be used in Present Simple.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentences should replace the word/phrase given in bold in each sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, select ‘No correction required’ as the answer.
96.
The presence of new players on the basketball team is to additionally attract for the audience.
(a) for adding attractive
(b) with add attraction
(c) an added attraction
(d) of adding attraction
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
Add = to give a particular quality to an event, a situation etc. Look at the sentence : The suite will add a touch of class to your bed room. Additionally = In addition, extra. Therefore, an added attraction ….. should be used here.
97. The dire need of amusement to escape boredom made him cultivate various hobbies.
(a) as escaping boredom
(b) escaped boredom
(c) escapes bored
(d) for escape being bored
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
98. We were credibly informed that the Conman has gave himself to the police.
(a) give himself in
(b) given over
(c) given himself over
(d) given himself up
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Give yourself/somebody up to somebody = to offer yourself/ somebody to be captured. Therefore, given himself up …. should be used here.
99. We tempted Karen with many promises but nothing would worked her up.
(a) works her over
(b) working with her
(c) works upon her
(d) work on her
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Work on somebody = to try to persuade somebody to agree to something or to do something. Therefore, work on her ….. should be used here.
100. The soil of India saw growths of one of the oldest culture in the world that is the Harappan Civilization.
(a) saw the growth
(b) seen the growth
(c) had saw growing
(d) see the growths
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
saw the growth ….. should be used. Growth is followed by prep. of’. Therefore, article ‘the’ ….. should be used.
101. A renowned organisation has recent appointed a highly acclaimed scientist to head new research and development assistant.
(a) a recent appointed
(b) recently appointed
(c) is to appoint
(d) to recently appointed an
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
To modify a verb, an Adv. should be used. Therefore, recently (Adv.) appointed …. should be used.
102. The serene lush green slope of the hill station make it up ideal venue for the meditation camp.
(a) is ideal for
(b) making so ideal
(c) makes it an ideal
(d) as of ideal
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
Present Simple i.e., makes it an ideal …. should be used. Subj. is singular.
103. Taking good care of yourself is paramount for succession of your goals.
(a) to the success
(b) about being a success
(c) about being successful
(d) to succeed
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Paramount = more important than anything else. to the success …. should be used.
104. The tambourine to gain popularity in the mid 18th century in Western Europe as an orchestral instrument.
(a) have popularity
(b) was been popular
(c) has being popular
(d) gained popularity
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
The sentence shows past time. Therefore, Past Simple i.e. gained popularity ….. should be used.
105. Varun advised Aman that give off wrong pleasure is not self-sacrifice but self-culture.
(a) gives away
(b) gave up
(c) giving through
(d) giving up
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Give up = (to stop doing) Therefore, Gerund i.e. giving up …. should be used.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentences should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, select ‘No correction required’ as the answer.
106.
Progress is necessary, but by responsibly development, we will be the agents of our own destruction.
(a) despite of responsible development
(b) without responsible development
(c) for responsible develop
(d) following responsibility development
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
But shows contrast. Therefore, without responsible development …..should be used here.
107. Plucking and feast from fresh, detectable berries is Anna’s a favourite childhood memory.
(a) feasting on
(b) feasting
(c) feast upon
(d) feasted with
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Feast on something = to eat a lot of good food and enjoy it very much. Therefore, feasting on should be used here.
108. The indigenous and ingenious boat-making tradition that once thrived in India, is now well its way by.
(a) its way to
(b) on its way out.
(c) its way over
(d) is on its way
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
On its way out = going out of fashion; in the process of becoming redundant or obsolete. Therefore, on its way out should be used here.
109. The research team, which includes some well-known names, is very optimistic, in the process.
(a) about the process
(b) by the process
(c) beyond the process
(d) through the process
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Optimisitic (Adj.) = expecting good things to happen : positive. Look at the sentence : She is not very optimisitic about the outcome of the talks. Therefore, about the process should be used.
110. Curiosity has played important role around advancement of the human species.
(a) to advance the
(b) feasting
(c) of the advanced
(d) in the advancement
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
In the advancement = in the progress. Therefore, in the advancement ….. should be used here.
111. The role of banks in economic development is to removed deficit of capital by stimulating savings and investment.
(a) remove the deficiency
(b) have removed deficiency
(c) remove away deficient
(d) removing deficit
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
remove the deficiency (Noun) …..should be used.
112. During the carnival anyone can set up a temporary restaurant in their backyard or at street and sell their specialities to passersby.
(a) before street
(b) down the street
(c) by the street
(d) across street
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Down the street = a short distance away on the same street
113. A team of European scientists placed a spacecraft into orbit around Mars to hunt for signs of life below.
(a) hunting about signs
(b) as to hunt sign
(c) be hunted by signs
(d) hunt following sign
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
114. The public sector banks exercise a degree of discrimination of optimum utilise of the financial resources of the community.
(a) by optimally utilising
(b) on optimising utility
(c) to optimum utilise
(d) for optimum utilisation
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
for optimum utilisation (Noun) …..should be used.
115. Observing that when the markets are in a buoyant state, the retail investor tends to jump in and invest in the market.
(a) An observation
(b) To observe
(c) It is observed
(d) By observing
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Generality is evident. Therefore, It is observed ….. should be used.
Directions:
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, mark (e) as the answer.
116.
In the modern day, it is common to say you are bored to death if someone or something is incredibly uninteresting.
(a) bored from death
(b) bored of death
(c) bored till death
(d) bored until death
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
Bored to death = completely bored.
117. We advised them to going to a hill station during the summer vacation.
(a) that they go to
(b) for going to
(c) to go to
(d) that they should have to go to
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
infinitive i.e., to go to …… should be used. Infinitive = to + v1
118. They failed in their attempt to repair the demolished portion of the building.
(a) in their attempting
(b) for their attempt
(c) with their attempt
(d) on their attempt
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
To fail in attempt = not succed.
119. In Indian democracy, It is necessary for the citizens to beware of all the political facts about every political party.
(a) be aware for
(b) be aware of
(c) beware for
(d) be aware to
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Be aware of = be conscious of, be mindful of. Beware (used only in infinitive) = to warn against danger. Look at the sentence : Beware of dogs.
120. We’re going to have to put down our summer vacation until July because of the bad weather conditions.
(a) put across
(b) put off
(c) put out
(d) put back
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
Put off = postpone put off should be used.
121. We called on but we weren’t able to find the car part we needed to fix the gear system.
(a) called back
(b) called off
(c) called around
(d) called up
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
Call around = phone many different places/people Call on = visit somebody Therefore, call around should be used here.
122. If everyone chips in they can get the whole kitchen painted by today afternoon.
(a) chips up
(b) chips on
(c) chips off
(d) chips towards
(e) No correction required
Ans: (e)
Chip in Þ help
123. Hang up there. I’m sure you’ll find a better job very soon because you are very sincere.
(a) hang back
(b) hang on
(c) hang out
(d) hang in
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Hang in = stay positive Hang up = end a phone call Therefore, hang in should be used here.
124. When I think of on my youth, I wish I had studied harder and had secured good grades.
(b) think over
(c) think out
(d) think back
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Think back = remember Therefore, think back sould be used here.
125. A stranger cut through with unsolicited advice on how we could fix our relationship.
(b) cut out
(c) cut back
(d) cut in
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Cut in = interrupt Therefore, cut in should be used here.
Directions:
Which of the phrases given against the sentence should replace the word/phrase given in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and No change is required, select No change required.
126.
Some countries that missing the first Green Revolution due to poor policies are now witnessing a change and are becoming more self-sufficient.
(a) have missing
(b) that were missing
(c) which missed out on
(d) being missing
(e) No change required
Ans: (c)
Miss out on something = to fail to benefit from something useful by not taking part in it. Therefore, Past Simple i.e which missed out on …. is the right usage. This clause shows Past time.
127. Online shopping is projected to increase by 350 percent during peak festival seasons on account of the unbelievably low prices offered by retailers.
(a) lowest unbelievable price
(b) unbelievable low price
(c) unbelievably lowering price
(d) prices being unbelievably low.
(e) No change required
Ans: (e)
No correction required
128.
Asian firms need to spend 50 percent more than the research and development and coming with breakthrough innovations to be competitive.
(a) have come through
(b) came into
(c) are having
(d) come up with
(e) No change required
Ans: (d)
infinitive i.e. come up with …. is the right usage
129. An audit of private electricity distribution companies will be undertaken before the government announces to hike up to tariffs.
(a) a hiking tariff
(b) hike tariffs
(c) on hiking tariffs
(d) any hike in tariffs
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
Hike = to increase prices
130. Sustain level growth required to lift millions of people out of poverty will require rethinking of country’s economic policy.
(a) Sustaining the level of
(b) To sustain level
(c) Sustainable levels through
(d) If we sustain levelling
(e) No change required
Ans: (b)
to + V1 i.e, To sustain level …. is the right usage.
Directions:
In each of the following questions, a sentence with four words in bold type is given. One of the four words given in bold may be either wrongly spelt or inappropriate in the context of the sentence. Find out the word which is wrongly spelt or inappropriate, if any. That word is your answer, (fail the woras given in bold are correctly spelt and also appropriate in the context of the sentence, mark ‘No correction required’ as your answer
131.
The new move by the regulatory body is aimed at settling small cases which are at a time draws into lengthy litigation.
(a) drawn out
(b) are drawing
(c) sometimes drawn
(d) are drawn into
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
V3 i.e., are drawn into …. should be used.
132. Combine effects of growing populations, rising incomes and expanding cities will see the demand rising exponentially.
(a) Combined effects of
(b) Combining an effect
(c) Combine the effect of
(d) Combination of the effects
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Participle i.e., Combined effects of …. should be used.
133. Heavily invest in technology has resulted in more than half the transactions taking place online reducing banks’ dependence on ‘costly’ branches.
(a) A heavy investment
(b) Heavy investment in
(c) If we invest heavily
(d) To invest heavily in
(d) No correction required
Ans: (d)
To invest heavily in/A heavy investment in ….. acts as a Subj..
134. Experts reckon that in the next four years steelmaking capacity has increased to 50 percent in the Middle East, 20 percent in Africa and 10 percent in America.
(a) will have increased by
(b) increasing upto
(c) has been increased
(d) has an increase off
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Future Perfect i.e., will have increased by …. should be used.
135. The report stressed the need to broaden access to health, education and has promoting financial inclusion to bring down inequality levels.
(a) promotion of
(b) as well as promote
(c) which is a promotion of
(d) has been promoting
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
Noun i.e., promotion of ….. should be used.
136. Climate scientists say that meteorological factors are played an important role in the high pollution levels detected in the city.
(a) will like playing
(b) could have played
(c) were played
(d) playing
(e) No correction required
Ans: (b)
could have played (possibility) …. should be used.
137. The bankruptcy could key element in the government’s strategy to rid the financial sector of its bad debt problem.
(a) are key elements
(b) will be key element
(c) will key elements
(d) is a key element
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Subj. (bankruptcy) is singular. Therefore, is a key element… should be used.
138. Consumers over 60 are the richest segment of the population thanks to lower price inflation and generous pension and their numbers are only growing.
(a) whose number is grown
(b) its number grew
(c) its growth
(d) are being grown
(e) No correction required
Ans: (c)
Noun i.e., its growth …. should be used.
139. According to the Progressive Policy Institute, the mobile application economy has created 3.3 million jobs in America and Europe but there is no guarantee that the chatbot economy being so successful.
(a) is going to be success
(b) is successfully
(c) succeed
(d) will be as successful
(e) No correction required
Ans: (d)
Future Tense i.e., will be as successful …. should be used.
140. The global economy has little brighter spots with only America and China adding a substantial amount to global GDP.
(a) no brighter spot
(b) brightened spots
(c) no brighten spots
(d) few brighten spots
(e) No correction required
Ans: (a)
no brighter spot (Noun) …… should be used.

Directions: Read the following passage to answer the given questions. Some words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(UCO Bank PO Exam. 30.01.2011)
At first glance, the government seems to have done a U-turn on imposing a mandatory 2 per cent expenditure from company profits on corporate social responsibility.
The Companies Bill reportedly won’t have this provision.
Look closer, and it’s a case of “mandating without mandating” as an industry voice describes it. The reworked proposal, it’s said, asks firms to have a formal CSR policy targeting a 2 per cent spend, and to furnish details of funds going to social causes in annual reports.
In other words, while keeping up a technical pretence of not legally arm-twisting India Inc, the Centre seeks to exert heavy moral pressure by stipulating disclosures if not actual expenditure. To quote the corporate affairs minister, CSR spending won’t be “voluntary” or “mandatory” but “somewhere in between” ! Why this grey area, unless the government wants leeway to play guilt-inducing big brother?
Social spending should be self-willed, not least because Indian firms have a good record already. To boost private participation in social service further, the government should offer incentives such as ”CSR credits” or tax benefits. At the same time, the legal system can rap firms that violate, say, green norms or cause other forms of public damage. As the finance minister conceded only recently, corporate social conscience can’t be parachutedropped by politicians or lawcourts. Companies themselves know that CSR makes good sense, winning hearts and building brands. But for CSR to not be merely decorative or purely manipulative in the sense of deflecting attention from bad practices, companies’ main focus must be on core operations. What counts first is corporate performance driven by efficiency, ethics and good governance. That’s how business keeps faith with shareholders, delivers quality products and services to consumers, creates jobs and spurs economic growth. And that’s also how it best benefits society.
1. Business can keep helping the society by
(a) improving their performance, efficiency which results in economic growth
(b) winning hearts by investing more in social activities
(c) building brands and competing images
(d) spending larger share of their profit on CSR
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
improving their performance, efficiency which results in economic growth
2. Which of the following BEST EXPLAINS the meaning of the phrase “mandating without mandating”?
(a) mandating and then taking a U turn
(b) motivating without making it compulsory
(c) a complete self-willed exercise
(d) mandating by incentivizing
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
motivating without making it compulsory
3. Which of the social causes, for which expenditure under CSR may be made, are indicated in the passage?
(a) Expenditure on building image of new products
(b) Providing legal service to those who cannot afford it
(c) Educating the masses in areas where literacy rate is low
(d) Not indicated in the passage
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
Not indicated in the passage
4. According to the author, CSR spend should be
(a) targeted upto two percent of Company’s profit
(b) two percent of Company’s profits
(c) two percent of Company’s turnover
(d) “somewhere in between” one to two percent of Company’s profits
(e) completely voluntary
Ans: (e)
completely voluntary
5. Which of the following BEST EXPLAINS the meaning of the phrase “parachute-dropped”?
(a) take under one’s fold
(b) land safely
(c) to bring-in from outside
(d) fed on continuous basis
(e) protected without commitment
Ans: (c)
to bring-in from outside
6. Which of the following BEST EXPLAINS the meaning of the phrase “keeps faith with”?
(a) follows up
(b) remains committed
(c) treats as God
(d) seeks allegiance from government
(e) has strategic alliance
Ans: (b)
remains committed
7. CSR spending won’t be “voluntary” or “mandatory” but “somewhere in between” ! Why this grey area, unless the government wants leeway to play guilt-inducing big brother?” Which of the following BEST EXPLAINS the above?
(a) To ensure that they do what is stipulated
(b) To make them feel bad
(c) To harass them by high-handedness
(d) Providing support like a big brother to those who toe-the-line
(e) Exploiting grey area to one’s own advantage by companies
Ans: (a)
To ensure that they do what is stipulated
8. Which of the following would increase private participation in social service?
(a) Not imposing a mandatory expenditure on such activities
(b) Imposing a mandatory expenditure on such activities
(c) Offering tax concessions on expenditure on such activities
(d) Advising them not to bother about CSR
(e) Trying to artificially build corporate social conscience
Ans: (c)
Offering tax concessions on expenditure on such activities
9. Which of the following is being referred to as ‘grey area’?
(a) Either ‘CSR Credits’ or tax benefits
(b) Earning profit and doing social work
(c) Neither mandatory nor voluntary
(d) Financially supporting as well as arm-twisting India Inc
(e) Role of State-vs-Central Government
Ans: (c)
Neither mandatory nor voluntary
10. As far as social work/service contribution is concerned, Indian Companies have
(a) good record
(b) dismal record
(d) always abided by the minimum spending stipulation
(e) resisted for any mandatory imposition
Ans: (a)
good record
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
It was in the offing. With shortages mounting across the board for water as they are for energy, it was only inevitable that the Central government would be stirred into starting a Bureau of Water Efficiency (BWE), much like the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) that was launched some years ago.
Early reports suggest that the draft norms for various sectors consuming water wi ll be created by the BWE soon. The alarm bells have been ringing for some years now. Water availability per capita in India has fallen from about 5 million litres in the 1950s to 1.3 million litres in 2010- that’s a staggering 75 per cent drop in 50 years. Nearly 60 per cent of India’s aquifers have slumped to critical levels in just the last 15 years. The rate at which borewells are being plunged in every city with no law to ban such extraction, groundwater tables have depleted alarmingly.
The BEE’s efforts in the last seven years have only been cosmetic. The bureau has looked at efficiency rating systems for white goods in the domestic sector, and has not paid attention to the massive consumption of energy in metals manufacture, paper, and textiles. These sectors are very intense in both energy and water consumption.
But very little attention has been paid to the water and energy used per tonne of steel or cement or aluminium that we buy, and without significant changes in these areas, the overall situation is unlikely to change.
Use of water is inextricably interlinked with energy.
One does not exist without the other. The BWE should steer clear of the early mistakes of BEE – of focusing on the ‘softer targets’ in the domestic sector. Nearly 80 per cent of fresh water is used by agriculture, with industry coming a close second. The domestic sector’s consumption of fresh water is in single digit. So the BWE’s priority should be to look at measures that will get farmers and industrialists to follow good practices in water use. Water resources have to be made, by law, an indivisible national asset. The protection and withdrawal of this resource, as well as its sustainable development are of general importance and therefore in the public interest. This will mean that individuals and organisations may own land but not water or the other resources that lie below the first 20 metres of the surface of those lands. Drilling of borewells into such ‘national assets’ will have to be banned, or at the very least they must be regulated. What would be more sensible for the new water bureau to do would be to look at some of the low-hanging fruits that can be plucked, and pretty quickly, with laws that can emanate from the Centre, without the risk of either dilution or inaction from state administrations. The other tactical approach that the BWE can adopt is to devise a policy that addresses the serious water challenge in industry segments across a swathe of companies: this will be easier than taking on the more disparate domestic sector which hurts the water crisis less than industry. Implementing a law is more feasible when the concentration is dense and identifiable.
Industry offers this advantage more than the domestic or the commercial sector of hotels and offices.
As for agriculture, though the country’s water requirement is as high as 80 per cent, the growing of water within the loop in agriculture de-risks the challenge of any perceived deficit. Rice, wheat, sugarcane are crops that need water-logging, which ensures groundwater restoration.
Surface water evaporation doesn’t amount to any more than per cent and only strengthens precipitation and rainfall. Agriculture and water need is not quite as much a threat as industry and domestic sectors that account for the rest of the 20 per cent.
The primary challenge in industry and the building sector is that no conscious legal measures have been enacted that stipulate ‘growing your own water’ with measures that will ‘put all water in a loop’ in any residential or commercial building. This involves treating all used water to a grade that it can be ‘upcycled’ for use in flush tanks and for gardens across all our cities with the polluter owning the responsibility for treating and for reuse.
The drop in fresh water demand can be dramatic with such upcycle, reuse, and recycle of treated water. Water by itself in industry and the domestic sector, is not as much a challenge as pollution of water. Not enough measures exist yet to ensure that such polluters shift the water back for reuse. If legislation can ensure that water is treated and reused for specific purposes within industry as well as in the domestic sector, this will make all the difference to the crisis on fresh water.
So is the case in industry, especially in sectors like textiles, aluminium and steel. Agriculture offers us the amusing irony of the educated urbanites dependent on cereals like rice and wheat that consume 4000 litres of water for every Kilogramme, while the farmer lives on the more nutritious millets that consume less than half the quantity. Sugarcane consumes as much as 12,000 litres of water for a kilo of cane that you buy ! A listing of such correlations of water used by every product that we use in our daily lives will make much better sense than any elaborate rating system from the newly formed BWE. Such sensitizing with concerted awareness campaigns that the new Bureau drives will impact the urban consumer more than all the research findings that experts can present. What is important for us is to understand the life-cycle impact in a way that we see the connect between a product that we use and the resources it utilizes up to the point where we bring the visible connect to destruction of natural resources of our ecosystems.
11. How, according to the author, can the bureau sensitize the urban consumer about careful utilization of water?
(a) By providing them more insight into the water consumption cycle of the textile, aluminium and steel industries.
(b) By encouraging them to consume more rice instead of millets daily and thereby reduce the amount of water consumption.
(c) By making them aware of the linkages between water consumption for daily activities and the resource utilization and subsequent ecological destruction associated with it.
(d) By publishing research findings of experts in popular media whereby people gain awareness on the impact of water misuse.
(e) By conducting elaborate drives which notify the urban population about the penalties levied on misuse of water resources.
Ans: (c)
By making them aware of the linkages between water consumption for daily activities and the resource utilization and subsequent ecological destruction associated with it.
12. Why, according to the-author, is the water consumption for agricultural activities the least risky?
(a) Most farmers are aware of the popular methods of water conservation and hence do not allow wastage of water.
(b) Proportion of water consumed for agricultural activities is much less as compared to that consumed for domestic and industrial purposes.
(c) Water is fairly recycled through groundwater restoration due to water-logging and surface water evaporation.
(d) Farmers in India mostly cultivate crops that require less amount of water.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Water is fairly recycled through groundwater restoration due to water-logging and surface water evaporation.
13. Which of the following is possibly the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage?
(a) The Bureau of Water Efficiency Vs the Bureau of Energy Efficiency
(b) Water Challenges in the New Millennium
(c) Unchecked Urban Consumption of Water
(d) Challenges of the Agricultural Sector and Water Resources
(e) The Route to Conservation of Water Resources)
Ans: (e)
The Route to Conservation of Water Resources
14. What does ‘low-hanging fruits that can be plucked, and pretty quickly’ mean in the context of the passage?
(a) The bureau should target the industrial sector as well as the domestic sector to reduce water wastage.
(b) The bureau should employ the cheapest methods possible to effectively control the current situation of improper usage of water resources.
(c) The bureau should target the agricultural sector only for producing quick results in reducing wastage of water.
(d) The bureau should ensure that all the state officials concerned with the measures are actively involved.
(e) The bureau should start with adopting measures which are simple to execute and produce immediate results in reducing water wastage.
Ans: (e)
The bureau should start with adopting measures which are simple to execute and produce immediate results in reducing water wastage.
15. Which of the following, according to the author, is/ are the indication/s of a water crisis?
(A) Many agrarian areas in the country are facing a drought- like situation.
(B) Almost three-fifth of the naturally available water has been reduced to a very critical level in a relatively short span of time.
(C) There has been a significant drop in the availability of water over the past fifty years
(a) Only (b) and (C)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (d)
Only (a) and (C)
16. The author suggests that the Bureau of Water Efficiency devises a strategy or makes laws to meet water challenges in the industrial segments rather than the domestic segments because
(a) there is comparatively less serious water misuse in the domestic sector
(b) the industrial sector is the only one that is in a position to reduce its water consumption by a significant margin.
(c) it would be easy to identify the consumption patterns in the industrial sector because of its density and visibility.
(d) the industrial sector would be capable of paying the fines levied by the Bureau for water misuse whereas the domestic sector would be in no such position.
(e) the industrial sector would be easier to manage in terms of making them understand the importance of water conservation.
Ans: (a)
There is comparatively less serious water misuse in the domestic sector
17. Which of the following, according to the author, is/ are the step/s that the Bureau of Water Efficiency can take to ensure proper utilization of water resources?
(A) Put in place measures that ensure proper water usage.
(B) Concentrate on the water consumption patterns of the domestic sector alone.
(C) Monitor carefully the activity of digging borewells.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b) and (C)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (b)
Only (b) and (C)
18. Which of the following is TRUE about the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, in the context of the passage?
(A) It failed to pay adequate attention to industries like metal, textiles, etc in terms of energy consumption.
(B) It focused on rating systems for efficient use of goods in the domestic sector.
(C) It mostly focused on the energy consumption in the domestic sector.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b) and (C)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (b) and (a)
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
19. COSMETIC
(a) Beauty
(b) Enhancive
(c) Augmentative
(d) Superficial
(e) Aesthetic
Ans: (d)
Superficial Superficial (Adj.) : appearing to be true, real/important until you look at it more carefully Cosmetic (Adj.) : improving only the outside appearance of something and not its basic character; superficial. Enhancive (Adj.) : serving an aesthetic purpose in beautifying the body Augmentative (Adj.) : increasing a quality expressed in the original word Aesthetic (Adj.) : concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things
20. STAGGERING
(a) Astounding
(b) Weaving
(c) Lurching
(d) Stumbling
Ans: (a)
Astounding Staggering (Adj.) : startling; so great, shocking or surprising that it is difficult to believe; astounding. Lurching (V.) : to make a sudden, unsteady movement forward/ sideways
21. CONSCIOUS
(a) Mindful
(b) Unknown
(c) Self – aware
(d) Awake
Ans: (a)
Mindful Conscious (Adj.) : aware of something; noticing something; mindful; deliberate.
22. DRAMATIC
(a) Moving
(b) Remarkable
(c) Theatrical
(d) Histrionic
(e) Staged
Ans: (b)
Remarkable Dramatic (Adj.) : sudden, very great and often surprising; exciting and impressive remarkable.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE, in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in BOLD.
23. INTENSE
(a) Serious
(b) Smooth
(c) Low
(d) Diluted
(e) Jovial
Ans: (c)
Low Intense (Adj.) : very great; very strong; extreme; serious.
24. TACTICAL
(a) Uniform
(b) Unplanned
(c) Devious
(d) Premeditated
(e) Deformed
Ans: (b)
Unplanned Tactical (Adj.) : careful ly planned in order to achieve a particular aim; strategic.
25. INEVITABLE
(a) Unforeseeable
(b) Certain
(c) Unavoidable
(d) Inescapable
(e) Predictable
Ans: (b)
Certain Inevitable (Adj.) : unavoidable; something that is certain to happen. Unforeseeable (Adj.) : that you cannot predict or foresee.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(Allahabad Bank PO Exam. 17.04.2011)
The price of gold has gone up from $256 an ounce in 2001 to$ 1,424. Meanwhile, price levels have struggled or crashed with respect to almost all other asset classes.
Central banks have slashed interest rates. Yet gold prices, it has been predicted, may go up and up. The many reasons for this renewed love are convincing. Interestingly, not long ago pundits had predicted the end of gold as the world’s default asset class and were clubbing it with commodities. It appears that the yellow metal is making a comeback to reassert the pre-eminence it has enjoyed for 5,000 years of history.
Its supply is falling. No new mines have been discovered.
The existing ones are getting exhausted, and miners are digging as deep as 5 km. Gold content in ore has come down from almost 12 gm. a tonne to 2 gm. And it costs more and more to take that out. Environmental concerns have also contributed to mine-owners’ problems.
The wages of miners are going up; so is the cost of providing them safety and security.
Emerging economies such as China and India are accumulating gold in order to reduce their dependence on the dollar. While the U. S. has a reserve of 9,200 tonnes of gold, China has 1,054 tonnes and India 565 tonnes. No wonder, as emerging economic superpowers China and India want to add to the reserves. Industrial use of gold is on the rise the world over. With the U. S. economy still drifting with the threat of the dollar losing its undisputed position of reserve currency the rush to gold is increasing.
Added to all this is the rekindled investor-preference for gold. Money is moving away from mutual funds and equities and the once fashionable and often discredited hedge funds are also getting into gold, Exchange traded funds (ETFs) are channeling ever more funds to gold.
Some pension funds are increasing the proportion of gold in their basket of assets. Given all this, gold can go nowhere but up. That is the consensus.
Everyone seems to be joining the new gold rush. But is everything well with gold? Or is it a bubble building up?
Consider the conventional wisdom. Money generally gets distributed, though not in any fixed proportion, among assets such as real estate, stocks, cash, government securities, gold, commodities, and in new investments in factories and machinery. There is no state of equilibrium in a global economy. Money gets transferred across geographical boundaries and asset classes based on anticipated gains. As long as the flow is reasonable and is generally in line with the increase in returns, this works well. But when everyone rushes to the same destination, we are looking for trouble. Excess demand, though often artificial, creates excess supply, as in the case of real estate. Excess supply leads to price crashes.
Is something similar happening in gold? The general consensus is ‘no.’ Gold is different. It has never let anyone down in 5,000 years. It is indestructible. Its supply is limited. The argument in the case of gold is that excess demand cannot create excess supply as the total world supply is limited. But this time it is different. Is it really so? Gold has also gone up and down in the past. It was $424 an ounce in 1990 before crashing to$ 255 in 2001.
Still, it moves only within a range and huge fluctuations are not possible in gold, argue some people, Actually, gold gave much better returns in the 1980s, only to stagnate and lose those gains in the 1990s.
A crash of gold prices could be the ultimate crash, nothing like we have seen. No one has managed to discredit the yellow metal in 5,000 years. But it appears that for the first time in history the ETFs, the hedge funds and the governments are about to do the undoable. The fact that it has not already happened is no guarantee that it will not happen. Look at all the easy money coming into gold. All those who have shifted money from real estate, mutual funds, pension funds, hedge funds and stocks are pouring it into gold. Gold ETFs are the fastest growing investment vehicles today. This is all real quick money, but can evaporate at the click of a key. Of course, governments such as China and India are also betting on gold and increasing their reserves. But then, whoever said governments can make no mistakes?
The intrinsic value of gold has not gone up from $255 to$ 1,424 in 10 years, Gold is not consumed heavily like oil or grain. Industrial use of gold is limited. Gold is the most recycled commodity. Of the annual production of 2,500 tonnes, about 50 per cent goes to make jewellery and it is almost entirely recycled. The rest goes to industrial and other uses, and even here the recycling rate is high. In other words, all that demand is artificial and can be deflated in no time. There is no need to have excess supply to lead to a price crash, unlike other products.
The sheer fact that gold is only a hedge instrument and does not serve any practical use by itself, will negate the ‘there-is-no-new-supply’ theory. Someone somewhere is watching for the perfect moment to disgorge the hoard, to create sudden panic and buy up following a crash.
There is no sign that a crash is going to come tomorrow, or for that matter next year or the year after, It may still go up for two or five or even 10 years. But crash it will, if we are to go by the economic history of boom and bust. Also, the higher it goes and the longer it stays there, the more painful the crash is going to be, especially for India, Indians sit on an estimated 18,000 tonnes. India has always had the largest gold reserve with individuals.
Imagine what will happen to millions of Indians if gold were to crash. A crash of gold will be the crash of the Indian economy.
That should make us more responsible. That makes it imperative for our economists to track gold movement.
That makes it important for our financial wizards to prevent a bubble in gold, That should force us to act before it happens. Never in history have we had so much idle money chasing so little gold. Gold is losing its respect as the default and fail-safe asset class and becoming a speculative instrument. This shift of gold from being an item of passive wealth to an instrument of speculation is dangerous.
Gold is being talked up by crafty. speculators and unsuspecting governments. And these predictions are being made by those sitting on gold worth billion’s of dollars bought at yesterday’s prices.
26. Which of the following BEST EXPLAINS ‘when everyone rushes to the same destination’ in the context of the passage?
(a) A majority invests in everything else except for gold.
(b) Only real estate is invested in by a majority.
(c) Everyone wants to become rich at the same time.
(d) Everyone rushes to the same place in order to buy gold.
(e) Nothing else but gold is invested in by a majority.
Ans: (c)
Everyone wants to become rich at the same time.
27. Which of the following is/are the general opinions about gold?
(A) Its supply, although limited, will be able to meet its demand.
(B) The price of gold will keep on increasing.
(C) It is the best investment at present.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b) and (C)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (d)
Only (a) and (C)
28. What is the author’s opinion about investment in gold?
(a) China should invest more in gold in order to reduce its dependence on the dollar.
(b) It should not be invested in at all.
(c) It should be invested in sparingly.
(d) It is the only lucrative investment of the future.
(e) The government should invest more in gold instead of other assets.
Ans: (c)
It should be invested in sparingly.
29. Which of the following is TRUE, in the context of the passage?
(A) Gold is being increasingly used for industrial purposes the world over.
(B) India has lesser gold reserve as compared to US and China.
(C) Countries like US and China have now stopped investing in gold for fear of its prices crashing.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b) and (C)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (b) and (a)
30. What is the author’s fear with regard to gold?
(a) Its surging demand will not be met with an adequate supply and will bring about a downturn in the Indian economy.
(b) Its limited supply will affect the operations of most industries in India.
(c) Its prices will suddenly dip which in turn will adversely affect many people in India.
(d) It will become a commodity so highly priced that no Indian will be able to buy it.
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
Its surging demand will not be met with an adequate supply and will bring about a downturn in the Indian economy.
31. Which of the following, according to the passage, is/are the reason/s for the increase in gold prices?
(A) Failure in discovering new mines.
(B) Depleting content of gold in ores.
(C) Increase in the remuneration of miners.
(a) Only (b) and (C)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (e)
All (b), (a) and (C)
32. Why, according to the author, is the demand for gold artificial?
(a) Industries demand gold for the purpose of stocking and do not actually use it for any process.
(b) Most gold that is used is also recycled and there is no need for fresh supply.
(c) The supply of gold is too little as compared to its demand thereby making it artificial.
(d) The amount of gold actually needed by industries and others is much lower and the amount quoted has been hyped by the government.
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Most gold that is used is also recycled and there is no need for fresh supply.
33. Which of the following is possibly the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage?
(a) Government’s Investment in the Yellow Metal
(b) Gold and its Uses
(c) Gold Consumption Worldwide
(d) The Bubble Around the Yellow Metal.
(e) Investment in Gold Alone – The Way Ahead
Ans: (d)
The Bubble Around the Yellow Metal.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
34. LIMITED
(a) Finite
(b) Stopped
(c) Incomplete
(d) Partial
(e) Narrow
Ans: (a)
Finite Limited (Adj.) : not very great in amount or extent; restricted; finite.
35. PAINFUL
(a) Throbbing
(b) Severe
(c) Tender
(d) Excruciating
(e) Raw
Ans: (b)
Severe Painful (Adj.) : causing you pain; excruciating; causing you to feel upset; difficult to do. Throbbing (Adj.) : to feel a series of regular painful movements Excruciating (Adj.) : extremely painful/bad
36. CONCERNS
(a) Distracters
(b) Relations
(c) Apprehensions
(d) Organizations
(e) Institutes
Ans: (e)
Institutes Concern (N.) : company. instition Distractors (N.) : a person/thing that takes your attention away from what you should be doing Apprehensions (N.) : worry/fear that something unpleasant may happen
37. CONSUMED
(a) Used
(b) Eaten
(c) Cleared-up
(d) Put-away
(e) Devoured
Ans: (a)
Used Consume (V.) : to use something especially fuel, energy or time.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
38. EXHAUSTED
(a) Revitalize
(b) Started
(c) Fresh
(d) Replenished
(e) Tired
Ans: (d)
Replenished Replenish (V.) : to make something full again; top up. Exhausted (Adj./Part.) : completely used or finished.
39. ARTIFICIAL
(a) Simulated
(b) Genuine
(d) False
(e) Valid
Ans: (b)
Genuine Genuine (Adj.) : real; exactly what it appears to be; not artificial. Artificial (Adj.) : not real; not natural; fake; created by people.
40. DISTRIBUTED
(a) Dispersed
(b) Assembled
(c) Disbanded
(d) Gets-together
(e) Concentrated
Ans: (e)
Concentrated Concentrated (Adj.) : if something exists in a concentrated way, there is a lot of it in oneplace or at one time. Distributed (Adj./Part.) : sharing something between a number of people; spreading.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(Indian Overseas Bank PO Exam. 22.05.2011)
India’s colleges and universities, with just a few exceptions, have become large, under-funded, ungovernable institutions. At many of them, politics has intruded into campus life, influencing academic appointments and decisions across levels. Under investment in libraries, information technology, laboratories, and classrooms makes it very difficult to provide top-quality instruction or engage in cutting-edge research. The rise in the number of part-time teachers and the freeze on new full-time appointments in many places have affected morale in the academic profession. The lack of accountability means that teaching and research performance is seldom measured. The system provides few incentives to perform.
Bureaucratic inertia hampers change. Student unrest and occasional facul ty agitation disrupt operations.
Nevertheless, with a semblance of normality, faculty administrators are able to provide teaching, coordinate examinations, and award degrees.
Even the small top tier of higher education faces serious problems. Many IIT graduates, well trained in technology, have chosen not to contribute their skills to the burgeoning technology sector in India. Half leave the country immediately upon graduation to pursue advanced study abroad – and most do not return. A stunning 86 per cent of students in science and technology fields from India who obtain degrees in the United States do not return home immediately following their study. Another significant group, of about 30 per cent, decides to earn MBAs in India because local salaries are higher — and are lost to science and technology. A corps of dedicated and able teachers work at the IITs and IIMs, but the lure of jobs abroad and in the private sector makes it increasingly difficult to retain the best and brightest to the academic profession.
Few in India are thinking creatively about higher education. There is no field of higher education research.
Those in government as well as academic leaders seem content to do the “same old thing.” Academic institutions and systems have become large and complex. They need good data, careful analysis, and creative ideas. In China, more than two-dozen higher education research centres, and several government agencies are involved in higher education policy for optimum planning.
India has survived with an increasingly mediocre higher education system for decades. Now as India strives to compete in a globalised economy in areas that require highly trained professionals, the quality of higher education becomes increasingly important. So far, India’s large educated population base and its reservoir of at least moderately well-trained university graduates have permitted the country to move ahead. But the competition is fierce. China in particular is heavily investing in improving its best universities with the aim of making a small group of them world class in the coming decade, and making a larger number internationally competitive research universities.
To compete successfully in the knowledge-based economy of the 21st century. India needs enough universities that not only produce bright graduates for export but can also support sophisticated research in a number of scientific and scholarly fields and produce at least some of the knowledge and technology needed for an expanding economy. How can India build a higher education system that will permit it to join developed economies? The newly emerging private sector in higher education cannot spearhead academic growth. Several of the well-endowed and effectively managed private institutions maintain reasonably high standards, although it is not clear whether these institutions will be able to sustain themselves in the long run. They can help produce well-qualified graduates in such fields as management, but they cannot form the basis for comprehensive research universities. This sector lacks the resources to build the facilities required for quality instruction and research in the sciences. Most of the private institutions do not focus on advanced training in the sciences.
Only public universities have the potential to be truly world class institutions. But these institutions have not been adequately or consistently supported. The top institutions require sustained funding from public sources. Academic salaries must be high enough to attract excellent scientists and scholars. Fellowships and other grants should be available for bright students. An academic culture that is based on merit-based norms and competition for advancement and research funds is a necessary component, as is a judicious mix of autonomy to do creative research and accountability to ensure productivity.
World class universities require world class professors and students and a culture to sustain and stimulate them.
41. What, according to the author, is the shortfall of our government officials as well as academicians when it comes to higher education?
(a) They believe that it is the responsibility of private institutions to bring about a change in higher education.
(b) They are of the opinion that India has the best system of higher education in the world.
(c) They are unaware of the new developments in the field of higher education.
(d) They are unwilling to invest money in higher education despite getting sufficient grants for the purpose.
(e) They do not think innovatively in the direction of bringing about a change in higher education and are stuck in a rut.
Ans: (e)
They do not think innovatively in the direction of bringing about a change in higher education and are stuck in a rut.
42. Which of the following is/are the problem/s faced by Indian colleges and universities?
(A) Political interference in decision making
(B) Lack of funding necessary for improvement in classrooms, libraries, etc.
(C) Hiring of teachers on a part-time basis only.
(a) Only (a) and (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (b) and (a)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (e)
All (b), (a) and (C)
43. Which of the following steps has China taken to improve higher education?
(A) Their education policy formation involves many governmental bodies for thoughtful planning.
(B) They are sanctioning grants to their teachers to facilitate the improvement process.
(C) They are investing in universities to make them internationally competitive.
(a) Only (b) and (C)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (b) and (C)
44. How, according to the author, has India progressed despite a mediocre higher education system?
(a) By convincing the world that it is more knowledgeable than it actually is .
(b) By borrowing ideas as well as technology from the west.
(c) On the basis of its fairly com-petent graduates and a large number of educated population.
(d) Because of its sound and progressive economic policies.
(e) On the basis of the goodwill accumulated by it over the years, Ans: (c) On the basis of its fairly competent graduates and a large number of educated population.
45. Which of the following is possibly the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage?
(a) State of Higher Education in India
(b) Literacy in India
(c) Top Universities of India
(d) Educational Institutes in India
(e) Comparative Study of Higher Education in India and China
Ans: (a)
State of Higher Education in India
46. Which of the following problems do top institutes in India face in terms of contribution to academics?
(A) The teachers of these institutes get enticed by the openings in foreign countries.
(B) Many graduates from these institutes find opportunities abroad and never return.
(C) Graduates from these institutes who do not migrate to foreign countries are unfit for teaching in these institutes.
(a) Only (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (a)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (d)
Only (b) and (a)
47. Which of the following is TRUE, in the context of the passage?
(A) Private universities are well equipped to produce graduates who can conduct research.
(B) India needs more universities that can cater to research studies in different scientific fields.
(C) India should completely stop graduates from leaving the country to pursue a career.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (b)
Only (a)
48. What, according to the author, is/are the step/s that can make Indian universities world class?
(A) Students need to be given independence to conduct research
(B) Remuneration of teachers should be increased
(C) Proper support in the form of funds should be provided to universities
(a) Only (C)
(b) Only (b) and (a)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) Only (b)
Ans: (d)
Only (a) and (C)
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
(Indian Overseas Bank PO Exam. 22.05.2011)
49. JUDICIOUS
(a) Legal
(b) Hard-working
(c) Thoughtful
(d) Difficult
(e) Shrewd
Ans: (c)
Thoughtful Judicious (Adj.) : careful and sensible; showing good judgement; thoughtful.
50. CONTENT
(a) Matter
(b) Unhappy
(c) Enclosure
(d) Satisfied
(e) Substance
Ans: (d)
Satisfied Content (Adj.) : happy and satisfied with what you have.
51. GRANT
(a) Funding
(b) Agreement
(c) Allow
(d) Let
(e) Consent
Ans: (a)
Funding Grant (N.) : funding; a sum of money that is given by the government or by another organisation to be used for a particular purpose.
52. INCENTIVE
(a) Discouragement
(b) Prompt
(c) Cash
(d) Margin
(e) Motivator
Ans: (e)
Motivator Incentive (N.) : something that encourages you to do something; motivator.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
53. FIERCE
(a) Weak
(b) Strong
(c) Tame
(d) Scrawny
(e) Timid
Ans: (a)
Weak Fierce (Adj.) : very strong, showing strong feelings or a lot of activity. Scrawny (Adj.) : very thin in a way that is not attractive
54. BURGEONING
(a) Growing
(b) Minimizing
(c) Escalating
(d) Dwindling
(e) Easing
Ans: (d)
Dwindling Dwindling (Adj.) : becoming gradually less or smaller. Burgeoning (Adj.) : developing or growing rapidly.
55. MEDIOCRE
(a) Middle
(b) Superlative
(c) Average
(d) Pleasant
(e) Ordinary
Ans: (b)
Superlative Superlative (Adj.) : excellent, first rate Mediocre (Adj.) : not very good; of only average standard.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.
In a reversal of the norm elsewhere, in India policymakers and economists have become optimists while bosses do the worrying. The country’s Central Bank has predicted that the country’s economy is likely to grow at a double digit rate during the next years. India has the capability with its vast labour and lauded entrepreneurial spirit. But the private sector which is supposed to do the heavy lifting that turns India from the world’s tenth largest economy to its third largest by 2030 has become fed up. Business people often carp about India’s problems but their irritation this time has a nervous edge. In the first quarter of 2011, GDP grew at an annual rate of 7.8 percent; in 20 it managed percent. The economy may be slowing naturally as the low interest rates and public spending that got India through the global crisis are belatedly withdrawn. At the same time the surge in inflation caused by exorbitant food prices has spread more widely, casting doubt over whether India can grow at percent in the medium term without overheating.
In India, as in many fast growing nations, the confidence to invest depends on the conviction that the long term trajectory is intact and it is that which is in doubt.
Big Indian firms too sometimes seem happier to invest abroad than at home, in deals that are often hailed as symbols of the country’s growing clout but sometimes speak to its weaknesses – purchases of natural resources that India has in abundance but struggles to get out of the ground. In fact a further dip in investment could be self-fulfilling: if fewer roads, ports and factories are built, this will hurt both short term growth figures and reduce the economy’s long term capacity.
There is a view that because a fair amount of growth is assured the government need not try very hard. The liberalisation reforms that began in 1991 freed markets for products and gave rise to vibrant competition, at the same time what economists call factor markets, those for basic inputs like land, power, labour etc remain unreformed and largely under state control, which creates difficulties.
Clearances today can take three to four years and many employers are keen to replace workers with machines despite an abundance of labour force. This can be attributed to labour laws which are inimical to employee creation and an education system that means finding quality manpower a major problem. In fact the Planning Commission, concluded that even achieving 9 percent growth will need marked policy action in unreformed sectors. Twenty years ago it was said that the yardstick against which India should be measured was its potential and it is clear that there remains much to do.
56. Why are employers reluctant to hire Indian labour force?
(A) India’s labour force is overqualified for the employment opportunities available
(B) High attrition rate among employees stemming from their entrepreneurial spirit.
(C) Labour laws are not conducive to generating employment.
(a) All (b), (a) and (C)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (b) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (a)
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Only (C)
57. What is the state of India’s basic input sectors at present?
(a) These sectors are lagging as projects are usually awarded to foreign companies.
(b) These sectors attract Foreign Direct Investment because of their vast potential.
(c) These sectors are stagnating and badly in need of reforms.
(d) These sectors are well regulated as these are governed by the State
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
These sectors are stagnating and badly in need of reforms.
58. Which of the following can be said about the Indian economy at present?
(a) High food prices have led to overheating of the economy.
(b) It can comfortably achieve double digit growth rate at present.
(c) Citizens are affluent owing to laxity in regulation.
(d) Private sector confidence in India’s growth potential is high
(e) Unreformed sectors are a drag on economic growth.
Ans: (e)
Unreformed sectors are a drag on economic growth.
59. What impact has the GDP growth of 7.8 percent had?
(A) Indian Industry is anxious about India’s economic growth.
(B) India has achieved status as the world’s third largest economy at present.
(C) Foreign investment in India has drastically increased.
(a) All (b), (a) & (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (b) & (C)
(d) Only (b) & (a)
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Only (b)
60. What is the author’s MAIN OBJECTIVE in writing the passage?
(a) Exhorting India to implement measures to live up to its potential
(b) Showcasing the potential of India’s growth potential to entice foreign investors
(c) Recommending India’s model of development to other developing countries
(d) Berating the private sector for not bidding for infrastructure development projects
(e) Criticising the measures taken by India during the global economic crisis
Ans: (a)
Exhorting India to implement measures to live up to its potential
61. What measures do experts suggest be taken to ensure targeted economic growth?
(a) Prolonged financial support for basic input industries
(b) Lowering of interest rates to help industries hit by recession
(c) Incentives to Indian companies to invest in infrastucture
(d) Formulation of policies and their implementation in factor markets
(e) Stringent-implementation of licensing system
Ans: (d)
Formulation of policies and their implementation in factor markets
62. Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word MARKED given in bold.
(a) Ignored
(b) Decreased
(c) Clear
(d) Assessed
(e) Imperceptible
Ans: (e) Imperceptible Imperceptible (Adj.) : very small and therefore unable to be seen or felt. Marked (Adj.) : easy to see; noticeable; distinct.
Directions:
Read the following. passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
In February 2010 the Medical Council of India announced a major change in the regulation governing the establishment of medical colleges. With this change, corporate entities were permitted to open medical colleges.
The new regulation also carried the following warning:
“permission shall be withdrawn if the colleges resort to commercialization”. Since the regulation does not elaborate on what constitutes “resorting to commercialisation”, this will presumably be a matter left to the discretion of the Government.
A basic requirement for a new medical college is a pre-existing hospital that will serve as a teaching hospital.
Corporate entities have hospitals in the major metros and that is where they will have to locate medical colleges.
The earlier mandated land requirement for a medical college campus, minimum of 25 acres of contiguous land, cannot be fulfilled in the metros. Not surprisingly, yet another tweak has been made in the regulation, prescribing 10 acres as the new minimum campus size for 9 cities including the main metros. With this, the stage is set for corporate entities to enter the medical education market.
Until now, medical education in India has been projected as a not-for-profit activity to be organised for the public good. While private bodies can run medical colleges, these can only be societies or trusts, legally non-profit organizations. In opening the door to corporate colleges, thus, a major policy change has been effected without changing the law or even a discussion in Parliament, but by simply getting a compliant MCI to change the regulation on establishment of medical colleges. This and other changes have been justified in the name of addressing the shortage of doctors. At the same time, over 50, existing medical colleges, including 15 run by the government, have been prohibited from admitting students in 2010 for having failed to meet the basic standards prescribed. Ninety per cent of these colleges have come up in the last 5 years. Particularly shocking is the phenomenon of government colleges falling short of standards approved by the Government. Why are state government institutions not able to meet the requirements that have been approved by the central government? A severe problem faced by government-run institutions is attracting and retaining teaching faculty, and this is likely to be among the major reasons for these colleges failing to satisfy the MCI norms.
The crisis building up on the faculty front has been flagged by various commissions looking Into problems of medical education over the years.
An indicator of the crisis is the attempt to conjure up faculty when MCI carries out inspections of new colleges, one of its regulatory functions. Judging by news reports, the practice of presenting fake faculty-students or private medical practitioners hired for the day -during MCI inspections in private colleges is common. What is interesting is that even government colleges are adopting unscrupulous methods. Another indicator is the extraordinary scheme, verging on the ridiculous that is being put in place by the MCI to make inspections ‘foolproof. Faculty in all medical colleges are to be issued an RFID based smart card by the MCI with a unique Faculty Number.
The card, it is argued, will eliminate the possibility of a teacher being shown on the faculty of more than one college and establish if the qualifications of a teacher are genuine. In the future it is projected that biometric RFID readers will be installed in the colleges that will enable a Faculty Identification, Tracking and Monitoring System to monitor faculty from within the college and even remotely from MCI headquarters.
The picture above does not even start to reveal the true and pathetic situation of medical care especially in rural India. Only a fraction of the doctors and nursing professionals serve rural areas where 70 per cent of our population lives. The Health Ministry, with the help of the MCI, has been active in proposing yet another ‘innovative’ solution to the problem of lack of doctors in the rural areas. The proposal is for a three-and-a-half year course to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Rural Medicine and Surgery (BRMS). Only rural candidates would be able to join this course. The study and training would happen at two different levels -Community Health Centers for 18 months, and sub-divisional hospitals for a further period of 2 years -and be conducted by retired professors. After completion of training, they would only be able to serve in their own state in district hospitals, community health centres, and primary health centres.
The BRMS proposal has invited sharp criticism from some doctors’ organisations on the grounds that it is discriminatory to have two different standards of health care -one for urban and the other for rural areas, and that the health care provided by such graduates will be compromised.
At the other end is the opinion expressed by some that “something is better than nothing”, that since doctors do not want to serve in rural areas, the government may as well create a new cadre of medics who will be obliged to serve there. The debate will surely pick up after the government formally lays out its plans. What is apparent is that neither this proposal nor the various stopgap measures adopted so far address the root of the problem of health care. The far larger issue is government policy, the low priority attached by the government to the social sector as a whole and the health sector in particular, evidenced in the paltry allocations for maintaining and upgrading medical infrastructure and medical education and for looking after precious human resources.
63. What solution is being offered by the Health Ministry for the shortage of doctors in rural areas?
(a) Make it mandatory for doctors serving in the urban areas to serve in the rural areas for a specific number of years.
(b) Increase the number of government run hospitals in the rural areas thereby increasing the number of doctors catering to the people in these regions.
(c) Set up increasing number of community health centres in rural areas.
(d) Hire retired professors of medicine to offer medical help to people living in the rural areas till the time more doctors are appointed.
(e) Run a separate medical course for three and a half years which can be taken up only by rural candidtes who would ultimately serve in the rural areas.
Ans: (e)
Run a separate medical course for three and a half years which can be taken up only by rural candidates who would ultimately serve in the rural areas.
64. Why have some existing medical colleges been prohibited from admitting students?
(a) As all these colleges were illegally set up and were not approved by the government in the first place
(b) As these have adopted corrupt practices and have been taking huge donations from their students
(c) As the course offered by these colleges is not in line with the course offered by the government run colleges
(d) As these have failed to meet the norms set by the central government for running the college.
(e) As there are absolutely no faculty members left in these colleges to teach students.
Ans: (d)
As these have failed to meet the norms set by the central government for running the college.
65. Which of the following is/are the change/s announced by the MCI in the regulation governing the establishment of medical colleges?
(A) Allowing the commercialisation of medical colleges.
(B) Reducing the earlier mandated land requirement for a medical college campus for metros.
(C) Allowing corporate bodies to open medical colleges.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C) are true
Ans: (d)
Only (a) and (C)
66. Which of the following are the different opinions regarding the BRMS proposal?
(a) At least a small step has been taken to improve the healthcare facilities in the rural areas through this proposal.
(b) There should be uniform healthcare facilities available for people living in both rural and urban areas.
(c) The healthcare providers through this proposal would not be up to the mark.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (a)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (e)
All (b), (a) and (C)
67. What is one of the major problems faced by the government- run medical institutions?
(a) Lack of funds for running the colleges.
(b) Dearth of land required for the setting up of medical institutions.
(c) Dearth of teaching faculty.
(d) Excessive competition from colleges run by corporate bodies.
(e) Dearth of students opting for these colleges.
Ans: (c)
Dearth of teaching faculty.
68. What is the idea behind the MCI putting in place the RFID-based smart card?
(A) To monitor and track faculty from MCI headquarters in the future.
(B) To put a stop to the practice of colleges of presenting fake faculty members.
(C) To verify the authenticity of faculty member qualifications.
(a) All (b), (a) and (C)
(b) Only (b) and (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) Only (a)
Ans: (a)
All (b), (a) and (C)
69. What is the author’s MAIN INTENTION behind writing this passage?
(a) To bring to light the problems faced by the health care sector in India despite changes suggested and goad the government into attaching priority to the sector.
(b) To make the general public aware of the healthcare facilities available in India.
(c) To bring to light the problems faced by rural people in terms of healthcare facilities and thus exhort urban doctors to serve in the rural areas
(d) To make the general public aware of the benefits arising from the changes brought about by the MCI in the healthcare sector.
(e) To urge the corporate bodies to look into the matter of healthcare facilities in the rural areas.
Ans: (a)
To bring to light the problems faced by the health care sector in India despi te changes suggested and goad the government into attaching priority to the sector.
70. Which of the followinig is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word SHOCKING given in bold.
(a) Pleasing
(b) Wicked
(c) Appalling
(d) Electrifying
(e) Scandalous
Ans: (c) Appalling Appalling (Adj.) means: shocking; extremely bad. Shocking (Adj.) as used in the passage is : very bad; that offends or upsets people; that is morally wrong.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
In India, innovation is emerging as one of the most important rubrics in the discourse on how to bring about greater and more consistent economic and social development.
One observes steadily growing investments in R & D across the country, the setting up of national and state innovation bodies, as well as the introduction of government sponsored innovation funds. There have also been several conferences and debates on innovation and how to best promote and accomplish it in India, and a number of articles on the subject, written for newspapers and magazines, as well as more informal platforms like online forums and blogs.
Academic engagement and Indian authorship on the subject have also exploded in the last five years. Despite widespread agreement on the importance of innovation in India, there are wide gulfs between different conceptions of innovation and the path India should take towards securing benefits through investments in innovation.
Many Indian conversations around innovation begin by talking about jugaad, that uniquely Indian approach to a temporary fix when something complex, like an automobile or a steam engine stops working. However, many observers have pointed out that while jugaad is certainly innovative, it is a response to the lack of an innovation culture-more a survival or coping mechanism at a time of need than a systematic methodology to effectively address a wide-ranging, complex set of problems.
Another specifically Indian approach to innovation that has entered into wide currency of late is so-called ‘frugal innovation,’ deemed by many to be the most appropriate for the Indian context. In its midterm assessment of the 11th five-year plan, the Planning Commission stressed the need for innovation in India in order to ‘accelerate its growth and to make growth more inclusive as well as environmentally sustainable.’ The document went on to say that ‘India needs more frugal innovation that produces more frugal cost products and services that are affordable by people at low levels of incomes without compromising the safety, efficiency, and utility of the products. The country also needs processes of innovation that are frugal in the resources required to produce the innovations. The products and processes must also have frugal impact on the earth’s resources.’ Two people formulated a similar theory called the More-from-Less-for-More (MLM theory of Innovation) theory of Innovation, which advocates a focus on innovations that allow for more production using fewer resources but benefit more people. Under this rubric come products that are more affordable versions of existing technologies.
While both frugal innovation and the MLM theory are certainly valuable in terms of bringing affordable products and services to a greater number of people, and may even be considered a necessary first step on India’s innovation path, they barely graze the surface of what innovation can accomplish. That is, innovation is capable of bringing about complete paradigm-shifts and redefining the way we perceive and interact with the world.
Take the cell phone, for example : it revolutionized communication in a previously inconceivable way, provided consumers with a product of unprecedented value and created an entirely new market. The cell phone was a result of years of directed, intentional innovation efforts and large investments, and would not have ever been created if the people responsible simply set out to make the existing telephone cheaper and more accessible to all.
While jugaad and frugal innovation may be indicative of the Indian potential for innovativeness, this potential is not utilised or given opportunity to flourish due to the lack of an enabling culture.
India’s many diverse and complex needs can be met only through systematic innovation, and major shifts have to first take place-in our educational institutions, government policies and commercial firms in order for such an innovation-enabling culture to come about.
The one thing that India’s innovation theorists have not said is that the absence of a culture of innovation is intrinsically linked to many of the most intractable problems facing India as a nation. These include poor delivery of government services, inadequate systems of personal identification and the absence of widely available financial services for rural poor, health and sanitation failures.
This list can go on. Cumulatively, the inability of India as a nation, society and economy to adequately provide for its own population no longer reflects a failure of implementation, but rather of a failure of innovation, for there are not immediately-available off-the-shelf solutions that would make it possible for these grand challenges facing India to be redressed. Rather, we need to look at these intractable problems from the more sophisticated and empowering lens of innovation, for them to begin to be solved.
71. Which of the following depict/s the growing importance of innovation in India?
(A) Increased investment in research.
(B) Initiation of Government backed funds for innovation
(C) Increase in number of conferences arranged and articles written on innovation.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (e)
All (b), (a) and (C)
72. Which of the following BEST DESCRIBES the MLM theory of innovation?
(a) Maximise resource utilisation and cost thereby benefit maximum number of people.
(b) Maximise output by using least number of resources and benefiting a small number of people.
(c) Minimise output and resource utilisation, yet benefit the maximum number of people.
(d) Benefit most number of people through least usage of resources and maximum output.
(e) Benefit most number of people through maximum usage of resources and minimising cost.
Ans: (d)
Benefit most number of people through least usage of resources and maximum output.
73. Which of the following is possibly the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage?
(a) India And The Elixir Called Innovation
(b) Innovation At Its Best
(c) Innovation Around The World vis-a-vis India And Other Neighbouring Countries
(d) Worldwide Developments In Innovation
(e) Innovation – The History
Ans: (a)
India And The Elixir Called Innovation
74. What tone is the author employing in the entire passage to get his message across?
(a) Sarcastic
(b) Pessimistic
(c) Urgent
(d) Informative
(e) Dubious
Ans: (a)
Sarcastic
75. Why, according to the author, is India unable to adequately provide for its people?
(a) Absence of regulatory authorities to oversee the implementation process.
(b) Failure to implement schemes and initiatives meant for the Indian populace.
(c) Failure to innovate in order to find solutions.
(d) Lack of governmental schemes and initiatives to redress the challenges faced by India.
(e) Hesitance of the Indian people in trying out different schemes provided by the Government for upliftment.
Ans: (c)
Failure to innovate in order to find solutions.
76. Why, according to some people, is ‘Jugaad’ not the answer to India’s problems?
(a) ‘Jugaad’ provides only cheap solutions to all problems.
(b) Many a times this methodology backfires leading to further complications.
(c) It is reactive and not a proactive and organised method of finding solutions to problems.
(d) It can provide solutions to only simple problems and not complex ones.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
It is reactive and not a proactive and organised method of finding solutions to problems.
77. Which of the following is/are TRUE about the cell phone?
(A) The innovation of the cell phone required investment of huge capital.
(B) The cell phone, when invented was meant to be affordable to all.
(C) The cell phone was made available to the public in a very short time from its ideation.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (a)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (b) and (a)
78. What does the author mean by ‘frugal impact on the earth’s resources’ as given in the passage?
(a) More consumption of natural resources as compared to manmade ones.
(b) The damage to the environment should be assessable.
(c) Minimum impact on the environment in terms of pollution.
(d) The impact on the environment should be such that it is reversible.
(e) Minimum usage of earth’s natural resources.
Ans: (e)
Minimum usage of earth’s natural resources.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
79. REDRESSED
(a) Equalised
(b) Amended
(c) Restored
(d) Redone
(e) Rearranged
Ans: (b)
Amend Redress (V.) : to correct something that is unfair or wrong; put right; amend
80. CURRENCY
(a) Usage
(b) Notes
(c) Money
(d) Cash
(e) Value
Ans: (a)
Usage Currency (N.) : the fact that something is used or accepted by a lot of people; usage.
81. INTRINSICALLY
(a) Whole-heartedly
(b) Internally
(c) Fundamentally
(d) Virtually
(e) Unavoidably
Ans: (c)
Fundamentally Intrinsically (Adv.) : really; fundamentally; basically.
82. INDICATIVE
(a) Forthcoming
(b) Causative
(c) Verbal
(d) Abstract
(e) Suggestive
Ans: (e)
Suggestive Indicative (Adj.) : showing or suggesting something; suggestive.
83. COMPROMISING
(a) Reducing the quality
(b) Co-operating with
(c) Hampering the progress
(d) Conciliating in order to
(e) Adjusting for the better
Ans: (a)
Reducing the quality Compromise (V.) : reducing the quality; to do something that does not reach the standard.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
84. LACK
(a) Sufficient
(b) Presence
(c) Charisma
(e) Dearth
Ans: (d)
Adequacy Lack (N.) : dearth, the state of not having excess of something. Adequacy (N.) : enough in quantity
85. INCONCEIVABLE
(a) Truthful
(b) Visible
(c) Incredible
(d) Apparent
(e) Complex
Ans: (d)
Apparent Inconceivable (Adj.) : impossible to imagine or believe; unthinkable; incredible. Apparent (Adj.) : easy to see/ understand
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Once upon a time there lived a stone cutter in a small village. He worked hard throughout the day, preparing the shapes that were ordered by his customers. His hands were rough and his clothes were dirty. One day he went to the mountain to cut a big stone. It was difficult to work as the weather was extremely hot. After working for several hours, he sat down in the shade of a nearby tree and soon fell asleep. After sometime, he heard the sound of a procession. He woke up and saw many soldiers and attendants walking in the sun, alongside the king who not only rode an elephant but also had an umbrella to keep the sun away. “How wonderful it must be to be a king”, thought the stone cutter. He wondered how happy would he be if he were the king instead of a poor stone cutter. As he thought so, a strange thing happened.
The stone cutter found himself dressed in silk clothes and shining jewels. His hands were soft and he was sitting on the elephant. He looked around at the attendants and thought, “how easy it is to be a king, these people are here to serve me.” The procession moved on and the sun grew hotter.
The stone cutter, now the king, became too warm for comfort. He asked the procession to stop so that he could rest for some time. At once the chief of the soldiers bent before the king and said, “Your Majesty, this morning you swore to have me hanged to death if we did not reach the palace before the sun set.” The stone cutter felt sorry for him and let the procession go on its way again. “I am powerful, it is true, but how more powerful the sun is. I would rather be the sun than a king”, he thought. At once, he became the sun, shining down on the earth.
Its new power was hard to control. It shone too brilliantly and burned up the fields with its rays. But no matter how hard it shone, it could not see through the clouds. It was evident that the clouds were even stronger and more powerful than the sun. The sun wished that it would rather be a cloud. Suddenly it found itself turned into a huge dark cloud. It started using its new power. It poured rain down on the fields and caused floods. All the trees and houses were swept away but the boulder, which once it had been cutting when it was a stone cutter was unmoved and unchanged. No matter how hard it poured down on the stone, the stone did not move.
The cloud wondered, “That rock is more powerful than I am. Only a stone cutter could change the rock by his skill.” No sooner had it said these words, he found himself sitting on a stone. He picked up his tools and began working.
86. KEEP THE SUN AWAY
(a) Delay the sunset
(b) Maintain darkness
(c) Block the sun
(d) Stock the shade
(e) Enjoy little shade
Ans: (c)
Block the sun Keep the sun away : block the sun to protect yourself from its harmful effects.
Directions:
Choose the word / phrase which is MOST SIMILAR in MEANING to the word/ phrase printed in bold as used in the passage.
87. EVIDENT
(a) Transparent
(b) Obvious
(c) Known
(d) Public
(e) Active
Ans: (b)
Obvious Evident (Adj.) : clear; easily seen; obvious.
Directions:
Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in MEANING to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
88. LET
(a) Punished
(b) Stopped
(c) Allowed
(e) Disciplined
Ans: (b)
Stopped Let (Verb) : to allow somebody to do something or something to happen without trying to stop; to give permission to do.
89. HARD
(b) Mockingly
(c) Leisurely
(d) Soft
(e) Aimlessly
Ans: (c)
Leisurely Leisurely (Adv.) : done without hurrying. hard (Adv.) : needing or using a lot of physical strength or mental effort; with great effort.
90. STRANGE
(a) False
(b) Wonderful
(c) Erratic
(d) Orthodox
(e) Usual
Ans: (e)
Usual Strange (Adj.) : unusual or surprising, especially in a way that is difficult to understand.
91. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the story?
(a) The King’s Procession
(b) The Stone Cutter
(c) The Power of Nature
(d) Experiments of a King
(e) A Dream of a King
Ans: (b)
The Stone Cutter
92. Why could the king’s procession not be stopped?
(a) It was getting dark and it was unsafe to halt.
(b) The king had promised the queen that he would reach the palace in time.
(c) It was about to rain and the palace was close by.
(d) The soldiers were in a hurry to reach the palace as they were very hungry.
(e) None of these
Ans: (e)
None of these
93. Why did the sun wish to become a cloud?
(a) It did not want to set in the evening and be visible even in the night.
(b) It wanted to cool down the earth by raining.
(c) It assumed that the clouds were stronger than the sun.
(d) It wanted to wander in the sky like the clouds did.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
It assumed that the clouds were stronger than the sun.
94. What problem did the cloud face?
(a) The cloud had to rain all the time.
(b) The cloud could not affect the boulder.
(c) The cloud brought about a huge flood for which it was punished by the king.
(d) The cloud needed the sun for its formation.
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
The cloud could not affect the boulder.
95. Why did the king desire to become the sun?
(a) The king desired to be more powerful than he already was.
(b) The sun was troubling the king and the king desired to take revenge.
(c) The chief of the soldiers suggested the king to be the sun.
(d) The king would be able to live in the sky, once he were the sun.
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
The king desired to be more powerful than he already was.
Directions:
Read the following passgae carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/group of words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(IDBI Bank Officer Exam.16.09.2012)
Unemployment is the problem of every modern nation.
Even industrialised nations are not able to ensure a job for everyone. Following the conventional strategy of creating employment, governments of many developing countries try to attract employers (business houses/industrialists) by offering tax rebates and many other facilities so that they locate their upcoming plants on their soil, and thereby create industrial employment. But there is a limit to what industry can bring. Also, industrial plants often create toxic waste which results in air and water pollution and environmental problems which can outweigh whatever employment benefit industrial employment brings. In addition, they don’t bring as substantial relief to the dwindling economy of the host country as they seem to promise, as the profits of such foreign investments are carried back to the parent company and foreign shareholders abroad.
Self-employment has none of these drawbacks. The problem is that self-employment is not as obviously glamorous as a shiny new factory. But profits from self-employment remain in the country where they are produced.
It is too small to create environmental hazards. It also puts the poor person in charge of his or her own working hours and conditions. The hours are flexible and can adapt to fit any family situation. It allows people to choose between running a business full-time, or part-time when they face a crisis, or to put their business on hold and work full-time for a salary. Self-employment is tailor-made for anyone who is street-smart and has many acquired and inherited traditional skills, rather than learning acquired from books and technical schools. This means the illiterate and the poor can exploit their strengths, rather than be held back by their weaknesses. It allows a person to turn their hobbies into gainful employment. It allows individuals who cannot work well in a rigid hierarchy to run their own show.
Financing the poor to start their own little ventures elevates their sense of pride and self-respect. It offers a way out of welfare dependency, not just to become wage slaves, but to open a store or start a manufacturing business.
It can help those who have found a job and are still nonetheless poor. It gives the victims of prejudice who would not be hired because of their colour or national origin a chance to earn a living. The average cost of creating self-employment is ten, twenty or hundred times lesser than creating industry based employment. It helps isolated poor people gain self-confidence, step-by-step.
Obviously self-employment has limits, but in many cases it is the only solution to help those whom economies refuse to hire and taxpayers do not want to carry on their shoulders. The policy needed for the eradication of poverty must be much wider and deeper than the policy for the provision of mere employment. The real eradication of poverty begins when people are able to control their own fate. Poor people are like bonsai trees. When you plant the best seed of the tallest tree in a flower-pot, you get a replica of the tallest tree, only inches tall. There is nothing wrong with the seed you planted; only the soil-base that is too inadequate. Poor people are bonsai people. There is nothing wrong in their seeds. Simply, society never gave them the base to grow on. All it takes to get the poor people out of poverty is for us to create an enabling environment of them. Once the poor can unleash their energy and creativity, poverty will disappear very quickly.
96. Which of the following is a reason foregin investments do not strengthen the economies of host nations?
(a) The profit of such enterprises does not remain in the host nation; rather it goes back to the share holders and owners of the parent company.
(b) The parent company pays all the profit as tax to its nation.
(c) The employees of the parent company demand extra pay from profits that the companies earn from factories in another nation.
(d) The profit earned by such enterprises is too less to provide for anything beyond the salaries of employees.
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
The profit of such enterprises does not remain in the host nation; rather it goes back to the share holders and owners of the parent company.
97. What is the tone of the passage?
(a) Satirical
(b) Offensive
(c) Analytical
(d) Humorous
(e) Speculative
Ans: (c)
Analytical
98. Which of the following is an advantage that self-employment has over industry based employment?
(A) The work timings are highly flexible.
(B) Starting one’s own venture is an easy task and needs no investment as financers are readily available.
(C) Self-employment rmakes one a master of other people and thus satisfies their need to control others.
(a) Only (b)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (a)
(d) Only (b) and (a)
(e) Only (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (b)
99. Which of the following may be INFERRED about selfemployment?
(A) Self-employment slowly but steadily strengthens the economy of the country.
(B) Self-employment checks unemployment.
(C) As a strategy of providing employment, self-employment is still unexplored.
(a) Only (a) and (C)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (b) and (a)
(e) Only (b) and (C)
Ans: (d)
Only (b) and (a)
100. What does the author indicate by the example of a bonsai tree?
(A) When provided the right kind of financial help, poor people can flourish.
(B) The poor people are as capable as the well-to-do class.
(C) Conventional (Industrial) employment can help the poor people create their own base.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (b) and (a)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) Only (a) and (C)
Ans: (c)
Only (b) and (a)
101. The author claims that self employment is ‘tailormade’ for people with certain qualities. Which of the following are the qualities of such people?
(A) They have an unconventional approach to all things.
(B) They are street-smart.
(C) They possess many acquired and traditional skills.
(a) Only (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) Only (a)
Ans: (c)
Only (a) and (C)
102. Which of the following outweighs the employment benefits that foreign industrialists bring?
(a) They employ more number of people belonging to their native nations, than the host nations’ unemployed.
(b) Huge industries set up by them cause environmental pollution.
(c) They evade many taxes that could be a source of revenue for the host nation.
(d) They manufacture products that have no market in the host nation.
(e) They practise discrimination on grounds of gender when providing employment to host nations’ residents.
Ans: (b)
Huge industries set up by them cause environmental pollution.
103. Which of the following may be an APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage?
(a) Varied strategies and approaches to eradicating poverty
(b) Addressing conventional employment in developed nations
(c) Limitations of industrial employment
(d) How is poverty linked to conventional (industrial) employment?
(e) Role of self employment in battling unemployment and eradication of poverty
Ans: (e)
Role of self employment in battling unemployment and eradication of poverty
104. Which of the following is TRUE as per the passage?
(a) Self-employment is not as glamorous as conventional (industrial) employment.
(b) Self employment is beneficial only for developing economies.
(c) Finance for poor is readily availlable in the developed nations of the world.
(d) Small-scale industries produce as much toxic waste as big industries.
(e) None is true.
Ans: (a)
Self-employment is not as glamorous as conventional (industrial) employment.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
105. RIGID
(a) Flexible
(b) Unstructured
(c) Soft
(d) Gentle
(e) Calm
Ans: (a)
Flexible Rigid (Adj.) : inflexible; very strict and difficult to change.
106. STEP-BY-STEP
(a) In quick succession
(b) All at once
(c) In slow motion
(d) In a nutshell
(e) Once and for all
Ans: (b)
All at once Step by Step (N.) : in a series of steps; rather than continuous; one of a series of things that happens which forms part of a process; stepwise. Once and for all : now and for the last time; finally or completely.
107. OFFERING
(a) Permitting
(b) Stealing
(c) Refusing
(d) Protesting
(e) Questioning
Ans: (c)
Refusing Refuse (V.) : to say that you will not do something that somebody has asked you to do; turn down; deny. Offer (V.) : to make something available or to provide the opportunity for something.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold.
(IDBI Bank Officer Exam.16.09.2012)
108. REMAIN
(a) Stay
(b) Left-over
(c) Stagnate
(d) Continue
(e) Linger
Ans: (a)
Stay Remain (V.) : to stay in the same place.
109. HIRED
(a) Rented
(b) Allowed
(c) Authorised
(d) Employed
(e) Delegated
Ans: (d)
Employed Hire (V.) : to give a job; to employ somebody for a short time to do a particular job.
110. LIMIT
(a) Finish
(b) Maximum
(c) Cap
(d) Decrease
(e) Barrier
Ans: (c)
Cap Limit (N.) : a point at which something stops being possible; end point, cap
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
When times are hard, doomsayers are aplenty. The problem is that if you listen to them too carefully, you tend to overlook the most obvious signs of change. 2011 was a bad year. Can 2012 be any worse? Doomsday forecasts are the easiest to make these days. So let’s try a contrarian’s forecast instead.
Let’s start with the global economy. We have seen a steady flow of good news from the US. The employment situation seems to be improving rapidly and consumer sentiment, reflected in retail expenditures on discretionary items like electronics and clothes, has picked up. If these trends sustain, the US might post better growth numbers for 2012 than the 1..8 per cent being forecast currently.
Japan is likely to pull out of a recession in 2012 as post-earthquake reconstruction efforts gather momentum and the fiscal stimulus announced in 2011 begins to pay
off. The consensus estimate for growth in Japan is a respectable 2 per cent for 2012.
The “hard-landing” scenario for China remains and will remain a myth. Growth might decelerate further from the 9 per cent that it expected to clock in 2011 but is unlikely to drop below .5 per cent in 2012.
Europe is certainly in a spot of trouble. It is perhaps already in recession and for 2012 it is likely to post mildly negative growth. The risk of implosion has dwindled over the last few months -peripheral economies like Greece, Italy and Spain have new governments in place and have made progress towards genuine economic reform.
Even with some of these positive factors in place, we have to accept the fact that global growth in 2012 will be tepid. But there is a flip side to this. Softer growth means lower demand for commodities and this is likely to drive a correction in commodity prices. Lower commodity inflation will enable emerging market central banks to reverse their monetary stance. China, for instance, has already reversed its stance and has pared its reserve ratio twice. The RBI also seems poised for a reversal in its rate cycle as headline inflation seems well on its way to its target of 7 per cent for March 2012.
That said, oil might be an exception to the general trend in commodities. Rising geopolitical tensions, particularly the continuing face-off between Iran and the US, might lead to a spurt in prices. It might make sense for our oil companies to hedge this risk instead of buying oil in the spot market.
As inflation fears abate and emerging market central banks begin to cut rates, two things could happen.
Lower commodity inflation would mean lower interest rates and better credit availability. This could set a floor to growth and slowly reverse the business cycle within these economies. Second, as the fear of untamed, runaway inflation in these economies abates, the global investor’s comfort levels with their markets will increase.
Which of the emerging markets will outperform and who will get left behind? In an environment in which global growth is likely to be weak, economies like India that have a powerful domestic consumption dynamic should lead; those dependent on exports should, prima facie, fall behind. Specifically for India, a fall in the exchange rate could not have come at a better time. It will help Indian exporters gain market share even if global trade remains depressed. More importantly, it could lead to massive import substitution that favours domestic producers.
Let’s now focus on India and start with a caveat. It is important not to confuse a short-run cyclical dip with a permanent de-rating of its long-term structural potential.
The arithmetic is simple. Our growth rate can be in the range of per cent depending on policy action. Ten per cent if we get everything right, 7 per cent if we get it all wrong. Which policies and reforms are critical to taking us to our 10 per cent potential? In judging this, let’s again be careful. Let’s not go by the laundry list of reforms that FIIs like to wave: increase in foreign equity limits in foreign shareholding, greater voting rights for institutional shareholders in banks, FDI in retail, etc.
These can have an impact only at the margin. We need not bend over backwards to appease the FIIs through these reforms – they will invest in our markets when momentum picks up and will be the first to exit when the momentum flags, reforms or not.
The reforms that we need are the ones that can actually raise our sustainable long-term growth rate. These have to come in areas like better targeting of subsidies, making projects in infrastructure viable so that they draw capital, raising the productivity of agriculture, improving healthcare and education, bringing the parallel economy under the tax net, implementing fundamental reforms in taxation like GST and the direct tax code and finally easing the myriad rules and regulations that make doing business in India such a nightmare. A number of these things do not require new legislation and can be done through executive order.
111. Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to the passage?
(a) The European economy is not doing very well
(b) China’s economic growth may decline in the year 2012 as compared to the year 2011
(c) Greece is on the verge of bringing about economic reforms
(d) In the year 2012, Japan may post a positive growth and thus pull out of recession
(e) All are true
Ans: (e)
All are true
112. Which of the following will possibly be a result of softer growth estimated for the year 2012?
(A) Prices of oil will not increase.
(B) Credit availability would be lesser.
(C) Commodity inflation would be lesser.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (b) and (C)
(d) Only (C)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (d)
Only (C)
113. Which of the following can be said about the present status of the US economy?
(a) The growth in the economy of the country, in the year 2012, would definitely be lesser than 1.8 per cent
(b) There is not much improvement in the economic scenario of the country from the year 2011
(c) The expenditure on clothes and electronic commodities, by consumers, is lesser than that in the year 2011
(d) There is a chance that in 2012 the economy would do better than what has been forecast
(e) The pace of change in the employment scenario of the country is very slow.
Ans: (d)
There is a chance that in 2012 the economy would do better than what has been forecast
114. Which of the following is possibly the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage?
(a) Indian Economy Versus The European Economy
(b) The Economic Disorder
(d) The Current Economic Scenario
(e) Characteristics Of The Indian Economy
Ans: (d)
The Current Economic Scenario
115. According to the author, which of the following would characterise Indian growth scenario in 2012?
(A) Domestic producers will take a hit because of depressed global trade scenario.
(B) On account of its high domestic consumption, India will lead.
(C) Indian exporters will have a hard time in gaining market share.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (b)
Only (a)
116. Why does the author not recommend taking up the reforms suggested by FIIs?
(a) The reforms suggested will have no effect on the economy of our country, whereas will benefit the FIIs significantly
(b) These will bring about only minor growth
(c) The previous such recommendations had backfired
(d) These reforms will be the sole reason for our country’s economic downfall
(e) The reforms suggested by them are not to be trusted as they will not bring about any positive growth in India
Ans: (b)
These will bring about only minor growth
117. Which of the following is TRUE as per the scenario presented in the passage?
(a) The fall in the exchange rate will prove beneficial to India
(b) The highest growth rate that India can expect is 7 per cent
(c) Increased FDI in retail as suggested by FIIs would benefit India tremendously
(d) The reforms suggested by the author require new legislation in India
(e) None is true
Ans: (a)
The fall in the exchange rate will prove beneficial to India
118. According to the author, which of the following reform/ s is/are needed to ensure long term growth in India?
(A) Improving healthcare and educational facilities.
(B) Bringing about reforms in taxation.
(C) Improving agricultural productivity.
(a) Only (b) and (a)
(b) Only (a)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b)
(e) All (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (e)
All (b), (a) and (C)
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold.
119. DRAW
(a) Push
(b) Entice
(c) Decoy
(d) Attract
Ans: (d)
Attract Draw (V.) : attract or interest somebody Entice (V.) : persuade Decoy (V.) : to trick somebody/ something into doing what you want them to do Persuade (V.) : to make somebody do something by giving them good reasons for doing it
120. CLOCK
(a) Achieve
(b) Watch
(c) Time
(d) Second
(e) Regulate
Ans: (b)
Watch
121. ABATE
(a) Gear
(b) Rise
(c) Hurl
(d) Lessen
(e) Retreat
Ans: (d)
Lessen Abate (V.) : to become less strong; to make something less strong; lessen.
122. EMERGING
(a) Developing
(b) Raising
(c) Noticeable
(d) Conspicuous
(e) Uproaring
Ans: (a)
Developing Emerging (Adj.) : new and still developing.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold
(a) Difficult
(b) Trivial
(c) Few
(d) Effortless
(e) Countless
Ans: (c)
Few Myriad (Adj.) : an extremely large number of something; countless.
124. TEPID
(a) High
(b) Moderate
(c) Warm
(d) Irregular
(e) Little
Ans: (c)
Warm Tepid (Adj.) : slightly warm; lukewarm; not enthusiastic; moderate.
125. MYTH
(a) Belief
(b) Reality
(c) Contrast
(d) Idealism
(e) Falsehood
Ans: (b)
Reality Myth (N.) : legend, fallacy; something that many believe but that is false; belief.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Indeed the western recession is really the beginning of good news for India! But to understand that we will have to move away for a while from the topic of western recession ……. to the Japanese recession! For years the Japanese style of management has been admired. However, over the last decade or so, one key question has sprung up ‘if Japanese management style is as wonderful as described then why has Japan been in a recession for more than a decade?’ The answer to this question is very simple. Culture plays a very important part in shaping up economies. What succeeds in one culture fails in another. Japanese are basically non materialistic. And however rich they become, unlike others, they cannot just keep throwing and buying endlessly. And once they have everything they need; there is a saturation point. It was only when companies like Toyota realized that they cannot keep selling cars endlessly to their home market that they went really aggressive in the western markets -and the rest is history. Japanese companies grew bigger by catering to the world markets when their home markets shrunk.
And the markets have to shrink finally after attaining a level of affluence! And that’s great for the world because earth needs sustainable development. It does not need monstrous consumers who keep consuming at the cost of the environment and the earth. There should be limits to growth so that consumers are not converted into material dustbins for the profit of a handful of corporations.
Owing to the materialistic culture elsewhere, it was possible to keep selling newer products to the consumers despite having existing ones which served equally well. They were lured through advertising and marketing techniques of ‘dustbinisation’ of the customer; and then finally, once they became ready customers, they were given loans and credits to help them buy more and more. When all the creditworthy people were given loans to a logical limit, they ceased to be a part of the market. Even this would have been understandable if it could work as an eye opener.
Instead of taking the ‘Right Step’ as Toyota did, they preferred to take a ‘shortcut’. Now banks went to the non creditworthy people and gave them loans. The people expectedly defaulted and the entire system collapsed.
Now like Toyota western companies will learn to find new markets. They will now lean towards India because of its common man! The billion plus population in the next 25 years will become, a consuming middle-class.
Finally, the world’s attention will shift to the developing world. Finally, there will be a real surge in income of these people and in the next fifty odd years, one can really hope to see an equal world in terms of material plenty, with poverty being almost nonexistent! And this will happen not by selling more cars to Americans and Europeans. It will happen by creating markets in India, China, Latin America and Africa, by giving their people purchasing power and by making products for them.
The recession has made us realize that it is not because of worse management techniques, but because of limits to growth. And they will realize that it is great for planet earth. After all, how many cars and houses must the rich own before calling it enough? It’s time for them to look at others as well. Many years back, to increase his own profits, Henry Ford had started paying his workers more, so that they could buy his cars. In similar fashion, now the developed world will pay the developing world people so that they can buy their cars and washing machines.
The recession will kick-start the process of making the entire world more prosperous, and lay the foundation of limits to growth in the west and the foundation of real globalization in the world – of the globalization of prosperity.
And one of its first beneficiaries will be India.
126. What does the author mean by the “Right Step” in the passage?
(a) Considering market growth along with environment protection.
(b) Giving loans to creditworthy people only
(c) Restricting people to buy only such products which are needed by them.
(d) To start looking at newer avenues and markets.
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
To start looking at newer avenues and markets.
127. Although admired since years, why did the scepticism over the Japanese management style start since the last decade?
(a) Japanese banks have provided loans indiscriminately to the creditworthy as well as non creditworthy people.
(b) Japanese companies have been moving out of their home markets since the last decade.
(c) Because Japanese markets have been going through a period of continuous recession since the last decade.
(d) The unlimited growth of the Japanese markets has come at the cost of the western market.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Because Japanese markets have been going through a period of continuous recession since the last decade.
128. Why does the author foresee the markets being created in the developing countries instead of America and Europe?
(a) Developed countries are willing to make an effort to achieve globalization.
(b) All developing countries have materialistic culture.
(c) American and European markets have had a large number of credit defaulters.
(d) Recession has not hit the markets of developing countries yet.
(e) None of these
Ans: (e)
None of these
129. According to the author, what is the MAIN CAUSE of Japanese recession?
(a) Non creditworthy people defaulted which led to a collapse of the entire system.
(b) Only a handful of corporations earned profits and not the people in general.
(c) Consumers were sold newer products which were similar in quality to the existing ones.
(d) Japanese do not purchase endlessly and thus when products had been sold to every customer, the markets slowed down.
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
Japanese do not purchase endlessly and thus when products had been sold to every customer, the markets slowed down.
130. How does the author foresee the future globalization as an analogy to Henry Ford’s example?
(A) Car companies would start selling cars in developing countries as well.
(B) By paying the developing world the developed world would increase its own profit, in turn bringing affluence to developing world as well.
(C) To earn profit, the companies in developing countries would move to foreign land.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
Only (a)
131. According to the passage, which of the following was NOT an effect of providing loans and credits to the customers?
(A) The non creditworthy people defaulted.
(B) People bought new products which were not needed.
(C) Poverty became non-existent.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (b) and (a)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) Only (C)
Ans: (e)
Only (C)
132. Why is recession the beginning of good news for India in the author’s view?
(A) India can provide an attractive market to the western companies.
(B) lndia has remained largely unaffected by recession owing to its huge population.
(C) Indians keep purchasing products despite owning equally good products.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (b)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Only (b)
133. What does the author mean by ‘Dustbinisation’ of the customer?
(a) Denying the non creditworthy people of any loans.
(b) Convincing the customer to buy products he does not need.
(c) Denying more loans to people who have already taken loans to a logical limit.
(d) Moving from old customers at the home market to foreign markets.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Denying more loans to people who have already taken loans to a logical limit.
134. Why according to the author is the current recession great for ‘Planet Earth’?
(A) It will make people non-materialistic like the Japanese.
(B) The unlimited market growth which caused hazards to the environment would be checked to a certain extent.
(C) Banks will now provide loans only to the creditworthy people.
(D) Developing countries will also be benefited by shifted markets.
(a) Only B and D
(b) Only A
(c) Only A and B
(d) Only B
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
Only (a) and (D)
Directions :
Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
135. CATERING
(a) Lending
(b) Considering
(c) Supplying
(d) Working
(e) Indulging
Ans: (c)
Supplying Cater (Verb) to provide the things that a particular type of person wants.
136. KEY
(a) Solution
(b) Foundation
(c) Requisite
(d) Difficult
(e) Important
Ans: (e)
Important Key (Adj.) : most important; essential; critical; vital.
137. AGGRESSIVE
(a) Determined
(b) Violent
(c) Demanding
(d) Offensive
(e) Brutish
Ans: (a)
Determined Aggressive (Adj.) : acting with force and determination in order to succeed.
Directions:
Choose the word/phrase which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
138. PROSPEROUS
(a) Helpless
(b) Distressed
(c) Worse
(d) Worthless
(e) Underprivileged
Ans: (e)
Underprivileged Underprivileged (Adj.) : having less money and fewer opportunities than others; disadvantaged. Prosperous (Adj.) : rich and successful; affluent.
139. CONSUMING
(a) Exhausting
(b) Destroying
(c) Greedy
(d) Curtailing
(e) Spending
Ans: (b)
Destroying Consume (V.) : to use something.
140. SURGE
(a) Deteriorating
(b) Decrease
(c) Weakening
(d) Atrophy
(e) Crumble
Ans: (b)
Decrease Surge (N.) : a sudden increase of feeling; a sudden increase in the amount.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Following the end of the Second World War, the United Kingdom enjoyed a long period without a major recession
(from 1945 to 1973)
and a rapid growth in prosperity in the 1950s and 1960s. According to the OECD, the annual rate of growth (percentage change) between 1960 and 1973 averaged 2.9%, although this figure was far behind the rates of other European countries such as France, West Germany and Italy.
However, following the 1973 oil crisis and the 1 stock market crash, the British economy fell into recession and the government of Edward Heath was ousted by the Labour Party under Harold Wilson. Wilson formed a minority government on 4 March 1974 after the general election on 28 February ended in a hung parliament. Wilson subsequently secured a three seat majority in a second election in October that year.
The UK recorded weaker growth than many other European nations in the 1970s; even after the early 1970s recession ended, the economy was still blighted by rising unemployment and double-digit inflation.
In 1976, the UK was forced to request a loan of £2.3 billion from the International Monetary Fund. The then Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey was required to implement public spending cuts and other economic reforms in order to secure the loan. Following the Winter of Discontent, the government of James Callaghan lost a vote of no confidence. This triggered the May 1979 general election which resulted in Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative Party forming a new government.
A new period of neo-liberal economics began in 1979 with the election of Margaret Thatcher who won the general election on 3 May that year to return the Conservative Party to government after five years of Labour government.
During the 1980s most state-owned enterprises were privatised, taxes cut and markets deregulated. GDP fell 5.9% initially but growth subsequently returned and rose to 5% at its peak in 1988, one of the highest rates of any European nation.
The UK economy had been one of the strongest economies in terms of inflation, interest rates and unemployment, all of which remained relatively low until the 20 recession. Unemployment has since reached a peak of just under 2.5 million (7.8%), the highest level since the early 1990s, although still far lower than some other European nations. However, interest rates have reduced to 0.5% pa. During August 2008 the IMF warned that the UK economic outlook had worsened due to a twin shock:
financial turmoil and rising commodity prices. Both developments harm the UK more than most developed countries, as the UK obtains revenue from exporting financial services while recording deficits in finished goods and commodities, including food. In 2007, the UK had the world’s third largest current account deficit, due mainly to a large deficit in manufactured goods. During May 2008, the IMF advised the UK government to broaden the scope of fiscal policy to promote external balance. Although the UK’s “labour productivity per person employed” has been progressing well over the last two decades and has overtaken productivity in Germany, it still lags around 20% behind France, where workers have a 35-hour working week. The UK’s “labour productivity per hour worked” is currently on a par with the average for the “old” EU (15 countries).
In 2010, the United Kingdom ranked 26th on the Human Development Index.
The UK entered a recession in Q2 of 2008, according to the Office for National Statistics and exited it in Q4 of 2009. The subsequently revised ONS figures show that the UK suffered six consecutive quarters of negative growth, making it the longest recession since records began.
As of the end of Q4, 2009, revised statistics from the Office for National Statistics demonstrate that the UK economy shrank by 7.2% from peak to trough. The Blue Book 2013 confirms that UK growth in Q2 of 2013 was 0.7%, and that the volume of output of GDP remains 3.2% below its pre-recession peak; The UK economy’s recovery has thus been more lackluster than previously thought.
Furthermore, The Blue Book 2013 demonstrates that the UK experienced a deeper initial downturn than all of the G7 economies save for Japan, and has experienced a slower recovery than all but Italy.
A report released by the Office of National Statistics on 14 May 2013 revealed that over the six-year period between 2005 and 2011, the UK dropped from 5th place to 12th place in terms of household income on an international scale—the drop was partially attributed to the devaluation of sterling over this time frame. However, the report also concluded that, during this period, inflation was relatively less volatile, the UK labour market was more resilient in comparison to other recessions, and household spending and wealth in the UK remained relatively strong in comparison with other OECD countries.
According to a report by Moody’s Corporation, Britain’s debt-to-GDP ratio continues to increase in 2013 and is expected to reach 93% at the end of the year. The UK has lost its triple-A credit rating on the basis of poor economic outlook. 2013 Economic Growth has surprised many Economists, Ministers and the OBR in the 2013 budget projected annual growth of just 0.6%, In 2013 Q1 the economy grew by 0.4%, Q2 the economy grew by 0.7% and Q3 the economy is predicted to have grown at 0.8%.
141. A new period of neo-liberal economics began in United Kingdom with the election of Margaret Thatcher after five years of Labour government. Margaret Thatcher came in power in
(a) 1976
(b) 1980
(c) 1979
(d) 1982
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
1979
142. According to the OECD, the annual rate of growth of United Kingdom’s economy between 1960 and 1973 averaged
(a) 2.34%
(b) 2.9%
(c) 2.87%
(d) 5.9%
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
2.9%
143. During August 2008, International Monetary Fund warned that the United Kingdom economic outlook had worsened due to a twin shock. What were the twin shocks?
(a) Financial turmoil and rising commodity prices
(b) Financial turmoil and decreasing commodity prices
(c) Increasing exports and decreasing imports
(d) Low industrial growth and increasing imports
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
Financial turmoil and rising commodity prices
144. A report of Office of National Statistics revealed that between 2005 and 2011, the UK dropped from 5th place to 12th place in terms of
(a) imports on an international scale
(b) exports on an international scale
(c) household income on an international scale
(d) agricultrual productivity
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
household income on an international scale
145. According to a report by Moody’s, Britain’s debt to – GDP ratio is expected to reach _____ at the end of 2013.
(a) 80 per cent
(b) 90 per cent
(c) 87.3 per cent
(d) 93 per cent
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
93 per cent
146. In 2007, the United Kingdom had the world’s third largest current account deficit due mainly to large deficit in
(a) high inflation
(b) manufactured goods
(c) agricultural produces
(d) exports
(e) imports
Ans: (b)
manufactured goods
Directions:
In the following questions, choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Widen
(b) Narrow
(c) Scatter
(d) Brittle
Ans: (a)
Widen Broaden (Verb) : to affect or make something affect more people or things; widen.
148. ON A PAR
(a) Of same value
(b) Up to a scratch
(c) Equal to
(d) In contrast
(e) On the contrary
Ans: (a)
Of same value On a par with somebody/ something : as good, bad, important as somebody; of same value
Directions:
In the following questions, choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
149. VOLATILE
(a) Unstable
(b) Stable
(c) Sincere
(d) Voracious
(e) Buxom
Ans: (b)
Stable Volatile (Adj.) : changing easily, likely to change suddenly; unstable.
150. REVEAL
(a) Concentrate
(b) Bring out
(c) Concede
(d) Conceal
(e) Confer
Ans: (d)
Conceal Conceal (V.) : to hide something. Reveal (V.) : disclose; to make something known to somebody; conceal
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
As unemployment has risen throughout the world, governments have become more focused on protecting their own industries than on promoting international commerce.
The U. S., though typically an enthusiastic supporter of open markets, in duded “buy American” clauses in its stimulus package and propped up its failing auto industry with handouts.
But according to the Asian Development Bank
, in the part of the world that was hit hardest by the trade crash-Asia, the number of Free – Trade Agreements
(FTAs) signed by Asian countries has grown from just three in 2000 to 56 by the end of August 2009. Nineteen of those FTAs are among 16 Asian economies, a trend that could help the region become a powerful trading bloc.
The drive to lower trade barriers has taken on fresh urgency amid the recession. As Asian manufacturing networks become more intertwined — and as Asian consumers become wealthier — regional commerce is becoming critical to future economic expansion. Intraregional trade last year made up 57% of total Asian trade, up from 37% in 1980. In the past Asia produced for America and Europe, now Asia is producing for Asia.
Of course, Asia is still dependent on sales to the West. But FTAs could reduce the region’s exposure to the United States by giving Asian companies preferential treatment in selling to Asian companies and consumers.
These benefits could come with downsides, however.
According to experts, FTAs create a “non-level playing field with advantages for Asian countries”. If the most dynamically growing part of the global economy gives the U. S. restricted access it will impact global balance.
Companies in countries like the United States left out of the trade pacts could face disadvantages when trying to tap fast – growing Asian markets. This, in turn, could have a negative impact on efforts to rebalance excessive debt in the U. S. and excessive savings in Asia. Still, the benefits of greater regional integration could prove powerful enough to overcome the roadblocks. In Asia, the only thing everyone agrees upon is business. If it does, the world economy may never be the same.
151. What do the Asian Development Bank statistics indicate?
(a) The financial crisis impacted the West far more than it did Asia
(b) Asian economies are financially more sound than those of the developed world
(c) Asian countries have aligned themselves on lines similar to the European Union
(d) Western countries are sceptical about trading with developing countries
(e) Asian countries have been actively opening their markets to one another
Ans: (e)
Asian countries have been actively opening their markets to one another
152. What has given rise to the large number of trade agreements between Asian countries?
(a) Angry reaction among Asian countries owing to America’s protectionist policy
(b) The need to insulate Asian economies from overexposure to the American economy
(c) The aim of empowering the poorer Asian economies and bring them on par with Western economies
(d) The desire to achieve conditions conducive to global consensus on trade regulations and tariffs
(e) Widespread panic in Europe and Asia as Asian economies are yet to recover from the recession
Ans: (d)
The desire to achieve conditions conducive to global consensus on trade regulations and tariffs
153. Which of the following is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage?
(A) Political and economic rivalries between Asian countries are non-existent today.
(B) Asian countries hold America responsible for the recession and have imposed economic sanctions against the U. S.
(C) America has adopted a protectionist strategy after the recession.
(a) Only (a) and (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (b) and (a)
(d) Only (C)
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Only (b) and (a)
154. Which of the following describes expert predictions about trade pacts between Asian countries?
(a) Tariffs will be lowered and bureaucratic regulations will become transparent
(b) These will be beneficial and are likely to give rise to a common Asian currency
(c) Widening of differences between participant and non-participant countries will hamper global stability
(d) Regional conflicts will increase as competition and inequities between Asian nations will intensify.
(e) They are likely to be short-lived as it will be difficult to get participating nations to arrive at a consensus
Ans: (c)
Widening of differences between participant and non-participant countries will hamper global stability
155. Which of the following has/have not been (an) impact
(s) of the recession?
(A) Various trade agreements signed between developed and Asian countries have not been honoured.
(B) The U. S. government has restructured the automobile industry.
(C) Regional conflicts in Asia have substantially reduced.
(a) Only (b)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (b) and (a)
(d) All (b), (a) and (C)
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
All (b), (a) and (C)
156. According to the author what danger does creating an Asian trading bloc pose?
(a) American consumers have ceased their demand for Asian goods
(b) Political instability in Asia will rise as some countries are wealthier than others
(c) Unemployment in Asian countries will rise as many plants will be forced to close down
(d) It will alter the balance of power in the World with small Asian countries becoming most dominant
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
It will alter the balance of power in the World with small Asian countries becoming most dominant
157. What is the author trying to convey through the phrase “In the past Asia produced for America and Europe, now Asia is producing for Asia”?
(a) Asian countries do not support free trade and continue to trade among themselves despite the recession
(b) The number of wealthy consumers in Asia outnumber those in America and Europe together
(c) Goods manufactured in Asian countries often fail to meet the standards set by developed countries
(d) Asian countries no longer export to Western markets alone and now cater to Asian markets as well
(e) Interregional trade barriers between Europe and Asia have weakened considerably.
Ans: (d)
Asian countries no longer export to Western markets alone and now cater to Asian markets as well
158. Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word “CRITICAL” as used in the passage?
(a) Complimentary
(b) Unimportant
(c) Approval
(d) Sale
Ans: (b)
The word Critical (Adj.) as used in the passage means : extremely important because a future situation will be affected by it; crucial; serious Therefore, the words critical and unimportant are antonymous.
159. Which of the following is most similar in meaning to the word “FRESH” as used in the passage?
(a) Renewed
(c) Original
(d) Healthy
(e) Modern
Ans: (e)
The word Fresh (Adj.) means : new; made or experienced recently Therefore, the words fresh and modern are synonymous.
160. Which of the following can be said about the American economy in the context of the passage?
(A)Most American companies have opted to withdraw from Asia.
(B) America’s stand on free trade has altered because of the recession.
(C) The American economy is far too dependent on Asia for trade.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (C)
(d) All (b), (a) and (C)
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
Only (a)
Directions:
Read the following interview and answer the given questions based on. Some words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(Indian Overseas Bank PO Online Exam. 01.09.2013)
A pioneering new book, Gender and Green Governance, explores a central question: If women had adequate representation in forestry institutions, would it make a difference to them, their communities, and forests as a national resource? Interview with the author.
Why has access to forests been such a conflictridden issue?
This is not surprising. Forests constitute not just community and national wealth, but global wealth. But for millions, forests are also critical for livelihoods and their daily lives.
Your first book, Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes
(1986), was about forests. Is there an evolution of argument here?
Yes indeed : In Cold Hearts and Barren Slopes, I had argued that social forestry, with its top-down implementation and focus on commercial species, was neither ‘social’ nor forestry’, and would protect neither forests nor village livelihoods. The answer, I argued, lay in allowing forests communities to manage local forests. Finally, in 1990, India launched the joint forest management programme and Nepal also started community forestry. So I decided to see for myself how community forestry was actually doing.
Between 1995 and 1999, I travelled extensively across India and Nepal and found paradox : Forests were indeed becoming greener but women’s problem of firewood shortages persisted and in many cases had become more acute. Also, despite their high stakes in forests, women continued to be largely excluded from forest management.
I coined the term “participatory exclusions” to describe this. However, the current book is less about women’s exclusion. I ask : What if women were present in forest governance? What difference would that make?
But has this question not been raised before?
Economists researching environmental collective action have paid little attention to gender. Scholars from other disciplines focussing on gender and governance have been concerned mainly with women’s near absence from governance institutions. The presumption is that once women are present all good things will follow. But can we assume this? No. Rural women’s relationship with forests is complex.
On the one hand, their everyday dependence on forests for firewood, fodder, etc, creates a strong stake in conservation. On the other, the same dependence can compel them to extract heavily from forests. As one landless woman told me : ‘Of course, it hurts me to cut a green branch but what do I do if my children are hungry? Taking an agnostic position, I decided to test varied propositions, controlling for other factors.
What did you find?
First, women’s greater presence enhances their effective voice in decision-making. And there is a critical mass effect : If forests management groups have per cent female members in their executive committees it significantly increases the likelihood of women attending meetings, speaking up and holding office. However, the inclusion of landless women makes a particular difference. When present in sufficient numbers they are more likely to attend meetings and voice their concerns than landed women. So what matters is not just including more women, but more poor women.
Second, and unexpectedly, groups with more women typically make stricter forest use rules. Why is this the case? Mainly because they receive poorer forests from the forest department. To regenerate these they have to sacrifice their immediate needs. Women from households with some land have some fallback. But remarkably even in groups with more landless women, although extraction is higher, they still balance self-interest with conservation goals, when placed in decision-making positions.
Third, groups with more women outperform other groups in improving forest conditions, despite getting poorer forests. Involving women substantially improves protection and conflict resolution, helps the use of their knowledge of local biodiversity, and raises children’s awareness about conservation.
161. What was author’s view on ‘Social Forestry Scheme’?
(a) Beneficial for villagers
(b) A great success
(c) Neither good nor bad
(d) Should have been implemented as ‘top-down’
(e) None of these
Ans: (e)
None of these
162. Which of the following is one of the reasons of forests being a conflict-ridden issue?
(a) There is less awareness about global warming
(b) Some countries have larger forest cover
(c) High dependence of many on forests
(d) Less representation of women
(e) Less representation of local women
Ans: (c)
High dependence of many on forests
163. The author is advocating inclusion of
(a) More landed women
(b) More landless women
(c) More women irrespective of their financial status
(d) Local people
(e) Younger women in the age group of years
Ans: (b)
More landless women
164. Which of the following best describes “participatory exclusion”, as used in the interview?
(a) Overdependence
(b) Outside support
(c) Benefitting without self interest
(d) Contributing with profits
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Benefi tting wi thout sel f interest
165. In the second question, the interviewer asked -’Is there an evolution of argument here?’ Which of the following best describes that?
(a) From local groups to local groups with more women
(b) From Barren to Greener slopes
(c) A fine balance between conservation and commercial forestry
(d) Top-down approach to Community forestry
(e) Participatory exclusion to Greener slopes
Ans: (c)
A fine balance between conservation and commercial forestry
166. Why does author say, ‘Rural women’s relationship with forests is complex’?
(a) If they protect forests, their livelihood is severely affected
(b) Dependence forces them to extract and also have concern for conservation
(c) Poor women have been excluded from forest management
(d) They cannot be asked to restore forests which are critical for them
(e) Greener forests do not meet the requirement of firewood
Ans: (b)
Dependence forces them to extract and also have concern for conservation
167. Landless women, when in decision making role
(a) improve their own financial status
(b) extract much more from forest
(c) do not care for forest
(d) are able to meet conservation objectives as well as their own interest
(e) fulfill their own interest at the cost of conservation goals
Ans: (d)
are able to meet conservation Obj.ives as well as their own interest
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold.
168. CONTROLLING
(a) increasing
(b) holding in check
(c) decreasing
(d) passing
(e) ignoring
Ans: (b)
control (Verb) : to have power over a person etc; to limit something; to manage to make yourself remain calm; to stop something from getting worst or spreading); holding in check
(a) position
(b) similarity
(c) anomaly
(d) difference
(e) excuse
Ans: (c)
paradox (Noun) : a person, thing or situation that has two opposite features and therefore seems strange; a statement containing two opposi te ideas; anomaly
170. ACUTE
(a) severe
(b) accurate
(c) dull
(d) focused
(e) refined
Ans: (a)
acute (Adj.) : very serious or severe.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(BOB Manipal School of Banking Officer Online Exam, 14.08.2014)
A couple of weeks ago I was asked what I thought the future of technology in education was. It is a really interesting question and one that I am required to think about all the time. By its very nature, technology changes at a fast pace and making it accessible to pupils, teachers and other stakeholders is an ongoing challenge.
So what is the future? Is it the iPad?
No, I don’t think it is. For me, the future is not about one specific device. Don’t get me wrong, I love the iPad.
In fact, I have just finished a trial to see if using them really does support teaching and learning — and they have proved effective. I’ve written about the trial in more detail on my blog. iPads and other mobile technology are the ‘now’. Although, they will play a part in the future, some years ago the iPad didn’t even exist. We don’t know what will be the current technology in other four years.
Perhaps it will be wearable devices such as Google Glass, although I suspect that tablets will still be used in education.
The future is about access, anywhere learning and collaboration, both locally and globally. Teaching and learning is going to be social. Schools of the future could have a traditional cohort of students, as well as online only students who live across the country or even the world. Things are already starting to move this way with the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs).
For me, the future of technology in education is the cloud.
Technology can often be a barrier to teaching and learning. I think the cloud will go a long way to removing this barrier. Why? By removing the number of things that can go wrong.
Schools, will only need one major thing to be prepared for the future. They will not need software installed, servers or local file storage. Schools will need a fast robust internet connection. Infrastructure is paramount to the the future of technology in education.
We don’t know what the new ‘in’ device will be in the future. What we do know, is that it will need the cloud.
Schools and other educational institutions will need to future proof their infrastructure the best they can.
This should be happening now. If you want to start to use mobile technology in your school, whether it is an iPad program or a bring your own device (BYOD) program your connectivity must be fast and reliable. Student and teacher buy in, is so important. If the network is slow and things are not working properly students and teachers will not want to use the devices. Make sure the infrastructure is there before the devices.
Teachers can use the cloud to set, collect and grade work online. Students will have instant access to grades, comments and work via a computer, smartphone or tablet.
Many schools are already doing this. Plus, services such as the educational social network Edmodo offer this for free.
This is where devices come in. All devices not matter which ones we will use in the future will need to access the cloud. Each student will have their own. Either a device specified by the school or one they have chosen to bring in themselves.
School classrooms are going to change. Thanks to the cloud and mobile devices, technology will be integrated into every part of school. In fact, it won’t just be the classrooms that will change. Games fields, gyms and school trips will all change. Whether offsite or on site the school, teachers, students and support staff will all be connected. In my ideal world, all classrooms will be paperless.
With the cloud, the world will be our classroom. E– learning will change teaching and learning. Students can learn from anywhere and teachers can teach from anywhere.
The cloud can also encourage independent learning.
Teachers could adopt a flipped classroom approach more often. Students will take ownership of their own learning. Teachers can put resources for students online for students to use. These could be videos, documents, audio podcasts or interactive images. All of these resources can be accessed via a student’s computer, smartphone or tablet. As long as they have an internet connection either via Wifi, 3G or 4G they are good to go.
Rather than being ‘taught’ students can learn independently and in their own way. There is also a massive amount of resources online that students can find and use themselves, without the help of the teacher.
This of course means the role of the teacher will change.
Shared applications and documents on the cloud, such as Google Apps will allow for more social lessons.
How often do students get an opportunity to collaborate productively using technology in the classroom? It isn’t always easy. However, students working on documents together using Google Apps are easy. They could be in the same room or in different countries. These are all good skills for students to have. Of course, these collaborative tools are also very useful for teachers. I for one have worked on several projects where these tools have let me work with people across the country. Some of which I have never met.
What we must remember is that when schools adopt new technology and services, they must be evaluated.
This way, as a school, you know if they are successful and what improvements are needed. Staff will also need training, you can’t expect staff to use new technology if they are not confident users or creators. Any initiative is doomed to failure without well trained, confident staff who can see how technology can support and benefit teaching and learning.
Plenty of schools have already embraced this, but there’s still a way to go to ensure all schools are ready for the future of technology. It is time for all schools to embrace the cloud.
171. What do you think should be the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE of the given passage?
(a) Technology–Barrier to Education
(b) Future of Technology in Education
(c) Massive Open Online Courses
(d) Hypothetical Approach to Education
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Future of Technology in Education
172. Which of the following statements is NOT CORRECT as per the context of the given article?
(a) The writer sees iPad as the only future in education.
(b) According to the writer of this article, future of technology in education is cloud.
(c) Schools will need a fast robust internet connection for getting advantage of technology.
(d) The writer opines that iPads and other mobile technology are the ‘now’ and play a part in the future.
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
The writer sees iPad as the only future in education
173. The writer advocates about the use of cloud. Which of the following statement (s) is/are TRUE in this regard?
(A) Teachers can use the cloud to set, collect and grade work online.
(B) Students will have instant access to grades, comments and work via computer etc.
(C) Services such as the educational social network Edmodo offer facilities to students for free.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Both (a) and (C)
(d) All three (b), (a) and (C)
(e) Both (b) and (a)
Ans: (d)
All three (b), (a) and (C)
174. The writer opines that with the use of cloud, schoolrooms will change and many facilities will be available.
Which of the following changes will be perceived in education?
(a) Students can learn from anywhere and teachers can teach from anywhere.
(b) With the cloud, the world will be our classroom.
(c) Students will take ownership of their own learning.
(d) Teachers can put resources for students online to use
(e) All the above
Ans: (e)
All the above
175. Which of the following statement(s) is/are NOT TRUE in the context of the given passage?
(A) Shared applications and documents on the cloud, such as Google Apps will allow for more social lessons.
(B) Teachers could adopt a flipped classroom approach more often after cloud.
I(B) A few schools have already embraced new cloud technology.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (C)
(d) Both (b) and (C)
(e) None
Ans: (c)
Only (C)
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word /group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
176. ROBUST
(a) Roguish
(b) Sturdy
(c) Roasting
(d) Rusting
(e) Dazed
Ans: (b)
Sturdy Robust (Adj.) : strong and healthy ; able to survive being used a lot and likely to break ; sturdy ; vigorous.
177. EMERGENCE
(a) Empire
(b) Transpiration
(c) Emplacement
(d) Empathy
(e) Eminence
Ans: (b)
Transpiration Emergence (N.) : coming out of a confined thing ; becoming known ; transpiration.
178. COLLABORATE
(a) Collect
(b) Work together
(c) Collide
(d) Corroborate
(e) Colonize
Ans: (b)
Work together Collaborate (Verb) : to work together with somebody in order to achieve something.
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
179. PARAMOUNT
(a) Less important
(b) Very important
(c) Morally high
(d) Paranoid
(e) Parched
Ans: (a)
Less important Paramount (Adj.) : more important than anything else ; having the highest position. Paranoid (Adj.) : afraid/suspicious of other people and believing that they are trying to harm you Parched (Adj.) : very dry ; very thirsty
180. EMBRACE
(a) Accept
(b) Hug
(c) Reject
(d) Include
(e) Embroil
Ans: (c)
Reject Reject (Verb) : to refuse to accept or consider. Embrace (Verb) : to accept an idea, a proposal etc; to include something. Embroil (V.) : to involve somebody/ yourself in an argument/ a difficult situation
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The wisdom of learning from failure is incontrovertible.
Yet organisations that do it well are extraordinarily rare. This gap is not due to a lack of commitment to learning. Managers in the vast majority of enterprises that I have studied over the past 20 years—pharmaceutical, financial services, product design, telecommunications, and construction companies; hospitals; and NASA’s space shuttle program, among others—genuinely wanted to help their organisations learn from failures to improve future performance. In some cases they and their teams had devoted many hours to after-action reviews, postmortems, and the like. But time after time I saw that these painstaking efforts led to no real change.
The reason: Those managers were thinking about failure the wrong way.
Most executives I’ve talked to believe that failure is bad (of course!). They also believe that learning from it is pretty straightforward: Ask people to reflect on what they did wrong and exhort them to avoid similar mistakes in the future—or, better yet, assign a team to review and write a report on what happened and then distribute it throughout the organisation.
These widely held beliefs are misguided. First, failure is not always bad. In organisational life it is sometimes bad, sometimes inevitable, and sometimes even good. Second, learning from organisational failures is anything but straightforward. The attitudes and activities required to effectively detect and analyze failures are in short supply in most companies, and the need for context- specific learning strategies is underappreciated. Organisations need new and better ways to go beyond lessons that are superficial (“Procedures weren’t followed”) or self-serving (“The market just wasn’t ready for our great new product”). That means jettisoning old cultural beliefs and stereotypical notions of success and embracing failure’s lessons. Leaders can begin by understanding how the blame game gets in the way.
The Blame Game
Failure and fault are virtually inseparable in most households, organisations, and cultures. Every child learns at some point that admitting failure means taking the blame. That is why so few organisations have shifted to a culture of psychological safety in which the rewards of learning from failure can be fully realised.
Executives I’ve interviewed in organisations as different as hospitals and investment banks admit to being torn: How can they respond constructively to failures without giving rise to an anything-goes attitude? If people aren’t blamed for failures, what will ensure that they try as hard as possible to do their best work?
This concern is based on a false dichotomy. In actuality, a culture that makes it safe to admit and report on failure can—and in some organisational contexts must—coexist with high standards for performance. To understand why, look at the exhibit “A Spectrum of Reasons for Failure,” which lists causes ranging from deliberate deviation to thoughtful experimentation.
Which of these causes involve blameworthy actions?
Deliberate deviance, first on the list, obviously warrants blame. But inattention might not. If it results from a lack of effort, perhaps it’s blameworthy. But if it results from fatigue near the end of an overly long shift, the manager who assigned the shift is more at fault than the employee.
As we go down the list, it gets more and more difficult to find blameworthy acts. In fact, a failure resulting from thoughtful experimentation that generates valuable information may actually be praiseworthy.
When I ask executives to consider this spectrum and then to estimate how many of the failures in their organisations are truly blameworthy, their answers are usually in single digits—perhaps 2% to 5%. But when I ask how many are treated as blameworthy, they say (after a pause or a laugh) 70% to 90%. The unfortunate consequence is that many failures go unreported and their lessons are lost.
A sophisticated understanding of failure’s causes and contexts will help to avoid the blame game and institute an effective strategy for learning from failure. Although an infinite number of things can go wrong in organisations, mistakes fall into three broad categories: preventable, complexity-related, and intelligent.
181. Which of the following statement (s) is/are TRUE in the context of the given passage?
(A) Most executives believe that failure is bad and learning from it is pretty straightforward.
(B) The wisdom of learning from failure is disputable.
(C) Deliberate deviance, first on the list of the exhibit, “A Spectrum of Reasons for Failure” obviously warrants blame.
(a) Both (b) and (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Both (a) and (C)
(d) Both (b) and (a)
(e) All three (b), (a) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Both (b) and (C)
182. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE in the context of the given passage?
(a) Leaders can begin by understanding how the blame game gets in the way.
(b) Organistions need new and better ways to go beyond lessons that are superficial or self serving.
(c) The writer of this article has studied managers in the vast majority of enterprises over the past 30 years.
(d) Failure and fault are truly inseparable in most households, organisations and cultures.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
The writer of this article has studied managers in the vast majority of enterprises over the past 30 years.
183. As opined by the writer of this article, although an infinite number of things can go wrong in organisations, mistakes fall into three broad categories. What are these categories?
(a) Superficial, preventable and complex
(b) Forgetable, preventable and intelligent
(c) Precaution related, complexity related and intelligent
(d) Preventive, complexity-related and intelligent
(e) None of these
Ans: (d)
Preventive, complexity- related and intelligent
184. Why have so few organisations shifted to a culture of psychological safety in which the rewards of learning from failure can be fully realised?
(a) Because failure and fault are virtually inseparable in most cultures and every child learns at some point that admitting failure means taking the blame.
(b) Because every child does not learn at some point that admitting failure means taking the blame.
(c) Because culture is an important aspect of our life.
(d) It is easy for executives to blame others and save their heads.
(e) None of these
Ans: (a)
Because failure and fault are virtually inseperable in most cultures and every child learns at some point that admitting failure means taking the blame.
185. What in your opinion should be the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE of this passage?
(a) Failures discourage an executive
(b) Learning from Failures
(c) Success is nothing but working hard
(d) The Blame game
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Learning from Failures
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word / group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
186. EXHORT
(a) Discourage
(b) Urge
(c) Exclaim
(d) Exhume
(e) Expect
Ans: (b)
Urge Exhort (V.) : to try hard to persuade somebody to do something : urge.
187. JETTISON
(b) Regard
(c) Forgive
(d) Collect
(e) Jumble
Ans: (a)
Discard Jettison (V.) : to throw something to make lighter ; to get rid of ; discard.
188. DICHOTOMY
(a) Diagram
(b) Separation
(c) Harmony
(d) Uniformity
(e) Diaeresis
Ans: (b)
Separation Dichotomy (N.) : the separation that exists between two groups that are completely opposite to each other. Diaeresis (N.) : the mark placed over a vowel to show that it is pronounced seperately
Directions:
Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
189. INCONTROVERTIBLE
(a) Disputable
(b) Indisputable
(c) Separable
(d) Convertible
(e) Dynamic
Ans: (a)
Disputable Disputable : that can or should be questioned or argued about. Its antonym is disputable Incontrovertible (Adj.) : that is true and cannot be disagreed or denied ; in/disputable.
190. OVERLY
(a) Abundantly
(b) Excessively
(c) Overriding
(d) Meagrely
(e) Substantially
Ans: (d)
Meagrely Meagrely (Adv.) : small in quantity Overly (Adv.) : too very ; excessively
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The past quarter of a century has seen several bursts of selling by the world’s governments, mostly but not always in benign market conditions. Those in the OECD, a rich-country club, divested plenty of stuff in the 20 years before the global financial crisis. The first privatisation wave, which built up from the mid-1980s and peaked in 2000, was largely European. The drive to cut state intervention under Margaret Thatcher in Britain soon spread to the continent. The movement gathered pace after 1991, when eastern Europe put thousands of rusting state-owned enterprises (SOEs) on the block. A second wave came in the mid-2000s, as European economies sought to cash in on buoyant markets.
But activity in OECD countries slowed sharply as the financial crisis began. In fact, it reversed. Bail-outs of failing banks and companies have contributed to a dramatic increase in government purchases of corporate equity during the past five years. A more lasting feature is the expansion of the state capitalism practised by China and other emerging economic powers. Governments have actually bought more equity than they have sold in most years since 2007, though sales far exceeded purchases in 2013.
Today privatisation is once again “alive and well”, says William Megginson of the Michael Price College of Business at the University of Oklahoma. According to a global tally he recently completed, 2012 was the thirdbest year ever, and preliminary evidence suggests that 2013 may have been better. However, the geography of sell-offs has changed, with emerging markets now to the fore. China, for instance, has been selling minority stakes in banking, energy, engineering and broadcasting; Brazil is selling airports to help finance a $20 billion investment programme. Eleven of the 20 largest IPOs between 2005 and 2013 were sales of minority stakes by SOEs, mostly in developing countries. By contrast, state-owned assets are now “the forgotten side of the balance-sheet” in many advanced economies, says Dag Detter, managing partner of Whetstone Solutions, an adviser to governments on asset restructuring. They shouldn’t be. Governments of OECD countries still oversee vast piles of assets, from banks and utilities to buildings, land and the riches beneath (see table). Selling some of these holdings could work wonders: reduce debt, finance infrastructure, boost economic efficiency. But governments often barely grasp the value locked up in them. The picture is clearest for companies or companylike entities held by central governments. According to data compiled by the OECD and published on its website, its 34 member countries had 2,111 fully or majority- owned SOEs, with 5.9m employees, at the end of 2012. Their combined value (allowing for some but not all pension- fund liabilities) is estimated at$2.2 trillion, roughly the same size as the global hedge-fund industry. Most are in network industries such as telecoms, electricity and transport. In addition, many countries have large minority stakes in listed firms. Those in which they hold a stake of between 10% and 50% have a combined market value of $890 billion and employ 2.9m people. The data are far from perfect. The quality of reporting varies widely, as do definitions of what counts as a state-owned company: most include only central-government holdings. If all assets held at sub-national level, such as local water companies, were included, the total value could be more than$4 trillion, reckons Hans Christiansen, an OECD economist.
Moreover, his team has had to extrapolate because some OECD members, including America and Japan, provide patchy data. America is apparently so queasy about discussions of public ownership of commercial assets that the Treasury takes no part in the OECD’s working group on the issue, even though it has vast holdings, from Amtrak and the 520,000-employee Postal Service to power generators and airports. The club’s efforts to calculate the value that SOEs add to, or subtract from, economies were abandoned after several countries, including America, refused to co-operate.
Privatisation has begun picking up again recently in the OECD for a variety of reasons. Britain’s Conservative- led coalition is focused on (some would say obsessed with) reducing the public debt-to-GDP ratio. Having recently sold the Royal Mail through a public offering, it is hoping to offload other assets, including its stake in URENCO, a uranium enricher, and its student-loan portfolio.
From January 8th, under a new Treasury scheme, members of the public and businesses will be allowed to buy government land and buildings on the open market.
A website will shortly be set up to help potential buyers see which bits of the government’s £337 billion-worth of holdings ($527 billion at today’s rate, accounting for 40% of developable sites round Britain) might be surplus. The government, said the chief treasury secretary, Danny Alexander, “should not act as some kind of compulsive hoarder”. Japan has different reasons to revive sell-offs, such as to finance reconstruction after its devastating earthquake and tsunami in 2011. Eyes are once again turning to Japan Post, a giant postal-to-financial-services conglomerate whose oft-postponed partial sale could at last happen in 2015 and raise {Yen} 4 trillion ($40 billion) or more. Australia wants to sell financial, postal and aviation assets to offset the fall in revenues caused by the commodities slowdown.
In almost all the countries of Europe, privatisation is likely “to surprise on the upside” as long as markets continue to mend, reckons Mr Megginson. Mr Christiansen expects to see three main areas of activity in coming years. First will be the resumption of partial sell-offs in industries such as telecoms, transport and utilities. Many residual stakes in partly privatised firms could be sold down further. France, for instance, still has hefty stakes in GDF SUEZ, Renault, Thales and Orange. The government of François Hollande may be ideologically opposed to privatisation, but it is hoping to reduce industrial stakes to raise funds for livelier sectors, such as broadband and health.
The second area of growth should be in eastern Europe, where hundreds of large firms, including manufacturers, remain in state hands. Poland will sell down its stakes in listed firms to make up for an expected reduction in EU structural funds. And the third area is the reprivatisation of financial institutions rescued during the crisis. This process is under way: the largest privatisation in 2012 was the $18 billion offering of America’s residual stake in AIG, an insurance company. 191. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE in the context of the given passage? (a) Governments have actually bought more equity than they have sold in most years since 2007, though sales far exceeded purchases in 2013. (b) The first privatisation way which built up from the mid-1980s was largely European. (c) Today privatisation is once again ‘alive and well’, says Dag Detter. (d) Brazil is selling airports to help finance a$ 20 billion investment programme.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Today privatisation is once again ‘alive and well’ ,says Dag Detter
192. Which of the following statement (s) is/are TRUE in regard to the data compiled by the OECD?
(A) The 34 member countries of OECD had 2111 fully or majority owned state-owned enterprises
(SOEs)
(B) In these SOEs there were 5.9 million employees at the end of 2012.
(C) The combined value of these SOEs is estimated at $2.2 trillion, roughly the same size as the global hedge-fund industry. (a) Both (a) and (C) (b) Only (a) (c) Both (b) and (a) (d) Both (b) and (C) (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) 193. Privatisation has begun picking up again recently in the OECD for a variety of reasons. Which of the following statements does not support the above mentioned view? (a) Britain is to off-load other assets such as its stake in URENCO, uranium enricher and its studentloan portfolio. (b) Britain’s conservative-led coalition is focused on reducing the public debt to GDP ratio. (c) A website will shortly be set to help potential buyers. (d) Under a new Treasury scheme, members of the public and businesses will be allowed to buy government land and buildings on the open market. (e) None of these. Ans: (e) None of these 194. Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE in the context of the given article? (a) China has been selling minority stakes in banking, energy, engineering and broadcasting. (b) Japan has to revive sell-offs such as to finance reconstruction after tsunami in 2011. (c) A second-wave of privatisation came in the mid-2000s in OECD, as European economies sought to cash on buoyant markets. (d) Australia is to sell financial postal and aviation assets to off set the fall in revenues caused by the commodities slow down (e) All are correct. Ans: (e) All are correct 195. What should be the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE of the passage? (a) Gloomy Face of World Economy (b) Dawn of Re-privatisation in OECD (c) Growing Economy of China (d) Global Economic slowdown (e) None of these Ans: (b) Dawn of Re-privatisation in OECD. 196. In almost all the countries of Europe, privatisation is to surprise. As expected by Mr. Christiansen, Which of the following is/are to be the main areas of activity? (A) Resumption of partial sell-offs in industries such as telecoms, transport and utilities. (B) The other area of growth should be in eastern Europe (C) The other area is the reprivatisation of financial institutions rescued during the crisis. (a) Both (a) and (C) (b) Both (b) and (a) (c) Only (b) (d) Only (C) (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word /group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 197. BUOYANT (a) Floating (b) Increasing (c) Sinking (d) Buzzing (e) Erratic Ans: (b) Increasing Buoyant (Adj.) : tending to increase or stay at a high level, usually showing financial success 198. REVIVE (a) Make (b) Review (c) Start again (d) Revile (e) Rewind Ans: (c) Start againg Revive (Verb) : make something start again Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 199. BENIGN (a) Gentle (b) Kind (c) Malevolent (d) Makeover (e) Bequeathed Ans: (c) Malevolent Malevolent (Adj.) : wicked Benign (Adj.) : kind and gentle ; not hurting anybody Bequeathed (V.) : to say in a will that you want somebody to have your property, money, etc. after you die 200. OFFLOAD (a) Online (b) Get rid of (c) Offering (d) Conserve (e) Deserve Ans: (d) Concerve Offload (Verb) : to get rid of something Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. (SIDBI Bank Officer Exam, 03.09.2014) No leader is perfect. The best ones don’t try to be. They concentrate on honing their strengths and find others who can make up for their limitations. We expect lot of our leaders will be Top executives, the thinking goes, should have the intellectual capacity to make sense of unfathomably complex issues, the imaginative powers to paint a vision of the future that generates everyone’s enthusiasm, the operational know-how to translate strategy into concrete plans, and the interpersonal skills to foster commitment to undertakings that could cost people’s jobs should they fail. Unfortunately, no single person can possibly live up to those standards. It’s time to end the myth of the complete leader: the flawless person at the top who’s got it all figured out. In fact, the sooner leaders stop trying to be all things to all people, the better off their organisations will be. In today’s world, the executive’s job is no longer to command and control but to cultivate and coordinate the actions of others at all levels of the organisation. Only when leaders come to see themselves as incomplete–as having both strengths and weaknesses – – will they be able to make up for their missing skills by relying on others. Corporations have been becoming less hierarchical and more collaborative for decades, of course, as globalisation and the growing importance of knowledge work have required that responsibility and initiative be distributed more widely. Moreover, it is now possible for large groups of people to coordinate their actions, not just by bringing lots of information to a few centralized places but also by bringing lots of information to lots of places through ever-growing networks within and beyond the firm. The sheer complexity and ambiguity of problems is humbling. More and more decisions are made in the context of global markets and rapidly – sometimes radically – changing financial, social, political, technological and environmental forces. Stakeholders such as activities, regulators, and employees all have claims on organisation. No one person could possibly stay on top of everything. But the myth of the complete leader (and the attendant fear of appearing incompetent) makes many executives try to do just that, exhausting themselves and damaging their organisations in the process .The incomplete leader, by contrast, knows when to let go: when to let those who know the local market do the advertising plan or when to let the engineering team run with its idea of what the customer needs. The incomplete leader also knows that leadership exists throughout the organisational hierarchy – whenever expertise, vision new ideas, and commitment are found. We’ve worked with hundreds of people who have struggled under the weight of the myth of the complete leader. Over the past six years, our work at the MIT leadership Centre has included studying leadership in many organisations and teaching the topic to senior executives, middle managers, and MBA students .In our practice – based programs, we have analyzed numerous accounts of organisational change and watched leaders struggle to meld top down strategic initiatives with vibrant ideas from the rest of the organisation. All this work has led us to develop a model distributed leadership. This frame work which synthesizes our own research with the ideas from other leadership scholars, views leadership as a set of four capabilities sense making (understanding the context in which a company and its people operate), Relating (building relationships within and across organisations), visioning (creating a compelling picture of future),and inventing (developing new ways to achieve the vision). While some what simplified, these capabilities span the intellectual and interpersonal, the rational and intuitive, and the conceptual and creative capacities required in today’s business environment. Rarely, if ever, will someone be equally skilled in all four domains. Thus, incomplete leaders differ from incompetent leaders in that they understand what they’re good at and what they’re not and have good judgment about how they can work with others to build on their strengths and offset their limitations. Sometimes, leaders need to further develop the capabilities they are weakest in. The exhibits throughout this article provide some suggestions for when and how to do that. Other times, however, it’s more important for leaders to find and work with others to compensate for their weaknesses. Teams and organisations – not just individuals – can use this framework to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses and find ways to balance their skill sets. 201. As mentioned in the passage, a lot of qualities are expected from our leaders. Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE in this context? (a) Leaders should have operational know-how to translate strategy into concrete plans. (b) Leaders should have the intellectual capacity to make sense of complex issues. (c) Leaders should have the imaginative powers to paint a vision of the future. (d) Leaders should have interpersonal skills to foster commitment. (e) All are true Ans: (e) All are true 202. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE in the context of the given passage? (a) Corporations have been becoming more hierarchical and less collaborative for decades. (b) No leader is perfect. (c) In today’s world, the executive’s job is no longer to command and control. (d) The researchers worked at the MIT leadership centre over the past six years. (e) None of these Ans: (a) Corporations have been becoming more hierarchical and less collaborative for decades 203. What should be the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE of the given passage as you opine? (a) An incomplete leader (b) How to define a good leader (c) Challenges before a leader (d) Role of a chief executive (e) None of these Ans: (b) How to define a good leader 204. Some opinions have been made about an incomplete leader that serves the organisations affirmatively. Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE in this regard? (A) An incomplete leader knows when to let go; when to let those who know the local market do the advertising plan. (B) An incomplete leader knows when to let the engineering team run with its idea of what the customer needs. (C) An incomplete leader also knows that leadership exists throughout the organisational hierarchy. (a) Both (b) and (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Both (a) and (C) (d) Both (C) and (b) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All (b), (a) and (C) 205. The researchers with the idea from other leadership scholars view leadership as a set of four capabilities. Which of the following alternatives mentions them correctly? (a) Sense making; disciplining; visioning and inventing (b) Sense making, relating; visioning and inventing (c) Sense making, unrelating; visioning and inventing (d) Decision making; unrelating; visioning and inventing (e) None of these Ans: (b) Sense making, relating; visioning and inventing Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word / group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 206. MELD (a) Mend (b) Blend (c) Mellow (d) Menace (e) Mesh Ans: (b) Blend (b) Meld : to combine with something else; to make something combine with something else; blend. 207. UNFATHOMABLY (a) Incomprehensibly (b) Understandably (c) Unfortunately (d) Merely (e) Unfavourably Ans: (a) Incomprehensibly Incomprehensibly (Adv.) : in a way that is impossible to understand Unfathomably (Adv.) : too strange or difficult to be understood. 208. RELYING (a) Needed (b) Trusting (c) Remaining (d) Relieving (e) Relocating Ans: (b) Trusting Relying (V.) : needing or depending on something/ somebody; trusting or having faith. Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 209. HUMBLE (a) Defeat (b) Make weaker (c) Subside (d) Strengthen (e) Founder Ans: (d) Strengthen Humble (V.) : to defeat an opponent; to make somebody feel that they are not as good or important as they thought they were. 210. FOSTER (a) Promote (b) Encourage (c) Foul (d) Focus (e) Discourage Ans: (e) Discourage Foster (Verb) : to encourage some body; promote. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. In general, before the financial crisis of 2008, the financial sector the world over had been steadily liberalising. Limits on foreign ownership of banks and on the kinds of transactions they were able to engage in were being lifted. Rich countries were deregulating faster than others. Banks were given greater leeway on how much capital they should hold and how much risk they should take on. But banks the world over, did not maintain adequate capital cushions and balance sheets showed inflated profits. In 1999, America also repealed the Glass Steagall Act- a 1930s Depression era law separating investment and commercial banking-without bothering about the threat to the economy. ‘Restrictions are a sign of backwardness’- But the resulting crisis of 2008 put an end to this belief. Banking supervisors in many developing countries said that tight regulations saved them from getting into trouble. Under the old rules supervisors were simply referees trying to ensure that the game was played fairly. Now regulators have gone from saying ‘tell me that all your payment systems work to saying ‘show me how your payment systems work’. Regulators are now tentatively stepping over a long standing divide between enforcing basic rules and playing a part in business decisions. This shift is particularly marked in Britain which once championed ‘light touch regulation’. This pre-crisis behaviour is being criticised as surrender to banks or as a self servicing device for attracting financial activity to Britain. In truth it was neither. It was the simple belief that markets are better than governments at allocating services. In America, too, regulators were reluctant to suppress innovation because they felt that “the self interest of lending institutions will be enough to ensure they did not all leap from the same tall building.” In rich countries, enthusiasm for prescriptive supervision depends on the degree of harm suffered during the banking crisis or to the threat from the failing banks to bring down their governments with them. But it is not easy to stop banks from making bad decisions. In the past, regulators left it to the market to judge the health of the banks. But clever, well-paid analysts failed to see the crisis coming. Now central bankers are expected to do a better job. One problem is that the rules and the laws are written with the benefit of hindsight. The good ideas that may have prevented the last crisis however can make regulators dangerously overconfident about being able to predict and prevent the next one. Also, if regulators underwrite certain strategies that seem safe such as lending to small businesses, they may encourage banks to crowd into those lines of business. If enough banks pile into these markets, downturns in them can affect not just a few banks but the whole system. On the other hand prescriptive supervision can stifle financial innovation and squeeze all appetite for risk out of the banking system. In Japan, a banking crisis that started more than two decades ago still lingers on, in part because the country’s bankers have become gun shy and tend to buy government bonds rather than lend money or make foreign investments. Regulators are doing all they can to strike a balance and mitigate these risks. 211. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in MEANING to the word LAST given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Continue (b) Final (c) First (d) Recent (e) Subsequent Ans: (d) Recent Last (Adj.) : previous, latest, hindmost, most recent. 212. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Banks should go back to traditional banking and abandon riskier options. (b) Regulators are lazy and shirk their duty of protecting financial systems. (c) Banks in developed countries have destroyed developing economies. (d) Today the task of financial regulation is tricky. (e) Financial systems have been damaged beyond repair. Ans: (d) Today the task of financial regulation is tricky 213. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in MEANING to the word CROWD given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Flock (b) Multitude (c) Party (d) Crew (e) Not Ans: (a) Flock Crowd (V.) : to move in large numbers; flock. 214. Which of the following is/are the possible impact(s) of prescriptive supervision? (A) Governments are likely to collapse as people are opposed to such measures. (B) Many executives are likely to exploit the system. (C) These measures could unintentionally prolong a crisis. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (C) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) All (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (a) Ans: (b) Only (C) 215. What is the author’s view of central banks’ present efforts at regulation? (a) These are faulty as they encourage risky financial innovations. (b) These are unnecessary and harmful to banks. (c) To succeed these should be co-ordinated and uniform across countries. (d) The measures they prescribe have no loopholes. (e) They have done their best to effectively regulate. Ans: (b) These are unnecessary and harmful to banks 216. Which of the following can be said about ‘light touch regulation’ adopted by Britain? (a) It gave Britain’s financial institutions very little autonomy. (b) It forced banks to invest in government bonds. (c) It resulted in banks holding too much capital. (d) It encouraged financial activity in the country. (e) It stifled banks’ appetite for risk. Ans: (d) It encouraged financial activity in the country 217. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word LIMITS given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Rims (b) Caps (c) Frames (d) Frontiers (e) Skirts Ans: (b) Caps Limits (N.) : restrictions, caps; an upper limit on an amount of money that can be spent or borrowed. 218. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) Markets can easily regulate themselves. (b) The financial crisis of 2008 did not impact developing countries. (c) Developing economies should not allow foreign investment at present, (d) After the crisis, America’s central bank has imposed unnecessary regulations. (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (b) The financial crisis of 2008 did not impact developing countries 219. Why has the author cited the reference of repealing the Glass-Steagall Act? (a) To criticise the backward restrictions that rich countries imposed on developing countries. (b) To indicate that regulations were relaxed without appreciating the impact on the economy. (c) To show that the economy had not progressed much since the Depression. (d) To illustrate that only America could foresee the financial crisis. (e) To indicate the soundness of America’s financial system prior to depression. Ans: (b) To indicate that regulations were relaxed without appreciating the impact on the economy. 220. Which of the following difficulties is faced by regulators at present? (a) Tremendous competition between local and foreign banks. (b) Banks lack the expertise to comply with norms. (c) Striking a balance between protecting and stifling the economy. (d) Unwillingness of government to bail out failing banks. (e) Lack of adequate manpower. Ans: (c) Striking a balance between protecting and stifling the economy 221. Which of the following approaches was adopted by the financial sector of rich world economies prior to the crisis? (a) Banks maintained very large capital cushions. (b) Banks strictly adhere to outdated laws. (c) They were innovative and took a lot of risks. (d) They withdrew investment from traditional banking. (e) Not clearly mentioned in the passage. Ans: (c) They were innovative and took a lot of risks. 222. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word TENTATIVELY given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Permanent (b) Certainly (c) Termly (d) Slightly (e) Tenuously Ans: (b) Certainly Tentatively (Adv.) : not definitely or certainly; hesitantly. 223. Which of the following is/are the consequence(s) of the crisis of 2008? (A) Banks have become overconfident in their abilities to regulate themselves. (B) Regulators have increased vigilance of financial systems. (C) Economies are careful about foreign investment. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) All (b), (a) and (C) (e) Only (b) and (C) Ans: (a) Only (a) and (C) 224. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word FAILING given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Passing (b) Increasing (c) Successful (d) Depleting (e) Important Ans: (c) Successful Fail (Verb) : to not be successful in achieving something. 225. What does the author want to convey through the phrase ‘Under the old rules, supervisors were simply referees trying to ensure that the game was played fairly’? (a) Regulators were passive and did not intervene in the working of financial organisations in the past. (b) Regulators did not make mistakes while regulating financial markets. (c) Regulators were concerned about the health of financial organizations. (d) Regulators used to cross the lone and interfere in financial markets in the past. (e) Regulators devised many strict rules without taking into account the needs of financial systems. Ans: (a) Regulators were passive and did not intervene in the working of financial organisations in the past. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. The international definition of water stress is 1,000 cubic metres of usable water per person per year. The average northern Chinese has less than a fifth of that amount. China has 20 percent of the population but only 7 percent of its fresh water. China has built as many large dams as the rest of the world put together. But, while the South of China is a lush, lake–filled region, the north–which has half the population and most of the farmland is more like a desert and the shortage is worsening. In the 1950s the country had 50,000 rivers with catchment areas of 100 square kilometres or more. Today, China has only 23,000 as a result of over–exploitation by farms or factories. China was hoping for a shale gas revolution but does not have enough water for it since most of the gas reserves are in the driest parts of the country. The World Bank puts the cost of China’s water problems-mostly damage to health– at 2.3 percent of the year’s GDP. China clearly needs to do something to remedy the situation in the North and has initiated one of the biggest engineering projects the world has never seen– a diversion to move water along 2,000 miles of water canals. Aside from the massive cost, the two rivers involved have very different ecosystems and taking water from one to another could do irreparable environmental harm. The parts of the project completed have already killed many organisms. Such projects could also hurt China’s neighbours and all these projects would increase the amount of water in China by only a few percentage points. The Government would do better to focus on demand, reducing consumption of water in order to make better use of limited supplies. Water is too cheap in most cities and such mispricing results in extravagance. Industry recycles too little water, agriculture wastes too much. Higher water prices would raise costs for farms and factories but would be better than spending millions on shipping water around the country. Development plans such as building cities of a million people in the Gobi desert should be rewritten. China should also fine polluters stiffly. China’s engineers have performed amazing feats in the past but the current water problem in the North should also involve economists and environmental regulators in the solution. 226. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the story? (a) Northern China is experiencing a water crisis and suggested remedies need to be rethought. (b) China needs to devote its resources to expanding infrastructure. (c) China’s efforts to solve its water crisis are praiseworthy and are an example to the world. (d) The Chinese government is obvious to sharing water resources with its neighbours. (e) China’s politicians were ill-equipped to handle the country’s water problems which are beyond remedy. Ans: (a) Northern China is experiencing a water crisis and suggested remedies need to be rethought. 227. According to the passage, which of the following is/are the consequences of the China’s efforts to remedy its water problems? (A) Many aquatic organisms have been sacrificed. (B)Water has become unaffordable in China. (C) The Government has put on hold its ambitious plans for urban housing. (a) Only (C) (b) Only (a) (c) Only (b) (d) All (b), (a) and (C) (e) Only (b) and (C) Ans: (c) Only (b) 228. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) China is willing to implement novel solutions to the water crisis despite uprisings. (b) China is over exploiting its water resources which is detrimental. (c) China has an abundance of fresh water resources for its population but these are mismanaged. (d) The finances generated from shale gas reserves have been used to remedy China’s water problems. (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (b) China is over exploiting its water resources which is detrimental 229. Which of the following is an APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage? (a) Mighty Rivers : A Conflict Among Neighbours (b) China Divided : River Disputes (c) Rivers in China : A Sustainable Marvel (d) Free Water : A Necessity (e) Northern China : A Future Drying Up Ans: (e) Northern China : A Future Drying Up 230. According to the author, what approach should China adopt to handle its water crisis? (a) Penalise industries for polluting excessively and provide water to farmers at discounted rates. (b) Approach neighbouring countries to rework water sharing agreements. (c) Implement a multi-pronged approach–keeping in mind economic and environmental conditions. (d) Adopt the recommendations of the ‘World Bank to resolve the issue. (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (c) Implement a multi-pronged approach-keeping in mind economic and environmental conditions. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. (BOB Junior Management Grade/Scale–I Exam. 18.04.2015) In general, before the financial crisis of 2008, the financial sector the world over had been steadily liberalising. Limits on foreign ownership of banks and on the kinds of transactions they were able to engage in were being lifted. Rich countries were deregulating faster than others. Banks were given greater leeway on how much capital they should hold and how much risk they should take on. But banks the world over, did not maintain adequate capital cushions and balance sheets showed inflated profits. In 1999, America also repealed the Glass Staegall Act- a 1930s Depression era law separating investment and commercial banking-without bothering about the threat to the economy. ‘Restrictions are a sign of backwardness’- But the resulting crisis of 2008 put an end to this belief. Banking supervisors in many developing countries said that tight regulations saved them from getting into trouble. Under the old rules supervisors were simply referees trying to ensure that the game was played fairly. Now regulators have gone from saying ‘tell me that all your payment systems work’ to saying ‘show me how your payment systems work’. Regulators are now tentatively stepping over a long standing divide between enforcing basic rules and playing a part in business decisions. This shift is particularly marked in Britain which once championed ‘light touch regulation’. This pre-crisis behaviour is being criticised as surrender to banks or as a self servicing device for attracting financial activity to Britain. In truth it was neither. It was the simple belief that markets are better than governments at allocating services. In America, too, regulators were reluctant to suppress innovation because they felt that “the self interest of lending institutions will be enough to ensure they did not all leap from the same tall building.” In rich countries, enthusiasm for prescriptive supervision depends on the degree of harm suffered during the banking crisis or to the threat from the failing banks to bring down their governments with them. But it is not easy to stop banks from making bad decisions. In the past, regulators left it to the market to judge the health of the banks. But clever, well-paid analysts failed to see the crisis coming. Now central bankers are expected to do a better job. One problem is that the rules and the laws are written with the benefit of hindsight. The good ideas that may have prevented the last crisis however can make regulators dangerously overconfident about being able to predict and prevent the next one. Also, if regulators underwrite certain strategies that seem safe such as lending to small businesses, they may encourage banks to crowd into those lines of business. If enough banks pile into these markets, downturns in them can affect not just a few banks but the whole system. On the other hand prescriptive supervision can stifle financial innovation and squeeze all appetite for risk out of the banking system. In Japan, a banking crisis that started more than two decades ago still lingers on, in part because the country’s bankers have become gun shy and lend to buy government bonds rather than lend money or make foreign investments. Regulators are doing all they can to strike a balance and mitigate these risks. 231. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word LAST given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Continue (b) Final (c) First (d) Recent (e) Subsequent Ans: (d) recent Last (Adj.) : previous, latest, hindmost, most recent. 232. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Banks should go back to traditional banking and abandon riskier options. (b) Regulators are lazy and shirk their duty of protecting financial systems. (c) Banks in developed countries have destroyed developing economies. (d) Today the task of financial regulation is tricky. (e) Financial systems have been damaged beyond repair. Ans: (d) Today the task of financial regulation is tricky 233. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word CROWD given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Flock (b) Multitude (c) Party (d) Crew (e) Not Ans: (a) flock (b) Crowd (V.) : to move in large numbers; flock. 234. Which of the following is/are the possible impact(s) of prescriptive supervision? (A) Governments are likely to collapse as people are opposed to such measures. (B) Many executives are likely to exploit the system. (C) These measures could unintentionally prolong a crisis. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (C) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) All A, (a) and (C) (e) Only B Ans: (b) Only (C) 235. What is the author’s view of central banks’ present efforts at regulation? (a) These are faulty as they encourage risky financial innovations. (b) These are unnecessary and harmful to banks. (c) To succeed these should be co-ordinated and uniform across countries. (d) The measures they prescribe have no loopholes. (e) They have done their best to effectively regulate. Ans: (b) These are unnecessary and harmful to banks. 236. Which of the following can be said about ‘light touch regulation’ adopted by Britain? (a) It gave Britain’s financial institutions very little autonomy. (b) It forced banks to invest in government bonds. (c) It resulted in banks holding too much capital. (d) It encouraged financial activity in the country. (e) It stifled banks’ appetite for risk. Ans: (d) It encouraged financial activity in the country 237. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word LIMITS given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Rims (b) Caps (c) Frames (d) Frontiers (e) Skirts Ans: (b) caps Limits (N.) : restrictions, caps; an upper limit on an amount of money that can be spent or borrowed. 238. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) Markets can easily regulate themselves. (b) The financial crisis of 2008 did not impact developing countries. (c) Developing economies should not allow foreign investment at present, (d) After the crisis, America’s central bank has imposed unnecessary regulations. (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (b) The financial crisis of 2008 did not impact developing countries. 239. Why has the author cited the reference of repealing the Gass-Steagall Act? (a) To criticise the backward restrictions that rich countries imposed on developing countries. (b) To indicate that regulations were relaxed without appreciating the impact on the economy. (c) To show that the economy had not progressed much since the Depression. (d) To illustrate that only America could foresee the financial crisis. (e) To indicate the soundness of America’s financial system prior to depression. Ans: (b) To indicate that regulations were relaxed without appreciating the impact on the economy. 240. Which of the following difficulties is faced by regulators at present? (a) Tremendous competition between local and foreign banks. (b) Banks lack the expertise to comply with norms. (c) Striking a balance between protecting and stifling the economy. (d) Unwillingness of government to bail out failing banks. (e) Lack of adequate manpower. Ans: (c) Striking a balance between protecting and stifling the economy. 241. Which of the following approaches was adopted by the financial sector of rich world economies prior to the crisis? (a) Banks maintained very large capital cushions. (b) Banks strictly adhere to outdated laws. (c) They were innovative and took a lot of risks. (d) They withdrew investment from traditional banking. (e) Not clearly mentioned in the passage. Ans: (c) They were innovative and took a lot of risks. 242. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word TENTATIVELY given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Permanent (b) Certainly (c) Termly (d) Slightly (e) Tenuously Ans: (b) certainly (b) Tentatively (Adv.) : not definitely or certainly; hesitantly. 243. Which of the following is/are the consequence(s) of the crisis of 2008? (A) Banks have become overconfident in their abilities to regulate themselves. (B) Regulators have increased vigilance of financial systems. (C) Economies are careful about foreign investment. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) All (b), (a) and (C) (e) Only (b) and (C) Ans: (a) Only (a) and (C) 244. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word FAILING given in bold as used in the passage. (a) passing (b) increasing (c) successful (d) depleting (e) important Ans: (c) successful Fail (V.) : to not be successful in achieving something. 245. What does the author want to convey through the phrase ‘Under the old rules, supervisors were simply referees trying to ensure that the game was played fairly’? (a) Regulators were passive and did not intervene in the working of financial organisations in the past. (b) Regulators did not make mistakes while regulating financial markets. (c) Regulators were concerned about the health of financial organizations. (d) Regulators used to cross the lone and interfere in financial markets in the past. (e) Regulators devised many strict rules without taking into account the needs of financial systems. Ans: (a) Regulators were passive and did not intervene in the working of financial organisations in the past Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given. Certain words have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. We are told that economy is growing and that such growth benefits all of us. However, what you see is not what you always get. Most people are experiencing declining economic security in response to the problems of the global system, many communities have turned to Local Exchange Systems (LESs) to help regain some control over their economic situations. Local exchange systems come in many forms. They often involve the creation of a local currency, or a system of bartering labour, or trading of agricultural products as a means of supporting the region in which they are traded. Such a system helps preserve the viability of local economies. Local currencies allow communities to diversify their economies, reinvest resources back into their region and reduce dependence on the highly concentrated and unstable global economy. Each local currency system serves as an exchange bank for skills and resources that individuals in the community are willing to trade. Whether in the form of paper money, service credits, or other units, a local currency facilitates the exchange of services and resources among the members of a community. By providing incentives for local trade, communities help their small businesses and reduce under-employment by providing the jobs within the community. In addition, the local exchange of food and seeds promotes environmental conservation and community food security. Local food production reduces wasteful transportation and promotes self-reliance and genetic diversity. Each transaction within a local exchange system strengthens the community fabric as neighbours interact and meet one another. There are over 1,000 local exchange programs worldwide more than 30 local paper currencies in North America and at least 800 Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) throughout Europe. New Zealand and Australia Local Exchange Systems vary and evolve in accordance with the needs and circumstances of the local area. This diversity is critical to the success of the local currencies. For instance, a bank in rural Massachusetts refused to lend a farmer the money needed to make it through the winter. In response, the farmer decided to print his own money Berkshire Farm Preserve Notes. In winter, customers buy the notes for$9 and they may redeem them in the summer for $10 worth of vegetables. The system enabled the community to help a farm family after being abandoned by the centralised monetary system. As small family farms continue to disappear at an alarming rate, local currencies provide tools for communities to bind together, support their local food growers and maintain their local food suppliers. Local Exchange Systems are not limited to developed countries. Rural areas of Asia, Latin America and Africa have offered some of the most effective and important programs, by adopting agriculture-based systems of exchange rather than monetary ones. In order to preserve genetic diversity, economic security and avoid dependence on industrial seed and chemical companies, many villages have developed seed saving exchange banks. For example, the village women in Ladakh have begun to collect and exchange rare seeds selected for their ability to grow in a harsh mountain climate. This exchange system protects agriculture diversity while promoting self-reliance. There is no one blueprint for a local exchange system, which is exactly why they are successful vehicles for localisation and sustainability. They promote local economic diversity and regional self-reliance while responding to a region’s specific needs. Local exchange systems play a pivotal role in creating models for sustainable societies. They are an effective educational tool, raising awareness about the global financial system and local economic matters. Local exchange systems also demonstrate that tangible, creative solutions exist and that communities can empower themselves to address global problems. 246. Which of the following is SAME in meaning as the word LIMITED TO as used in the passage? (a) Extending beyond (b) Restricted to (c) Validated for (d) Adjusted (e) Custodial Ans: (b) Restricted to Limited (Adj.) : restricted to a particular limit of time, place, numbers etc. 247. Which of the following can be a SUITABLE TITLE for the passage? (a) Methods to escape global economic issues (b) Reasons LES must rule over the regular currency (c) Dependence of Asian countries on LES (d) Role of LES in development of communities (e) LES – A Futile Exercise Ans: (d) Role of LES in development of communities 248. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word PIVOTAL as used in the passage? (a) Unnourished (b) Essential (c) Healthy (d) Overriding (e) Trivial Ans: (e) Trivial Trivial (Adj.) : not important or serious; not worth considering. Pivotal (Adj.) : of great importance because other things depend on it. 249. As mentioned in the passage, there is no set design to initiate local exchange systems as (A) they tend to work well only in select countries (B) they are region specific (C) they are too complicated to understand (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Both (b) and (C) (d) Both (b) and (a) (e) Only (C) Ans: (a) Only (a) 250. Which of the following isMOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word BIND as used in the passage? (a) Separate (b) Visionless (c) Associate (d) Loosen (e) Reunite Ans: (a) Separate Separate (V.) : to divide into different parts. Bind (V.) : to tie; to unite people, organisation etc. so that they live or work together ; to associate. 251. Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) LES increases unhealthy competition between communities from different regions. (b) LES work well only in countries whose economies are based primarily on agriculture. (c) LESs encourage communities to become selfsupporting (d) LESs are restricted to trading with paper money only. (e) None of the given statements is true Ans: (c) LESs encourage communities to become self-supporting 252. As mentioned in the passage, local currencies can prove to be beneficial for the community as they. (A) assist in creating job opportunities. (B) indirectly help in conserving the environment. (C) aid in minimising reliance on global economy. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Both (b) and (C) (d) Both (b) and (a) (e) All the three (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All the three (b), (a) and (C) 253. Which of the following is the MEANING of the phrase what you see is not what you always get as mentioned in the passage with respect to present economic situation in the country? (a) Being pessimistic while presenting information. (b) Sharing information without hiding facts. (c) Modifying information after taking consent from every stakeholder. (d) Waiting to share positive information. (e) What is presented may not necessarily be true. Ans: (e) What is presented may not necessarily be true 254. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word REGAIN as used in the passage? (a) Restart (b) Recover (c) Forfeit (d) Revalue (e) Liberate Ans: (c) Forfeit Forfeit (V.) : to lose something. Regain (V.) : to get back something you no longer have. 255. As mentioned in the passage, the statistics with respect to LES highlight that. (a) they face more resistance from, developed countries than developing ones. (b) very few countries are aware about such programmes. (c) they are becoming popular among communities across the globe. (d) they lack support of farmers. (e) the gap between the rich and the poor is increasing. Ans: (c) they are becoming popular among communities across the globe. Directions: In the following questions, read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Over the past few days alone, the China’s central bank has pumped extra cash into the financial system and cut interest rates. The aim is to free more cash for banks to lend and provide a boost for banks seeking to improve the return on their assets. The official data though, suggested that bad loans make up only 1.4% of their balance sheets. How to explain the discrepancy? One possible answer is that bad loans are a tagging indicator i.e. it is only after the economy has struggled for a while that borrowers began to suffer. Looked at this way, China is trying to anticipate problems keeping its banks in good health by sustaining economic growth of nearly 7% year on year. Another more worrying possibility is that bad loans are worse than official data indicate. This does not look to be the cause for China’s biggest banks, which are managed conservatively and largely focus on the county’s biggest value and quality borrowers. But there is mounting evidence that when it comes to smaller banks, especially those yet to list on the stock market, bad loans piling up. That is important because unlisted lenders account for just over a third of the Chinese banking sector, making them as big as Japan’s entire banking industry. Although, non-performing loans have edged up slowly, the increase in special-mention loans (a category that includes those overdue but not yet classified as impaired loans.) has been much bigger. Special-mention loans are about 2% at most of China’s big listed banks, suggesting that such loans must be much higher at their smaller, unlisted peers. Many of these loans are simple bad debts which banks have not yet admitted to. Another troubling fact is that fifteen years ago, the government created asset- management companies (often referred to as badbanks) to take on the non-performing loans of the lenders. After the initial transfer these companies had little to pay. But, last year, Cinda, the biggest of the bad banks, bought nearly 150 billion Yuan ($24 billion) of distressed assets last year, two-thirds more than in 2013. These assets would have raised the banks bad-loans ratio by a few tenths of a percentage point. Although such numbers do not seem very alarming, experts who reviewed last year’s results for 158 banks, of which only 20 are listed found that “shadow loans”, loans recorded as investments which may be a disguise for bad loans have grown to as much as 5.7 billion Yuan, or 5% of the industry’s assets. These are heavily concentrated on the balance sheets of smallerunlisted banks, and at the very least, all this points to a need for recapitalisation of small banks.
256. Q763 Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word TAGGING given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Breaking
(b) Delayed
(c) Stopping
(d) Protecting
(e) Tying
Ans: (e)
Tying Tagging (Adj.) : tying; fastening a tag.
257. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word FREE given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Secret
(b) Expensive
(c) Complimentary
(d) Restrict
(e) Charged
Ans: (d)
Restrict Restrict (V.) : to stop something from moving or acting freely; to control something with rules or laws. Free (V.) : to rid; make available; release.
258. According to the passage, which of the following can be said about China’s large banks?
(A) These are cautiously run.
(B) Their clients are mainly high value.
(C) 2 percent of their loans have been classified as overdue but not impaired.
(a) Only (b)
(b) Only (a)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) Only (a) and (C)
Ans: (e)
Only (a) and (C)
259. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the passage?
(a) The government should do away with asset management companies.
(b) Small banks should be permitted to become listed on the stock exchange.
(c) China’s financial crisis is not as serious as it is being made out to be.
(d) China’s central bank has failed to predict and stop the decline of its banks.
(e) There is trouble brewing in China’s small unlisted banks.
Ans: (e)
There is trouble brewing in China’s small unlisted banks
260. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word POINTS given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Moments
(b) Peaks
(c) Arguments
(d) Indicates
(e) Plugs
Ans: (d)
Indicates Point (V.) : to lead or to suggest a particular development; indicate.
261. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) Approximately 32% of China’s banking sector is unlisted.
(b) China has not implemented any resources to help its banking sector in recent times.
(c) China’s stock market has plummeted in recent times.
(d) Japan’s banking industry is experiencing a boom unlike that of China.
(e) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage.
Ans: (e)
None of the given options is true in the context of the passage.
262. What does the example of the Cinda convey?
(a) Many such large Chinese asset management companies are failing.
(b) Many of the loans given by China’s banks are in trouble.
(c) China’s economy is overly dependent on large banks.
(d) China is the ideal destination for small banks to flourish.
(e) Such companies have become obsolete.
Ans: (a)
Many such large Chinese asset management companies are failing
263. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word MOUNTING given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Accumulating
(b) Melting
(c) Removing
(d) Submerging
(e) Decreasing
Ans: (e)
Decreasing Mounting (Adj.) : increasing ; growing.
264. Which of the following BEST DESCRIBES experts’ findings regarding shadow loans?
(a) These are growing substantially and indicate the need for reform of small banks.
(b) Shadow loans have been steadily falling and are negligible at present.
(c) Shadow loans are unfairly being passed onto asset management companies.
(d) These loans are inconsequential for the health of banks.
(e) The findings are faulty as if only includes few listed banks.
Ans: (a)
These are growing substantially and indicate the need for reform of small banks
265. What is the author’s view regarding small banks?
(a) These are a good health helping to sustain economic growth of 7 percent.
(b) These have a better loan portfolio than large banks.
(c) These should be merged with large banks to bail them out of trouble.
(d) Regulations governing these banks should be relaxed.
(e) Other than those given as options
Ans: (e)
Other than those given as options
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Banks in Australia have a certain upside-down quality to them. Their share prices broke free from the pull that dragged down their international rivals during the 2008 financial crisis. In recent years, they have soared as others have sagged. Now that big banks in other rich countries are regaining their poise, as in most of the global economy, it is the turn of Australia’s to slide. This topsyturvy behaviour may yet continue given its worsening outlook.
Serving a buoyant domestic economy with none-toofierce competition, Australia’s big four lenders – Commonwealth Banks, National Australia Bank (NAB), ANZ and Westpac–used to delight shareholders with bumper dividends.
But concerns over their balance-sheets and exposure to Australia’s housing market have caused their shares to dip. Investors fear that the exceptional circumstances underpinning the vibrant returns of recent years are coming to an end. The commodity “super-cycle” that boosted both Australia and its banks has fizzled. Unemployment is creeping up. The biggest concern is the health of banks’ mortgage books. Home loans have been fabulously lucrative for Australian banks but this is changing.
According to analysts, returns on them top 50%, which would make even precrisis Wall Street bankers happy. No wonder, then, that domestic home loans now represent % of Australian banks’ assets, up from % in the early 1990s. Mortgages in New Zealand account for another %. A growing number of loans are going to property speculators or to homeowners paying back only the interest on their loan. Recent stress test suggested that a property downturn would ravage banks. Regulators fret about the lack of diversification in banks, especially given their dependence on foreign money for funding.
They want banks to curb growth in the riskiest mortgages and to finance them with more equity and less debt.
A government inquiry into the Australian financial system called for banks to be better capitalised. Collectively, Australian banks may need as much as A$40 billion in fresh capital to meet regulators demands. The big four are still highly profitable and their returns will remain better than most despite all the new equity they will have to raise. After all, banks around the world are being forced to fund themselves with more equity. Aussie borrowers are less likely to default on mortgages than American ones, as lenders have a claim on all their assets, not just the property in question. But there are other concerns as well. Credit growth in Australia is slowing. Expansion into crowded Asian market seems difficult which leaves little scope for diversification. If they cannot make banks less dependent on mortgages, regulators will have to find other ways to make them safer. 266. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in MEANING as the word RAVAGE given in bold as used in the passage? (a) Attack (b) Steal (c) Invade (d) Devastate (e) Scam Ans: (d) Devastate Devastate (V.) : to completely destroy Ravage (V.) : to damage something badly; devastate. 267. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) Unemployment in Australia is on rise. (b) Australia’s banks are still struggling to recover from the 2008 crisis. (c) Regulators are unwilling to enforce strict reforms on the banking sector. (d) Australian banks have a surplus of capital according to regulators. (e) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (a) Unemployment in Australia is on rise. 268. What do the assets regarding assets of Australia cited in the passage convey? (a) Australian banks have invested too heavily in property markets of other countries. (b) Bank assets are heavily concentrated in the housing sector. (c) The four banks are in imminent danger of collapse. (d) Australian banks are safe and are growing from strength to strength. (e) Australian banks have a huge number of defaulters. Ans: (b) Bank assets are heavily concentrated in the housing sector 269. What is the author’s view of the global economy at present? (a) Rich economies have yet to recover while emerging markets are thriving. (b) The global economy is unlikely to recover as economic reforms are not stringent. (c) The economy is in turmoil as large Asian economies are experiencing a crisis. (d) Many European countries are in debt and likely to default on their loans. (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (e) Other than those given as options 270. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word DIP given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Equal (b) Immense (c) Rise (d) Dry (e) Decline Ans: (c) Rise Rise (V.) : increase in amount; go up. Dip (V.) : to go downwards; fall; to go to a lower level; decline. 271. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word FABULOUSLY given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Insignificantly (b) Terrifically (c) Gravely (d) Harshly (e) Easily Ans: (a) Insignificantly Fabulously (Adv.) : extremely good ; terrifically. 272. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning as the word BUMPER given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Impact (b) Buffer (c) Adequate (d) Frequent (e) Huge Ans: (e) Huge Bumper (Adj.) : unusually large; huge. 273. According to the passage, which of the following factors was/were responsible for the Australian economy’s performance during the 2008 global crisis? (A) Australian banks invested in American hedge funds. (B) Australia inexperienced a commodity base. (C) Lack of investment in emerging markets. (a) Only (C) (b) Only (b) (c) All (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (C) (e) Only (a) Ans: (a) Only (C) 274. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the passage? (a) Australia’s housing sector is enjoying a boom. (b) Restructuring of Australia’s banks has been very successful. (c) The powers of Australia’s banking regulator should be curtailed. (d) Australia’s banking sector is vulnerable and headed for difficulty. (e) Australia is the best forming of all advanced economies at present. Ans: (d) Australia’s banking sector is vulnerable and headed for difficulty 275. Which of the following BEST DESCRIBES the regulator’s view of Australia’s economy? (a) Australia should withdraw from risky emerging markets. (b) Australian banks should adopt American system of mortgage to safeguard the economy. (c) There is a need for some corrections and reforms to be implemented. (d) Australia has insulated itself from foreign markets, and this has hampered growth. (e) Its economy is soaring and recapitalisation and diversification reforms may be withdrawn. Ans: (a) Australia should withdraw from risky emerging markets Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. There is good news in the form of Europe’s unemployment falling from 11.1% in June to 10.0% in July. But unemployment generally lags behind the economic cycle. Business surveys, which provide more up-to-date readings of activity, point to a continuing subdued recovery in Europe. The European commission’s long-running economic- sentiment indicator, which combines business as well as consumer confidence and tends to track GDP has been broadly stable since picking up in early 2015. This suggests that the Euro area is not about to break out of its unspectacular growth. This is worrying because the eurozone economy is benefitting from a powerful triple stimulus. Lower energy costs caused by the slump in global oil prices have been providing the same effect as a tax cut. A big programme of quantitative easing (QE), has been under way since, early in the year under which the European Central Bank (ECB) is creating money to buy 60 billion ($67 billion) of bonds each month. As well as pushing down long-term interest rates QE has helped to keep the euro down on the currency markets to the benefit of exporters.
Given the extent of help that the euro area has been getting, growth should be faster. The sluggish performance leaves it vulnerable to China’s slowdown. A particular worry is the impact of weakening Chinese growth on Germany, the hub economy of the region, whose resilience has been crucial in sustaining Europe since the euro crisis started five years ago. One reason has been strong Chinese demand for traditional German manufacturing strengths.
Even though German exports appear to be holding up for the time being, that boost from China is waning. Lacklustre growth in the euro area will in turn make it harder for the ECB to meet its goal of pushing inflation back towards its goal of almost 2%. Although core inflation (excluding, in particular, energy and food) has moved up from its low of 0.6% earlier this year, to 1.0%, headline inflation has been stuck at 0.2% over the summer. There is increasing concern that the ECB’s effort to break the grip of “lowflation” will be swamped by global deflationary effects. The ECB’s council is not expected to make a change in policy and is likely to indicate that the ECB recognises the downside risk to growth and stands ready to respond if they materialise. That may in turn produce a policy erasing later this year. One option would be to raise the amount of assets that it is buying each month from the current amount of 60 billion. A more likely decision would be for the ECB to extend the planned length of its purchase some for another year. Whether that is enough is question for another day.
276. What is the author’s view regarding the reforms implemented by ECB?
(a) He is doubtful about the reforms as inflation is rising.
(b) He is outraged that these measures are being continued.
(c) These reforms are tough and unpopular in Euro countries.
(d) These are not focused and have not been effective at all.
(e) Other than those given as options.
Ans: (a)
He is doubtful about the reforms as inflation is rising
277. What do the statistics cited in the passage about ECB convey?
(a) ECB is likely to fast run out of ‘bailout’ funds.
(b) Its stimulus package for Europe’s economy is too low in value.
(c) Despite the ECB’s best efforts, its reforms have been unsuccessful.
(d) It is time ECB withdraws its stimulus package to rich countries.
(e) ECB has not been proactive in the econoonic recovery.
Ans: (c)
Despite the ECB’s best efforts, its reforms have been unsuccessful
278. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word SUBDUED given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Necessary
(b) Passive
(c) Sleep
(d) Diluted
(e) Expensive
Ans: (b)
Passive Subdued (Adj.) : unusually quiet and possibly unhappy; not very busy; with not much activity.
279. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word BROADLY given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Barely
(b) Widely
(c) Softly
(d) Responsibly
(e) Dimly
Ans: (a)
Barely Barely (Adv.) : in a way that is just possible but only with difficulty. Broadly (Adv.) : generally, without considering details.
280. Which of the following BEST DESCRIBES the conclusion which can be drawn from economic indicators of Europe?
(a) Germany is the only economy unaffected by the crisis of 2008 and China’s slowdown.
(b) Investors do not have confidence in European markets.
(c) Tax rates in Europe are being raised which has hampered growth.
(d) By and large Europe’s economic performance is steady but not accelerating.
(e) Europe has not taken measures to protect itself from the crisis in emerging markets.
Ans: (d)
By and large Europe’s economic performance is steady but not accelerating
281. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) Europe’s large economies have recovered from the global crisis.
(b) Germany’s economic performance is linked to the Chinese market.
(c) Exorbitant oil prices are negating the effects of ECB’s stimulus.
(d) Europe’s unemployment rate is rising but it may not continue to do so.
(e) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage.
Ans: (b)
Germany’s economic performance is linked to the Chinese market
282. According to the passage, which of the following has affected inflation in Europe?
(A) Global deflation is prevailing.
(B) Frequent rising of ECB’s interest rates.
(C) The ECB has withdrawn its Quantitative Erasing programme.
(a) Only (b)
(b) Only (a)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) Only (a) and (C)
Ans: (d)
Only (b) and (C)
283. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word MATERIALISE given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Perform
(b) Disappear
(c) Terrorise
(d) Occur
(e) Substance
Ans: (b)
Disappear Disappear (V.) : to become impossible; stop existing; vanish. Materialise (V.) : to take place or start to exist as expected or planned.
284. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the passage?
(a) Emerging markets have been responsible for Europe’s slow economic performance.
(b) The European economy is buoyant as its energy and manufacturing sectors are doing well.
(c) The European Central Bank is in denial about the imminent crisis Europe is facing.
(d) Europe has reduced its exposure to America and Asia.
(e) The European economy is stagnating leaving it vulnerable to future crises
Ans: (e)
The European economy is stagnating leaving it vulnerable to future crises
285. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word GRIP given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Authority
(b) Understanding
(c) Awareness
(d) Clutches
(e) Fascination
Ans: (d)
Clutches (b) Grip (N.) : control; power over something; grasp.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
“I promise to open a bank account for a British citizen in just two minutes”, with a background in IT, banking and asset management, this young entrepreneur is submitting plans to the regulators to start a new bank called Lintel; the two-minute pledge is one of his selling points. Young Entrepreneurs can do better than the existing banks, and is putting plenty of his own money where his mouth is, as part of the £5million ($7.5m) startup cost. Since April 2013 three new British banks have appeared and three outfits have taken over old licences. A person, who doles out banking licences at the Prudential Regualtion Authority (PRA), part of the Bank of England, says people are now applying to open banks in “unprecedented numbers”. Four applicants are likely to start operating this year, he says, with a further four or so probably coming to market next year. At least as far as the consumer is concerned, banking could be on the verge of quite a shake-up. Since March 2013 the process to apply for a license has been streamlined. The PRA claims that a new bank can be up and running just six months after final authorisation. The capital requirements for the start-ups are lower than they used to be. And many of the new entrants are acting like classic entrepreneurs. They work out how the existing banks are failing customers, then look for niches, whether in products, customers or technology. All are encouraged by the growing willingness of consumers to switch from one bank to another, stimulated in part by regulations designed to make this easier. The niche will be about immigrants, both students on short-stay visas and longer-term economic migrants. They are treated “extremely badly” by existing banks, he claims. He will offer a full range of products, in many languages, digitally and also at a few branches, to be located at the most convenient places for his target customers — such as the railway stations in London that serve Heathrow and Gatwick airports. Atom Bank’s niche, by contrast, is technological. It will be the first British bank to be digital-only, with all transactions done through smartphones and tablets, via an app. This ought to lower the bank’s overheads. Set up by Mark Mullen, a former head of branchless bank First Direct, and Anthony Thomson, co-founder of another of the new wave of “challenger” banks, Metro, Atom Bank should start operating in the second half of this year. Metro Bank itself, which started in 2010, is following a quite different road: it is opening new branches almost as quickly as traditional banks like Lloyds, RBS, Barclays and HSBC are closing them. The banking sector is currently the subject of a review by the Competition and Markets Authority, an official watchdog. Most of the new entrants would agree with the authority’s criticism that some features of the current banking market “prevent, restrict or distort competition”, in relation to both personal customers and small businesses. The entrepreneurs also claim that their innovative new products and technologies will help to address some of those criticisms. Mr. Mullen, for instance, attacks what he calls the opaque pricing of many current accounts: a selling point of Atom Bank, he claims, is that all its pricing will be utterly transparent. “We will drive change,” he says. 286. Which of the following is/are CORRECT in the context of the given passage? (A) The young entrepreneur is to start a new bank called Unitel. (B) The start-up cost of a new bank is set at £5 million. (C) The young entrepreneur promises to open a bank account for a British citizen in just two minutes. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) and (a) (c) Only (b) and (C) (d) Only (a) (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (a) Only (a) and (C) 287. What should be the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE of the given passage? (a) Prospective willingness to open new banks in the United Kingdom (b) State of existing banks in the United Kingdom (c) Economic slowdown and existing banks (d) Hurdles in opening a new bank in London (e) None of these. Ans: (a) Prospective willingness to open new banks in the United Kingdom 288. Which of the following statements is NOT CORRECT in the context of the given passage? (a) The capital requirements for the start-ups are higher than they used to be. (b) Since April 2013, three new British banks have come to light. (c) All new entrepreneurs are encouraged by the growing willingness of consumers to change banks (d) A new bank can be up and running just six months after authorisation. (e) None of these Ans: (a) The capital requirements for the start-ups are higher than they used to be 289. New entrants are looking for niches whether in products, customers or technology. Which of the following is NOT CORRECT in this regard? (a) Offering a full range of products in many languages and digitally (b) They are thinking about immigrants as they are treated extremely badly by existing banks. (c) Some branches to be located at the most convenient places for the target customers (d) Opening bank accounts without proper identification (e) None of these Ans: (d) Opening bank accounts without proper identification 290. Select the CORRECT statement(s) in the context of the given passage. (A) Atom Bank’s niche is technological. (B) Metro Bank was started in 2010. (C) Atom Bank was set up by Mark Mullen. (a) Only (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (C) (d) Only (a) and (C) (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) 291. Select the INCORRECT statement in the context of the given passage. (a) All the pricing of Atom Bank will be utterly transparent. (b) Anthony Thomson is co-founder of Metro Bank. (c) The Banking sector is currently the subject of review. (d) Barclays, HSBC and RBS are new entrants in banking sector. (e) None of these Ans: (d) Barclays, HSBC and RBS are new entrants in banking sector. Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word / group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 292. DOLE OUT (a) Leave (b) Give out (c) Borrow (d) Cancel (e) Accept Ans: (b) Give out Dole out (V.) : to give out an amount of food, money etc. to a number of people in a group. 293. APPEAR (a) Arrive (b) Seem (c) Begin to exist (d) Append (e) Appease Ans: (c) Begin to exist Appear (V.) : to begin to exist or be known or used for the first time. Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 294. CLASSIC (a) Traditional (b) Accepted (c) Modern (d) Elegant (e) Musical Ans: (c) Modern Classic (Adj.) : elegant but simple and traditional in style; not affected by changes. 295. RESTRICT (a) Limit (b) Impede (c) Control (d) Allow (e) Restrain Ans: (d) Allow Allow (V.) : let somebody do something; let something happen Restrict (V.) : to limit the size; impede; to control Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Inequality is at the top of the agenda around the world. Hilary Clinton, the leading Democratic candidate to succeed Barack Obama as president of the United States, made inequality the centrepiece of a major campaign speech. Economists at the IMF too have recently released a study assessing the causes and consequences of rising inequality. Its authors reckon that while inequality could cause all sorts of problems, governments should be especially concerned about its effects on growth. They estimate that a one percentage point increase in the income share of the top 20% will drag down growth by 0.08% percentage points over five years, while a rise in the income share of the bottom 20% actually boosts growth. But how does inequality affect economic growth rates? Economists say that some inequality is needed to propel growth. Without the carrot of large financial rewards, risky entrepreneurship and innovation would grind to a halt. In 1975, an American economist, argued that societies cannot have both perfect equality and perfect efficiency, but must choose how much of one to sacrifice for the other. While most economists continue to hold that view, the recent rise in inequality has prompted a new look at its economic costs. Inequality could impair growth if those with low incomes suffer poor health and low productivity as a result, or if, as evidence suggests, the poor struggle to finance investments in education, inequality could also threaten public confidence in growth-boosting capitalist strategies like free trade. More recent work suggests that inequality could lead to economic or financial instability. The governor of the Reserve Bank of India argued that governments often respond to inequality by easing the flow of credit to poorer households, however, American households borrowed heavily prior to the crisis to prop up their consumption. But for this rise in household debt, consumption would have stagnated as a result of poor wage growth. Crafting a response to rising inequality is therefore tricky, he says. Some of the negative impact of inequality on growth can be blamed on poor government policies in highly unequal countries. In Latin America, for instance, populist pressure for excessive state economic control seems to shorten the average duration of growth spells. Yet in moderation, redistribution seems to benign effects-perhaps by reducing dependence on risky borrowing among poorer households. Over the past generation or two inequality has risen most in places where progressive policies, such as high top tax-rates, have been weakened. A little more redistribution now might improve the quality and quantity of economic-growth and reduce the demand for more aggressive state interventions later. 296. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word CARROT given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Threat (b) Nutrient (c) Argument (d) Incentive (e) Satisfaction Ans: (d) Incentive Carrot (N.) : a reward promised to somebody in order to persuade them to do something. 297. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word SPELLS given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Predictions (b) Curses (c) Periods (d) Charms (e) Results Ans: (c) Periods Spell (N.) : a short period of time during which something lasts. 298. Which of the following BEST DESCRIBES the opinion of experts regarding inequality? (a) Inequality is a complex phenomenon and requires careful handling. (b) The impact of inequality on growth is exaggerated by governments. (c) Governments should aim at achieving perfect equality. (d) State interventions such as redistribution cannot reduce inequality. (e) Easing the flow of credit to poor households is the way to reduce inequality. Ans: (a) Inequali ty is a complex phenomenon and requires careful handling 299. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are the possible impact(s) of inequality? (A) It affects economic stability of a country. (B) The public may object to policies like free trade. (C) It discourages entrepreneurship and innovation. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) All (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (a) (e) Only (a) and (C) Ans: (c) All (b), (a) and (C) 300. What do the examples of Hilary Clinton and IMF economists cited in the passage convey? (a) Americans are not concerned with the impact of growing inequality. (b) Politicians misrepresent research depending on the message they want to deliver. (c) Social issues are focused on prior to elections but not implemented thereafter, (d) The issue of inequality is getting a lot of attention at present. (e) America and the IMF disagree on the measures to be adopted to handle inequality. Ans: (d) The issue of inequality is getting a lot of attention at present 301. What is the author’s view regarding policies such as high top tax-rates? (a) He is in favour of these as research shows they have a positive impact. (b) These are pointless as they drag down growth. (c) He believes they promote risky lending practice among the poor. (d) These are unfair as they impact less than 20 percent of the population. (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (c) He believes they promote risky lending practice among the poor 302. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) India and Latin America have the highest rates of inequality. (b) Governments and central bankers are in agreement on the measures needed to reduce inequality. (c) Government policies of redistribution of wealth serve no purpose whatsoever. (d) Inequality is on the rise on account of the partial policies of the IMF. (e) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (c) Government policies of redistribution of wealth serve no purpose what so ever 303. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word BENIGN given in bold as used in the passage. (a) Gentle (b) Mild (c) Selfish (d) Friendly (e) Nasty Ans: (e) Nasty Nasty (Adj.) : very bad or unpleasant; dangerous; serious. Benign (Adj.) : kind and gentle; not dangerous. 304. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the passage? (a) Inequality is growing in developed countries not just developing ones. (b) Inequality impacts growth and cannot be eliminated. (c) Those in positions of power are unconcerned about the effects of inequality. (d) Economists in developed and developing countries disagree about managing inequality. (e) The IMF should take the lead and define acceptable norms of inequality. Ans: (c) Those in positions of power are unconcerned about the effects of inequality 305. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word FREE given in bold as used in the passage. (a) expensive (b) restricted (c) independent (d) confidential (e) boundless Ans: (b) Restricted Restricted (Adj.) : controlled by rules or laws. Free (Adj.) : not controlled; not restricted. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words/ phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Virtual currencies are growing in popularity. While the collective value of virtual currencies is still a fraction of the total U.S. Dollars in circulation, the use of virtual currencies as a payment mechanism of transfer of value is gaining momentum. Additionally, the number of entities (issuers, exchangers and intermediaries, to name just a few) that engage in virtual currency transactions is increasing and these entities often need access to traditional banking services. Virtual currencies are digital representations of value that function as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value (buy now redeem later policy). In many cases, virtual currencies are “convertible” currencies; they are not legal lenders, but they have an equivalent value in real currency. Despite what seems to be a tremendous interest in virtual currencies their overall value is still extremely small relative to other payment mechanisms, such as cash, cheques and credit and debit cards. The virtual currency landscape includes many participants from the merchant that accepts the virtual currency, to the intermediary that exchanges the virtual currency on behalf of the merchant, to the exchange that actually converts the virtual currency to the real currency to the electronic wallet provider that holds the virtual currency on behalf of its owner. Accordingly, opportunities abound for community banks to provide services to entities engaged in virtual currency activities. Eventually, it is also possible that community banks may find themselves holding virtual currency on their own balance sheets. Launched in 2009, Bitcoin is currently the largest and most popular virtual currency. However, many other virtual currencies have emerged over the past few years, such as Litecoin, Dogecoin, Peercoin and these provide even more anonymity to its users than that provided by Bitcoin. As the virtual currency landscape is fraught with dangers, what important risks should community bankers consider? The most significant is compliance risk- a subset of legal risk. Specifically, virtual currency administrators or legal exchangers may present risks similar to other money transmitters, as well in presenting their own unique risks. Quite simply, many users of virtual currencies do so because of the perceptions that transactions conducted using virtual currencies are anonymous. The less-than transparent nature of the transactions, may make it more difficult for a financial institution to truly know and understand the activities of its customer and whether the customer’s activities are legal. Therefore, these transactions may present a higher risk for banks and require additional due diligence and monitoring. Another important risk for community banks to consider is credit risk. How should a community bank respond if a borrower wants to specifically post Bitcoin or another virtual currency as collateral for a loan? For many, virtual currencies are simply another form of cash, so it is not hard to analyse that bankers will face such a scenario at some point. In this case, caution is appropriate. Bankers should carefully weigh the pros and cons of extending any loan secured by Bitcoin or other virtual currencies (in whole or in part), or where the source of loan repayment is in some way dependent on the virtual currency. For one, the value of Bitcoin in particular has been volatile. Then, the collateral value could fluctuate widely from day-to-day. Bankers also need to think about control over the account. ‘How does the banker control access to a virtual wallet, and how can it control the borrower’s access to the virtual wallet? In the event of a loan default, the bank would need to take control of the virtual currency. This would require access to the borrower’s virtual wallet and private key. All of this suggests that the loan agreement needs to be carefully crafted and that additional steps need to be taken to ensure the bank has a perfected lien on the virtual currency. Virtual currencies bring with them, both opportunities and challenges, and they are likely here to stay. Although, it is too early to determine just how prevalent they will be in the coming years, we too expect that the virtual participants in the virtual currency ecosystem will increasingly intersect with the banking industry. 306. Which of the following is the meaning of the phrase fraught with dangers as mentioned in the passage? (a) Tensed (b) Healthy (c) Evil (d) Risky (e) Stable Ans: (d) Risky Fraught with danger/difficulty/ problems (Id.) : filled with something unpleasant; feeling worry and anxiety. 307. Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word VOLATILE as used in the passage (a) Expensive (b) Suitable (c) Temporary (d) Delicate (e) Stable Ans: (e) Stable Volatile (Adj.) : likely to change suddenly; easily becoming dangerous; unstable. 308. Which of the following can be a SUITABLE TITLE for the passage? (a) Virtual currency and risk involved in its employment (b) Why virtual currencies work well in developing countries (c) Reasons to convert real currency into virtual currency (d) Role of participants involved in handling real currency (e) Virtual Currency-An exercise in futility Ans: (a) Virtual currency and risk involved in its employement 309. As mentioned in the passage, banks may face which of the following risks while dealing with virtual currencies? (A) Since these transactions are largely untraceable, virtual currencies may be misused for criminal activities. (B) The price of virtual currencies including Bitcoin is subject to significant fluctuations. (C) There are few designated ATMs from which one can withdraw such currencies. (a) Both (b) and (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (a) (d) Only (C) (e) Both (a) and (C) Ans: (a) Both (b) and (a) 310. The author in the given passage (a) wants to do completely do away with real currency. (b) criticises community banks which cater to consumers handling virtual currencies. (c) is optimistic but cautious about the employment of virtual currencies. (d) urges the Government of his country to take legal action against those involved in virtual currencies. (e) is upset over the present economic situation in his country. Ans: (c) is optimistic but cautious about the employment of virtual currencies 311. As mentioned in the passage, which of the following is/are the characteristics of virtual currencies? (A) They are equivalent in value to other payment mechanisms. (B) They cannot be destroyed. (C) They can be used as a later date as a medium of exchange. (a) Both (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (a) (d) Only (C) (e) Both (b) and (a) Ans: (a) Both (a) and (C) 312. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word GAINING as used in the passage (a) Withdrawing (b) Attaining (c) Highlighting (d) Talking (e) Increasing Ans: (b) Attaining Gain (V.) : to increase in value; to gradually get more of something. 313. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word CRAFTED as used in the passage (a) Stitched (b) Designed (c) Stoned (d) Stack (e) Divulged Ans: (b) Designed Craft (V.) : to make something using special skills; fashion; design. 314. Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) The value of virtual currencies is more than that of the real currency. (b) Most entities such as money exchangers do not access to traditional banking services. (c) Bitcoin provides most privacy in comparison to recently introduced virtual currencies. (d) Community banks can play a crucial role while catering to entities engaged in dealing with virtual currencies. (e) None of the given statements is true. Ans: (d) Community banks can play a crucial role while catering to entities engaged in dealing with virtual currencies. 315. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word ANONYMITY as used in the passage? (a) Surface (b) Ambiguity (c) Beauty (d) Darkness (e) Visibility Ans: (e) Visibility Visibility (N.) : the fact or state of being easy to see. Anonymity (N.) : the state of remaining unknown to most other people; the state of not having any interesting features. Direction : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold in the passage to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions. By the mid-nineteenth century, the educated Indian had become sufficiently aware of both his rich historical heritage and the abject state of his current existence. Nostalgia and a sense of racial identity grew as Indians gradually perceived the oppressiveness of alien rule. In the early nineteenth century, Orientalist scholars associated with the Fort William College, Kolkata helped considerably to unearth several obscure Indian texts and traditions, thereby, also creating a new awareness and sensitivity among Indians about their cultural heritage. In the first half of the nineteenth century, particularly in some parts of the country, patriotism was not grossly inconsistent with an undisguised support for the continuation of British rule. Writers of this period from this part of the country made repeated references to how the British had ‘rescued’ India from many centuries of ‘tyrannical’ and ‘unprogressive’ governance of earlier rulers. Many people of this time, in fact, made an important distinction between the pragmatic gains to be made from a short-term tutelage under British rule and a long-term objective of securing independence from it. Through such thoughts ultimately proved to be naive and over-optimistic, in the 1820s and 1830s the advantages of British rule seemed to outweigh its disadvantages. In a letter written in 1823 to Governor General Lord Amherst, an Indian social reformer Raja Rammohan Roy (1) opposed an official move to open a Sanskrit College on the ground that it would produce no positive or progressive influence on the educated Hindu. He felt rather than indulge in abstract metaphysical speculation as was likely to be the result of a purely Sanskritic education, Indians would profit far more by imbibing the best of modern European civilization-pragmatism and a rational, scientific outlook. Social usefulness more than anything else, was now to be the true measure of things. In fact, his emphasis on rationality and a common sense approach to religion led some of his friends and admirers to call him a ‘religious utilitarian’. 316. According to the passage, what was the contribution of early nineteenth century Orientalist scholars? (a) Criticising the study of Indian texts and traditions (b) Pointing out deficiencies in the study of Sanskrit (c) Encouraging students to get admission in Fort William College (d) Creating awareness and sensitivity about British culture (e) Making Indians adequately nostalgic Ans: (e) Making Indians adequately nostalgic 317. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word NAIVE as used in the passage. (a) Speculative (b) Abstract (c) Hypothetical (d) Wise (e) Lasting Ans: (d) Wise Naive (Adj.) : lacking experience of life; innocent and simple 318. In the first half of the nineteenth century, writers from some parts of the country (a) appreciated the British rule from rescuing India from the way it was ruled by previous rulers. (b) started appreciating the work of Raja Rammohan Roy. (c) proclaimed themselves as patriotic writers who could save India from cultural aggression. (d) realised the importance of careful and systematic study of ancient Indian texts. (e) provided tacit but strong support to the liberation movement. Ans: (a) appreciated the British rule from rescuing India from the way it was ruled by previous rulers 319. Which awareness had dawned on Indians by the midnineteenth century? (A) The long-term advantages of british rule (B) Rationalistic attitude towards living. (C) Rich historical heritage (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) Only (a) and (C) (e) Only (C) Ans: (e) Only (C) 320. According to the passage what did Raja Rammohan Roy feel about pure Sanskrit education? (a) It would create awareness of our true cultural heritage. (b) It would imbibe the best of spiritual Indian civilization. (c) It would generate nostalgia and strong racial identity. (d) It would help enhance patriotism among people, (e) It would spread abstract metaphysical education. Ans: (e) It would spread abstract metaphysical education 321. Choose the word which is the MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word ABJECT as used in the passage (a) Exalted (b) Negative (c) Absolute (d) Scarce (e) Virtual Ans: (a) Exalted Exalted (Adj.) : full of great joy and happiness. Abject (Adj.) : terrible and without hope 322. Which thoughts, according to the passage, proved imprudent and over-optimistic? (a) Making a distinction between short-term and long-term objectives. (b) It was better for India to have British rule in the short-term. (c) The ideal of patriotism and independence among Indians. (d) Indians would profit more by Sanskrit education. (e) Racial identity is crucial for political independence. Ans: (b) It was better for India to have British rule in the short-term 323. According to the passage which of the following was opposed by Raja Rammohan Roy? (a) Interference of Indians in governance. (b) The tradition of ‘Sati’ and child marriage. (c) Official move to open a Sanskrit College. (d) Orientalist scholars joining Fort William College. (e) Rapid growth of English as a principal medium of instruction. Ans: (c) Official move to open a Sanskrit College 324. According to the passage, which factor brought a sense of racial identity among the Indians? (a) Economic equality among the people. (b) Increasing understanding of the Indian education system. (c) Growing harshness of the British rule. (d) Regional imbalance between India and its neighbours. (e) Growing religious fundamentalism among the people. Ans: (c) Growing harshness of the British rule. 325. Choose the word which is SIMILAR in meaning as the word TUTELAGE used in the passage? (a) Measure (b) Protection (c) Planning (d) Contribution (e) Strategy Ans: (b) Protection Tutelage (N.) : the state of being protected or controlled by another person or organisation. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/ phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Today, the discipline of science that Sir Isaac Newton helped found in the second half of the 17th Century has extended humanity’s horizons to a degree he could scarcely have envisaged. Even though Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006, with the discovery of other similarly sized bodies nearby, the latest mission of America’s space agency NASA to Pluto is expected to produce plenty of data for planetary scientists to pore over. But then the stream of missions to the outer planets- namely Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune- turns into a trickle. At the same time, Cassini was launched in 1997 to explore Saturn and its moons but by 2017 its propellant will be depleted, provided it survives a series of fly-by through Saturn’s rings. It will burn up as it plunges through the planet’s thick atmosphere. Sometime, before 2025 even the stalwart voyage probes, both launched in 1977, will lack the power to continue and send back data. Voyage -1 now in interstellar Mars is the most distant man-made object in the Universe, and Voyage-2 is not far behind. The upshot is that for a decade or so, discoveries will come mostly from objects closer to Earth, regular excursions to Mars are planned. There will also be plenty of instruments launched to look at Earth itself. The hiatus might not end until two proposed space missions are launched in the early 2020s. It seems an abrupt slowdown after a golden age of missions by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). But, building a space probe is both complicated and expensive, it takes years of planning and jostling for funds as well as hefty dose of luck to ensure that complex equipment works well. We are travelling today from some good science and good funding in the 1990s. And money has become much scarcer in recent years. In 1981, the recent high-water mark for NASA, the agency received$25 billion. Its budget fell to a low of $16.9 billion in 2013. Some of NASA’s cash has been shifted to other projects. NASA’s co-operation with ESA on future missions has also been scaled back as a result of budget cuts. The Europeans, by contrast, have kept their funding fairly steady. But, ESA’s budget is just £4.4 billion ($4.9 billion). Other countries are interested in space and have missions under way or in the making, including China, Japan and India. But so far they have no ambitions to venture beyond mars.
Does the coming gap in planetary exploration matter?
Studying the geology, atmospheres and evolution of planets, and comets provides valuable science. Others have loftier ambitions-Keeping planetary science going is critical to the long term survival of the species on this planet. Because space missions have such long lead times, the looming run of years will have deleterious effects even if budgets start to rise again. The concern is that when funding does get back, there will be a missing generation of valuable knowledge almost. It’s really difficult to go through boom and bust cycles since you’ve got to keep the scientific community and the engineers ticking over to maintain the expertise will have in outer solar-system exploration.
326. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the passage?
(a) We are too focused on studying the universe and proving the existence of extraterrestrial life.
(b) Space travel is exclusive to developed countries and this is unlikely to change.
(c) There has been a decline in the quality of scientific discovery in recent times.
(d) Despite huge leaps in planetary science in the past, exploration is unfortunately likely to dwindle now.
(e) Though we have physically explored various planets we are unable to make them habitable.
Ans: (a)
We are too focused on studying the universe and proving the existence of extraterrestrial life.
327. Which of the following can be said about the voyage probes?
(a) These probes have been damaged and are responsible for polluting the galaxy.
(b) These have been obsolete for a long time and should be called as soon as possible.
(c) These have travelled the furthest and provided invaluable insights in the field of planetary science.
(d) Scientists have lost contact with these and worryingly cannot prepare their exact location.
(e) Too many resources are diverted to maintaining these outdated probes.
Ans: (c)
These have travelled the fuarthest and provided invaluable insights in the field of planetary science.
328. Which of the following is/are (a) factor(s) which affect space missions today?
(A) Funding from NASA and ESA to space programme in developing countries.
(B) Scarcity of engineers in the field.
(C) Budgets and advance planning of projects.
(a) Only (C)
(b) Only (b)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (a)
(e) Only (b) and (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (C)
329. What does the phrase ‘It’s really difficult to go through boom-and-bust cycle’ convey?
(a) Space exploration missions have had more failures than successes.
(b) Some economies are still trying to recover from exorbitant space funding in the year 1990s.
(c) Global economic mission since 2000 has resulted in lack of employment for engineers.
(d) Fluctuations in space exploration funding are not desirable.
(e) The durations for space missions should be more optimally planned to avoid wastage of resources.
Ans: (d)
Fluctuations in space exploration funding are not desirable
330. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word MATTER given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Theme
(b) Substance
(c) Suitable
(d) Count
(e) Question
Ans: (d)
Count Matter (V.) : to be important or have an important effect on something; count.
331. What does the author suggest regarding countries such as China, Japan and india?
(A) These countries should increase their budgets for space travel.
(B) These should enter into agreements with developed countries for space exploration.
(C) Their ideas of making Mars habitable are too lofty.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) None of the given options
Ans: (e)
None of the given options
332. What is the author’s view regarding reduction in funds for space exploration?
(a) It will be detrimental as it will hamper scientific discovery and knowledge.
(b) It is an appropriate step as the planet faces more pressing problems.
(c) It is desirable as we have adequate evidence that sustaining life in some planets is too costly.
(d) It is an unwelcome move as several space missions are scheduled this year.
(e) Other than those given as options
Ans: (a)
It will be detrimental as it will hamper scientific discovery and knowledge.
333. What do the statistics on space agency budgets cited in the passage indicate?
(a) Building spacecrafts is becoming more expensive over time.
(b) Space agency budgets vary across countries and within a country over time.
(c) Despite increasing space budgets, there is a lack of innovation in space exploration.
(d) There have been many expensive failures in space missions in recent times.
(e) Asia’s space budget is fast catching up to Europe’s and America’s till present.
Ans: (b)
Space agency budgets vary across countries and within a country over time.
334. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word EXTENDED given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Delayed
(b) Postponed
(c) Amplified
(d) Curtailed
(e) Relaxed
Ans: (d)
Curtailed Curtail (V.) : to limit something or make it last for a shorter time. Extend (V.) : make something longer or larger.
335. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) Collaborations among nations for space exploration has not really worked.
(b) There is conflict among scientists about the classification of planetary bodies.
(c) Studying outer space has implications for life on earth.
(d) The number of space scientists has fallen since the 1990s.
(e) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage.
Ans: (c)
Studying outer space has implications for life on earth.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.
The Arctic is the canary in global-warming. Canaries expired in contact with gases such as carbon monoxide and methane, warning miners to leave the area. The Arctic sea is similarly sensitive to changes which might otherwise not be obvious as the Earth warms up in response to more of another gas, carbon dioxide. The area of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice at the height of summer has been shrinking by 11% a decade for the past 35 years. But the details are obscure-because gathering data in the Arctic Ocean is hard. But, a systematic approach to that gathering has begun. The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) programme, paid for by the United States Navy, has laid dozens of devices. These measure the thickness of the icy layer, and also the salinity, temperature, oxygen concentration, organic-matter composition and movement of the seawater beneath. With luck, the MIZ’s researchers with their elaborate network of sensors and instrument-laden robots known as Seagliders will gather the largest quantity of data yet collected on the seasonal melting of the Arctic ice sheet and thus find out exactly what song the Arctic canary is singing.
Monitoring sea ice is a fairly recent activity. It began seriously in the 1950s, from aboard nuclear submarines.
Satellite monitoring started in 1979. Since then the summer sea ice has shrunk by 12% a decade. That is consistent with the trend predicted by climate-change models over the past three decades, an indication that their mathematical simulations of global warming are roughly right. Scientists have constructed a record of the Arctic past suggests that the summer sea ice that is at its lowest level for at least 2,000 years. Six of the hottest years on record- going back to 1880- have occurred since 2004. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the last time the polar regions were significantly warmer was about 125,000 years ago. This transformation is in fact happening faster than anyone had predicted. According to the scientists, the average thickness of the pack ice has fallen by roughly half since the 1970s, probably for two main reasons. In the summer of 2007, coastal parts of the Arctic Ocean rose to 7°Cbracingly swimmable. The other was a prolonged eastward shift in the early 1990s in the Arctic’s prevailing winds, known as the Arctic Oscillation. This moved a lot of ice into the Atlantic and has not been replaced.
Attention has recently also been focussed on lesserknown greenhouse gases, including ozone and methane, and on soot from diesel exhaust and forest fires. These are known as “short-lived climate forcers”. Though they linger in the atmosphere for a relatively short time, they can have a powerful greenhouse effect. Soot, or black carbon, stays in the atmosphere for an average of six days, whereas carbon dioxide lasts for centuries, even millennia.
Yet black carbon has an unusually potent warming effect in the snowy Arctic because the dark soot, after being rained or snowed onto bright snow or ice, continues to absorb heat. The UN’s Environment programme estimates that reducing black carbon and methane emission could cut Arctic warming by two-thirds over the next three decades. That would not prevent the disappearance of the summer sea ice, but it might delay it by a decade or two.
336. What do the statistics regarding the Arctic climate cited in the passage indicate?
(a) Of late temperatures have been rising.
(b) This year is the hottest in 125,000 years.
(c) Arctic temperatures have remained stable for about two decades.
(d) The Arctic is heating up ten times more quickly than mathematicians predicted.
(e) There is not much change in Arctic temperatures over the millennia.
Ans: (a)
Of late temperatures have been rising
337. What is the author’s view regarding the MIZ’s programme?
(a) He wishes it to be successful as it will provide valuable information about climate change.
(b) He is dissatisfied as it is funded by only one country and its findings are likely to be biased.
(c) It is too costly a venture and these resources should be invested elsewhere.
(d) It utilises cutting edge technology and will be very useful for military operations in the region.
(e) Other than those given as options.
Ans: (a)
He wishes it to be successful as it will provide valuable information about climate change.
338. Which of the following can be said about short lived climate forcers?
(a) These are responsible for delaying the loss of Arctic ice.
(b) Their impact on the climate is very brief.
(c) These are very harmful to the environment.
(d) These have helped ensure relatively stable climate patterns.
(e) These are responsible for delaying the process of Arctic Oscillation.
Ans: (c)
These are very harmful to the environment
339. Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word FAIRLY given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Equally
(b) Honestly
(c) Impartially
(d) Quite
(e) Favourably
Ans: (d)
Quite Fairly (Adv.) : in a fair and reasonable way ; honestly; to some extent but not very; completely ; quite
340. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word HARD given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Undemanding
(b) Delicate
(c) Sensitive
(d) Flexible
(e) Durable
Ans: (a)
Undemanding Hard (Adj.) : difficult to do ; tough ; full of difficulty and problems; needing a lot of skill ; demanding.
341. What does the phrase ‘The Arctic is the canary in global-warming’ conveys?
(a) Global warming has been responsible for the extinction of canaries in the Arctic.
(b) The Arctic has a varied bird life yet to be discovered.
(c) Warm temperatures have made it explore the Arctic.
(d) Canaries surprisingly have proved very useful in exploring the Arctic.
(e) The Arctic is sensitive to changes in climate.
Ans: (e)
The Arctic is sensitive to changes in climate
342. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) International bodies are not taking interest in studying climate change.
(b) The US has made efforts to study the Arctic.
(c) Arctic ice is shifting not melting according to the latest scientific evidence.
(d) Increased exploration in the Arctic is posing a danger to its marine life.
(e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage.
Ans: (b)
The US has made efforts to study the Arctic
343. Which of the following is/are factor(s) which have impacted data gathering in the Arctic?
(A) High concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane.
(B) Conflicts among countries over exploratory rights.
(C) Lack of interest in the Arctic.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (a)
(e) None of the given options
Ans: (e)
None of the given options
344. What does the author suggest regarding monitoring of sea ice?
(A) It is too time consuming and therefore of not much use.
(B) It provides an exaggerated picture of global warming and should be done away with.
(C) It has provided insight into climate patterns both past and future.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (C)
(d) All (b), (a) and (C)
(e) None of the given options
Ans: (d)
All (b), (a) and (C)
345. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the passage?
(a) Scientists need to co-operate among themselves to better understand global warming.
(b) Efforts to understand the Arctic is important as it is an indicator of global warming.
(c) The Arctic is proof that Climate change is a cycle that scientists are unnecessarily alarmed.
(d) Warmer Arctic temperatures will provide scientists and explorers wonderful opportunities.
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Efforts to understand the Arctic is important as it is an indicator of global warming.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(SIDBI Officer Online Exam.24.02.2016)
The main idea conveyed by the report is that our children do not get a chance to enjoy learning at school because the syllabi are irrationally organised, teaching is text-book and the system of examination instils fear and encourages mechanical repetition. Textbooks developed along the lines of reconceptualised syllabi can attempt to integrate positive values, life skills, aesthetic sensibility and concern for the environment. They are interactive and make a conscious effort to point both children and the teachers towards other sources of learning such as neighbourhood, nature etc. In addition two paralled challenges deserve attention. The first is examination reforms. Rigid indifference to individual differences is the major flaw of the present system. From the quality of questions to the manner of evaluation, it favours drilled preparedness and ignores independent thought while the unrealistically high cut-offs in coveted colleges are a further sign of systematic efficiency. It is hardly surprising that the very thought of examinations makes the young impressed. Moreover, practices of splitting unified topics into arbitrary bits carrying small marks value encourage teachers to concentrate on scoring topics overlooking the importance of perspective and overall understanding. Little surprise that many elite high-fee schools are opting for International Baccalaureate not because it offers status with its global certification but for its flexibility and respect for individual differences in learning.
The second area is teacher training, which suffers from obsolete notions. Most teachers are trained mainly to cover the syllabus in a mechanical exam-oriented manner.
By insisting that every child move at the same pace in all subjects, teachers encourage rote learning and ridicule for those who fall behind. Teacher training, whether for nursery or secondary school teachers, should be embedded in courses which have the capacity to develop both the teacher’s personality and perspective on society by linking subject learning with reflective and creative project work. The ultimate responsibility lies with universities and institutes of high learning to ensure the quality of all teachers.
Initiatives to improve the content of teacher training courses will ensure utilisation of desolate university campuses during summer vacations which conceal an enormous waste of infrastructure and expertise. The quality of education is a reflection of the quality of teachers and major improvement in their training and working conditions will motivate the young to pursure a teaching career and determine how India fares in the pursuit of economic and social development in the years to come.
346. According to the auther, what is the major weakness of the present examination system?
(a) Teachers are subjective in their assessment of papers.
(b) Teachers do not take into account the nature of questions asked in the examination.
(c) Cut-off standards for admissions to good institutions need to be raised.
(d) It distinguishes between a creative student and a rote learner.
(e) It does not consider unique learning patterns of students.
Ans: (d)
It distinguishes between a creative student and a rote learner.
347. Which of the following factors is responsible for children’s dislike of learning?
(a) Rigid, local, systematic organisation of syllabus, (b) Teaching methodology which does not focus on text books.
(c) Examination pattern which rewards rote learning.
(a) Both (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only (C)
(d) All (b), (a) and (C)
(e) Other than those given as options.
Ans: (c)
Only (C)
348. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word COVETED given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) priceless
(b) decried
(c) necessary
(d) private
(e) valid
Ans: (a)
Coveted (Adj.) = passionate desire, eagerness, ambition; sought after; priceless. Look at the sentence : There is stiff competition for coveted government jobs.
349. Which of the following is NOT true in context of the passage?
(a) Weak students are at a disadvantage if teachers force students to learn at same speed.
(b) Examinations arouse negative emotions in students.
(c) Holding teacher training courses only during the academic year will help teachers cover the syllabus in an exam-oriented manner.
(d) The responsibility for improving the quality of teachers lies in the hands of universities.
(e) In the present educational system rote learning is encouraged.
Ans: (b)
Examinations arouse negative emotions in students.
350. According to the aurthor, which of the following conditions will influence India’s future development?
(A) Replacing traditional educational systems with globally accepted foreign systems.
(B) Improving employment conditions of teaching staff.
(C) Getting global accreditation for Indian college courses.
(a) Both (b) and (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Both (a) and (C)
(d) Only (a)
(e) Other than those given as options.
Ans: (a)
Both (b) and (a)
351. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word DESOLATE given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) occupied
(b) happy
(c) dejected
(d) repaired
(e) cheerful
Ans: (b)
Desolate (Adj.) = very lonely and unhappy; forlorn; making you feel sad or frightened; dejected Its antonym should be happy.
352. What is the author’s recommendation to universities?
(a) Enforce strict rules so that only those truly interested take up teaching as a profession.
(b) Encourage only creative project work for primary school teachers.
(c) Utilise their infrastructure during the academic year for teacher training.
(d) Pass on responsibility for improving teacher training content to a government body.
(e) other than those given as options.
Ans: (c)
Utilise their infrastructure during the academic year for teacher training.
353. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word OBSOLETE given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) fashion
(b) stylish
(c) present
(d) useless
(e) novel
Ans: (e)
Obsolete (Adj.) = no longer used because something new has been invented; out of date Novel (Adj.) = different from anything known before; new.
354. Why do teachers focus on ‘scoring’ topics?
(a) Faulty examination pattern which divides topics into smaller sections.
(b) Pressure from colleges who want to maintain high cut-offs.
(c) It is an objective of teacher training programmes.
(d) To reduce the nervousness of students curing examination.
(e) Other than those given as options.
Ans: (a)
Faulty examination pattern which divides topics into smaller sections.
355. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word INSTILS given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) causes
(b) teach
(c) orders
(d) inserts
(e) invites
Ans: (a)
Instil (Adj.) = to gradually make somebody feel or behave in a particular way over a period of time). To instil confidence/discipline/ fear into somebody.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
(United Bank of India PGDBF Manipal Exam,07.08.2016)
Last month a black-and-white photograph of a professor from Beijing Jiaotong University spread on social media. His image was edged by a black frame, like those displayed at funerals in China, and trimmed with white flowers of mourning. Though Mao Baohua is still very much alive, he had angered netizens enough to depict him as dead. His crime? To suggest that Beijing should follow the likes of London and Stockholm, by charging drivers yuan ($.50) to enter the capital’s busiest areas in the hope of easing traffic flow in the gridlocked city. Most Chinese urbanites see buying a vehicle as a rite of passage: a symbol of wealth, status and autonomy, as it once was in America. Hence their outrage at any restraint on driving. Since car ownership is more concentrated among middle-and high-income earners in China than it is in richer countries, any attack on driving is, in effect, essentially aimed at the middle class, a group the Communist Party is keen to keep on side. That makes it hard to push through changes its members dislike. Since 2009 officials in Beijing and the southern city of Guangzhou have repeatedly aired the idea of introducing congestion charges. Netizens have fought back, accusing their governments of being lazy, brutal and greedy. Many also gripe that the policy would be “unfair” because the fee would have less impact on the super-rich. Complaints about the inequality of congestion charging echo those made in London and other cities before they launched such schemes. But the party, nervous of being accused of straying from socialism, is particularly sensitive to accusations that it is favouring the wealthiest. Because of such objections, city governments have not pushed their proposals very hard. But that is now changing in Beijing, where officials face a dilemma. Traffic jams in the city and appalling air pollution—30% of which comes from vehicle fumes, by official reckoning— may end up causing as much popular resentment as any surcharge. The local government is trying to work out how close it is to this tipping point. It is conducting surveys to “pressure test” how people would react to a congestion fee, says Yuan Yue of Horizon, China’s biggest polling company (the results will not be made public). It is likely that a concrete plan for a congestion charge will be announced soon. Beijing’s environmental and transport departments (not usual partners) are collaborating on a draft. State media have recently published a flurry of articles about this, not all in favour. Public opinion is not the only challenge a congestion scheme faces. The urban planners who conceived Beijing’s layout, and that of other Chinese cities, never imagined that so many people would want to drive. The capital now has 3.6m privately owned cars: the number per 1,000 people in Beijing has increased an astonishing 21-fold since 2000, according to our sister company, the Economist Intelligence Unit (see chart). On most days large tracts of the capital are now bumper to bumper amid a cacophony of car horns. Beijingers have the longest average commute of any city in China, according to data collected by Baidu, a Chinese search engine. The problem is not confined to Beijing. The capital has higher vehicle ownership than any other Chinese city, but car use is rising rapidly across the country. Many second- and third-tier cities are already clogged. Beijing’s congestion scheme would be the first outside the rich world, where a handful of cities now charge drivers to enter a designated area. Singapore has a different form of road pricing, with tolls on individual arterial roads. Such measures have been credited with reductions in downtown car-use, improved traffic flow and greater use of public transport. They have also cut pollution, including emissions of the tiny PM2.5 particles that are particularly dangerous to health and abundant in Beijing’s air. 356. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct in the context of the given passage? I. Mao Baohua is an alive professor of Jiaotong University, Beijing. II. Mao Baohua advocated that Beijing should charge drivers Yuan to enter the capital’s busiest areas. III. Mr. Baohua has always been a good teacher of philosophy and is respected by students. (a) Only II (b) Only I (c) Only I and II (d) Only II and III (e) All three I, II and III Ans: (c) Only I and II 357. What was the crime of professor Mao Baohua so that his image was displayed on social media like a dead? (a) Mao Baohua is a proponent of rural development. (b) Mao Baohua is fighting against corruption that angered netizens. (c) Mao Baohua is against child marriage and always hammers old traditions. (d) Mao Baohua suggested to charge drivers to enter Beijing in the hope of easing traffic flow in the gridlocked city (e) None of these Ans: (d) Mao Baohua suggested to charge drivers to enter Beijing in the hope of easing traffic flow in the gridlocked city 358. Which of the following statement(s) is/are not True in the context of the given passage? I. Since 2001 officials in Beijing and the Southern city of Guangzhou have been airing the idea of introducing congestion charges. II. Most Chinese urbanites see buying a vehicle as a rite of passage. III. Car ownership is not concentrated among middle and high income earners in China. (a) Only III (b) Only I (c) Only I and II (d) Only I and III (e) None of these Ans: (d) Only I and III 359. As the content of the passage suggests which of the following is not true? (a) State media have published a flurry of articles all in favour regarding congestion charge. (b) Yuan Yue is associated with Horizon, China’s biggest polling company. (c) Beijing has 3.6 million privately owned cars. (d) Most Chinese buy a vehicle as a symbol of wealth, status and autonomy, as it once was in America (e) None of these Ans: (a) State media have published a flurry of articles all in favour regarding congestion charge. 360. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct as the context of the passage conveys? I. The number of cars per 1000 people in Beijing has increased an astonishing 21-fold since 2000. II. Beijingers have the longest average commute of any city in China. III. Baidu is a Chinese search engine (a) Only II (b) Only I (c) Only I and III (d) Only II and III (e) All three I, II and III Ans: (e) All three I, II and III 361. Select the incorrect statement. (a) Measures taken by Singapore regarding charging drivers have not improved traffic flow. (b) Singapore has a different form of road pricing, with tolls on individual arterial roads. (c) Beijing has higher vehicle ownership than any other Chinese city. (d) PM 2.5 particles that are particularly dangerous to health are abundant in Beijing’s air. (e) None of these. Ans: (a) Measures taken by Singapore regarding charging drivers have not improved traffic flow. Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage? 362. Trimmed (a) decorated (b) cut short (c) enlarged (d) trivial (e) trodden Ans: (a) Trim (Verb) = to decorate something especially around its edges. Trimmed (Adj.) Þ decorated. Look at the sentence : I have bought a pair of gloves trimmed with fur. 363. Gripe (a) associate (b) praise (c) complain (d) encourage (e) afford Ans: (c) Gripe (Verb) = to complain about somebody/ something in annoying way. Look at the sentence : He is always griping about the people at work. Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 364. Resentment (a) unhappiness (b) anger (c) resemblance (d) reticence (e) happiness Ans: (e) Resentment (Noun) = a feeling of anger or unhappiness about something that you think is unfair. Look at the sentence : She could not conceal the deep resentment she felt at the way she had been treated. 365. Cacophony (a) cackle (b) unpleasant sounds (c) cadaver (d) serenity (e) calamity Ans: (d) Cacophony (Noun) = sound that is loud or not harmonious ; noise ; din ; discord ; bustle. Serenity = calm and peace Look at the sentence : The hotel offers a haven of peace and serenity away from the cacophony of the city. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Education in most of the developing world is shocking. Half the children in South Asia and a third of those in Africa who complete four years of schooling cannot read properly. In India, 60% of six-to-14-year-olds cannot read at the level of a child who has finished two years of schooling. Most governments have proposed to provide universal primary education and to promote secondary education. But even when public schools exist, they often fail to do so. Results of the survey conducted in this respect by the World Bank depicted worrisome results. In rural Indian schools, a quarter of teachers were absent. In Africa, the teacher-absenteeism rates ranged between %. Pakistan recently discovered that it had over 8,000 nonexistent state schools, 17% of the total. Sierra Leone spotted 6,000 ’ghost’ teachers, nearly a fifth the number on the state payroll. Powerful teachers’ union are part of the problem. They often see jobs as hereditary sinecures, the State-education budget as a revenue stream to be milked and any attempt to monitor the quality of education as an intrusion. The union can be fearsome enemies, so governments leave them to run schools in the interests of teachers rather than pupils. The failure of State education, combined with the shift in emerging economies from farming to jobs that need at least a modicum of education, has caused a private-school boom. According to the World Bank, across the developing world, a fifth of primary-school pupils are enrolled in private schools twice, as many as 20 years ago. So many private schools are unregistered that the real figure is likely to be much higher. A census in Lagos found 12,000 private schools, four times as many as on government records. Across Nigeria, 26% of primary-age children were in private schools in 2010, up from 18% in 2004. In India in 2013, 29% were, up from 19% in 2006. In Liberia and Sierra Leone, around 60% and 50% respectively of secondary- schools enrolments are private. By and large, politicians and educationalists are unenthusiastic. Governments see education as the State’s job. Teachers’ union dislike private schools because they pay less and are harder to organise in NGOs tend to be ideologically opposed to the private sector. The UN special rapporteur on education has said that ‘for-profit education should not be allowed in order to safeguard the noble cause of education. This attitude harms those whom educationalists claim to serve children. The boom in private education is excellent news for them and their countries, for three reasons. First, it is bringing in money- not just from parents, but also from investors, some in search of a profit. Most private schools in the developing world are single operators that charge a few dollars a month, but chains are now emerging. Bridge International Academies, for instance, has 400 nursery and primary schools in Kenya and Uganda which teach in standardised classrooms that look rather like stacked shipping containers. It plans to expand into Nigeria and India. Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s founder, Bill Gates and the International Finance Corporation, the World Bank’s private-sector arm, are among its investors. Chains are a healthy development, because they have reputation to guard. Second, private schools are often better value for money than State ones. Measuring this is hard, since the children who go to private schools tend to be better off and therefore likely to perform better. But a rigorous four-year study of 6,000 pupils in Andhra Pradesh, in southern India, suggested that private pupils perform better in English and Hindi than public-school pupils and at a similar level in mathematics and Telugu, the local language. The private schools achieved these results at a third of the cost of the public schools. Lastly, private schools are innovative. Since technology has great (though as yet mostly unrealised) potential in education, this could be important. Bridge gives teachers tablets linked to a central system that provides teaching materials and monitors their work. Such robo-teaching may not be ideal, but it is better than lessons without either materials or monitoring. Critics of the private sector are right that it has problems. Quality ranges from top-notch international standard to not much more than cheap child care. But the alternative is often a public school that is worse — or no school at all. 366. As mentioned in the passage, the boom in education sector, brought in by the private education, is welcomed because ______. (A) It provides a platform for bringing in innovative practices. (B) It focuses on educating children on a large scale. (C) It encourages investment from all stakeholders. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Both (b) and (C) (d) Only (C) (e) Both (a) and (C) Ans: (c) Both (b) and (C) 367. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage? (a) Keeping track of the number of mushrooming private schools is easy in the developing world. (b) Private schools in Africa function better as compared to those in Sierra Leone. (c) The education sector in Liberia is mainly dominated by public schools. (d) Stand alone education institutions are better managed as compared to chains of schools. (e) None of the given statements is true. Ans: (e) None of the given statements is true. 368. Which of the following is most nearly the opposite in meaning as the word ‘SAFEGUARD’ as used in the passage? (a) shield (b) threaten (c) misfortune (d) violent (e) default Ans: (b) Safeguard (Verb) = to protect something from loss, harm or damage; to keep something safe. Threaten (Verb) = to endanger; put at risk). Look at the sentences : (i) The new card will safeguard the company against fraud. (ii) Pollution is threatening marine life. 369. Which of the following is most nearly the opposite in meaning as the word ‘UNENTHUSIASTIC’ as used in the passage? (a) passionate (b) illogical (c) apathetic (d) kind (e) distressed Ans: (a) Unenthusiastic (Adj.) = not feeling or showing a lot of excitement and interest about something/somebody). Passionate (Adj.) = having or showing strong feelings of enthusiasm for something. 370. The data with respect to the failure of public schools _____. (a) identified loopholes in the existing pedagogy followed by most public schools. (b) depicted the real picture of the education sector in the developed world. (c) brought to the fore the fact that teachers must undergo constant training. (d) highlighted the fact that a good number of schools and teachers existed only on paper. (e) emphasised the point that absenteeism from school was a problem that existed only in the developing world. Ans: (e) emphasised the point that absenteeism from school was a problem that existed only in the developing world. 371. Which of the following correctly explains the meaning of the phrase, ‘hereditary sinecures’ as used in the passage for jobs? (a) These are inherited by female members of the family and passed on from generation to generation. (b) These can be acquired only on the basis of merit. (c) These are acquired with minimum effort and involve little or no work. (d) These are married by insecurities. (e) These are not at all lucrative. Ans: (c) These are acquired with minimum effort and involve little or no work. 372. Which of the following is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word ‘MILKED’ as used in the passage? (a) exploited (b) saved (c) expressed (d) outsourced (e) managed Ans: (a) Milk (Verb) = to obtain as much money, advantage etc. for yourself as you can from a particular situation; exploit. Look at the sentence : She has milked the company of a small fortune. 373. As mentioned in the passage, teachers’ unions pose a threat to the education system because _______. (A) they have a strong network of student volunteers. (B) they always think about betterment of students at the cost of interests of teachers (C) they follow controversial methods of teaching. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Both (b) & (a) (d) Only (C) (e) None of the given (b). (a) & (C) Ans: (e) None of the given (b). (a) & (C) 374. Which of following is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘MODICUM’ as used in the passage? (a) strategy (b) minimum (c) medium (d) abundance (e) relief Ans: (b) Modicum (Noun) = a fairly small amount especially of something good or pleasant. Look at the sentence : They should win, given a modicum of luck. 375. Which of the following is the central theme of the passage? (a) Provisions for making teacher unions an integral part of the education system. (b) Exploring methods to implement education models from the western world. (c) Exploring the role played by the technology to better the education sector in the developed world. (d) Concerns surrounding the education system in the developing world. (e) Critically analysing the loopholes in the private sector. Ans: (d) Concerns surrounding the education system in the developing world. Directions: Read the following passage and answer the given questions. ) After the Second World War, the leaders of the Western world tried to build institutions to prevent the conflicts of the preceding decades from recurring. They wanted to foster both prosperity and interdependence, to ‘make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible’. Their work bore fruit. Expanded global trade has raised incomes around the world. While globalisation is sometimes portrayed as a corporate plot against the workers; that was not how it was seen before 1914. British trade unions were in favour of free trade, which kept down food prices for their members and also opened up markets for the factories in which they worked. Yet, as the Brexit vote demonstrates globalisation now seems to be receding. Most economists have been blindsided by the backslash. Free trade can be a hard sell politically. The political economy of trade is treacherous. Its benefits, though substantial, are dilute, but its costs are often concentrated. This gives those affected a strong incentive to push for protectionism. Globalisation itself thus seems to create forces that erode political support for integration. Deeper economic integration required harmonisation of laws and regulations across countries. Differences in rules on employment contracts or product safety requirements, for instance, act as barriers to trade. Trade agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership focus more on “non-tariff barriers” than they do on tariff reduction. The net impact of this is likely to be that some individuals, consumers and businesses are not likely to be as benefitted as others and given rise to discontent. Thus the consequences of such trade agreements often run counter to popular preferences. Joseph Stiglitz , a Nobel Prize winner, has warned that companies influence over trade rules harms workers and erodes support for trade liberalisation. Clumsy government efforts to compensate workers hurt by globalisation contributed to the global financial crisis, by facilitating excessive household borrowing, among other things. Researchers have also documented how the cost of America’s growing trade with China has fallen disproportionately on certain American cities. Such costs perpetuate a cycle of globalisation. Periods of global integration and technological progress generate rising inequality, which inevitably triggers two countervailing forces, one beneficial and one harmful. On the one hand, governments tend to respond to rising inequality by increasing redistribution and investing in education, on the other, inequality leads to political upheaval and war. The first great era of globalisation, which ended in 1914, gave way to a long period of declining inequality, in which harmful forces played a bigger rise than beneficial ones. History might repeat itself, he warns. Such warnings do not amount to arguments against globalisation. As many economists are quick to note, the benefits of openness are massive. It is increasingly clear, however, that supporters of economic integration underestimated the risks both that big slices of society would feel left behind and that nationalism would continue to provide an alluring alternative. Either error alone might have undercut support for globalisation and the relative peace and prosperity it has brought in combination, they threaten to reverse it. 376. What can be concluded from the example of Britain cited in the passage? (a) Trade unions are losing their influence. (b) Countries which previously supported globalisation no longer do. (c) Agriculture has suffered in most developed countries. (d) Britain has not recovered from the financial crisis. (e) Technological progress boosts economic growth tremendously. Ans: (d) Britain has not recovered from the financial crisis. 377. Which of the following has/have been the outcome(s) of global integration? (A) Laws have become fairer for all. (B) Trade unions have become more peaceful. (C) Trade has grown substantially. (a) Only (b) (b) Only (C) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) Only (b) and (C) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (b) Only (C) 378. Which of the following is the author’s view of Trans- Pacific Partnership? (a) It will be proved beneficial to all workers. (b) It is likely to face opposition. (c) It will reduce tariffs effectively. (d) Trade with China will suffer. (e) None of the given options Ans: (b) It is likely to face opposition. 379. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage? (a) Governments are making efforts to help workers hurt by globalisation. (b) The first era of a globalisation resulted in a decline in inequality. (c) Standardising policy regulations will boost economic integration. (d) Technology has exacerbated the ill-effects of globalisation. (e) All of the given options are true in the context of the passage. Ans: (e) All of the given options are true in the context of the passage. 380. Which of the following best explains the phrase “Such warnings do not amount to arguments against globalisation” in the context of the passage? (a) Globalisation is beneficial to all. (b) Most economists are unnecessarily alarmist about globalisation. (c) Do not do away with globalisation but take concerns about globalisation seriously. (d) Politicians warn against globalisation during elections but actually support it. (e) We cannot reverse globalisation but we must stall it. Ans: (c) Do not do away with globalisation but take concerns about globalisation seriously. 381. Which of the following can be said about America’s trade with China? (a) Worker’s wages have risen tenfold. (b) America’s discontent against globalisation has fallen. (c) America has been badly hit by the slowdown in China. (d) It has been especially harmful for certain American cities. (e) None of the given options can be said. Ans: (e) None of the given options can be said. 382. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Globalisation is receding and its decline should be speeded up. (b) Protectionism is the only way for developed countries to retain stability. (c) While politicians are in favour of globalisation, economists are not. (d) While developed countries are on the decline emerging ones are rising. (e) The backlash against globalisation is serious and must be handled carefully. Ans: (d) While developed countries are on the decline emerging ones are rising. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. ) Governments looking for easy popularity have frequently been tempted into announcing give-a-ways of all sorts; free electricity, virtually free water, subsidized food, cloth at half price, and so on. The subsidy culture has gone to extremes. The richest farmers in the country get subsidized fertilizers. University education, typically accessed by the wealthier sections, is charged at a fraction of cost. Postal services are subsidized, and so are railway services. Bus fares cannot be raised to economical levels because there will be violent protest, so bus travel is subsidized too. In the past, price control on a variety of items, from steel to cement, meant that industrial consumer of these items got them at less than actual cost, while the losses of the public sector companies that produced them were borne by the taxpayer! A study done a few years ago, came to the conclusion that subsidies in the Indian economy total as much as 14.5 per cent of gross domestic product. At today’s level, that would work out to about Rs. 1,50,000 crore. And who pay the bill? The theory-and the political fiction on the basis of which it is sold to unsuspecting votersis that subsidies go the poor, and are paid for by the rich. The fact is that most subsidies go the ‘rich’ (defined in the Indian context as those who are above the poverty line), and much of the tab goes indirectly to the poor. Because the hefty subsidy bill results in fiscal deficits, which in turn push up rates of inflation-which, as everyone knows, hits the poor the hardest of all. That is why taxmen call inflation the most regressive form of taxation. The entire subsidy system is built on the these is that people cannot help themselves, therefore governments must do so. That people cannot afford to pay for variety of goods and services, and therefore the government must step in. This thesis has been applied not just in the poor countries but in the rich ones as well; hence the birth of the welfare state in the west, and an almost Utopian social security system; free medical care, food aid, old age security, etc. But with the passage of time, most of the wealthy nations have discovered that their economies cannot sustain this social safety net, which in fact reduces the desire among people to pay their own way, and takes away some of the incentives to work, in short, the bill was unaffordable, and their societies were simply not willing to pay. To the regret of many, but because of the laws of economies are harsh, most Western societies have been busy pruning the welfare bill. In India, the lessons of this experience over several decades, and in many countries-do not seem to have been learnt. Or they are simply ignored in the pursuit of immediate votes. People who are promised cheap food or clothing do not in most cases look beyond the gift horses-to the question of who picks up the tab. The uproar over higher petrol, diesel and cooking gas prices ignored this basic question; if the user of cooking gas does not want to pay for its cost, who should pay? Diesel in the country is subsidised, and if the user of cooking gas does not want to pay for its full cost, who does he or she think should pay the balance of the cost? It is a simple question, nevertheless it remains unasked. The Deva Gowda government had shown some courage in biting the bullet when it comes to the price of petroleum products. But it has been bitten by much bigger subsidy bug. It wants to offer food at half its cost to everyone below the poverty line, supposedly estimated at some 380 million people. What will be the cost? And of course, who will pick up the tab? The Andhara Pradesh Government has been bankrupted by selling rice as Rs. 2 per Kg. Should the Central Government be bankrupted too, before facing up to the question of what is affordable and what is not? Already, India is perennially short of power because the subsidy on electricity has bankrupted most electricity boards, and made private investment wary unless it gets all manner of state guarantees. Delhi’s subsidised bus fares have bankrupted the Delhi Transport Corporation, whose buses have slowly disappeared from the capital’s streets. It is easy to be soft and sentimental, by looking at programmes that will be popular. After all, who does’ not like a free lunch? But the evidence is surely mounting that the lunch isn’t free at all. Somebody is paying the bill. And if you want to know who, take at the country’s poor economic performance over the years. 383. Which of the following should not be subsidised over the years? (a) Postal services (b) University education (c) Steel (d) Other than those given as options (e) All of the above options Ans: (e) All of the above options 384. The statement that ‘subsidies are paid by the rich and go to the poor’ is: (a) fact (b) fiction (c) fact, according to the author (d) fiction, according to the author (e) Other than those given as options Ans: (d) fiction, according to the author 385. Why do you think that the author calls the Wetsern social security system Utopian? (a) The system followed by these countries is the best available in the present context. (b) The countries belief in the efficacy of the system was bound to turn out to be false. (c) Everything under this system was supposed to be free but people were charging money for them. (d) The theory of system followed by these countries was devised by Dr. Utopia. (e) All the options are responsible. Ans: (b) The countries belief in the efficacy of the system was bound to turn out to be false. 386. It can be inferred from the passage that the author (a) believes that the theory of helping with subsidy is very destructive. (b) believes that people can help themselves and do not need the government. (c) believes in democracy and free speech. (d) is not a successful politician. (e) believes that subsidies are the best way to help poor. Ans: (a) believes that the theory of helping with subsidy is very destructive. 387. Which of the following is not a victim of extreme subsidies? (a) The Delhi-Transport Corporation (b) The poor (c) The Andhra Pradesh Government (d) other than those given as options (e) The rich Ans: (e) The rich 388. Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage? (a) Inflation is caused by too much subsidies. (b) Where subsidies are concerned, the poor ultimately pay the tab. (c) Experts call subsidies the most regressive form of taxation. (d) Fiscal deficits are caused due to heavy subsidy bills. (e) None of the following is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (b) Where subsidies are concerned, the poor ultimately pay the tab. 389. A suitable title to the passage would be: (a) The Economic Overview (b) There’s no such thing as a free lunch (c) Deva Gowda’s Government and its Follies (d) It takes Two to Tango (e) The Rich and The Poor: Extreme Partiality Ans: (b) There’s no such thing as a free lunch Direction : Read the following passage and answer the given questions. Politics is local but most problems are international. That is the fundamental problem for national governments caught between the twin forces of globalisation and voters’ anger. The European refugee crisis, for example, seems to cry out for a continent-wide solution. But the tide of migrants has been vast and national governments have been tempted to put up barriers first, and answer questions later. The latest example saw Sweden introduce checks on those travelling from Denmark, leading the turn country, in turn, to impose temporary controls on its southern border with Germany. Anti-immigration parties have been gaining in the polls, with the exception of the German Chancellor; mainstream politicians want to head off the challenge. In a way, this looks like the same mismatch that has plagued the euro a single currency without a unitary fiscal and political authority. Many economists have advocated much greater integration of the euro zone in the wake of the bloc’s crisis. The European banking system would be stronger if there was a comprehensive deposit-insurance scheme, the economy would be more balanced if there were fiscal transfers from rich to poor countries. But such plans are unpopular with voters in rich countries (who perceive them as handouts) and in poor countries (who worry about the implied loss of local control that reforms would require). All that the European Union’s (EU) leaders have managed so far is to cobble together solutions (such as the Greek bail-outs) at the last minute. Gone is the pledge of unity of the G20’s summit in London in 2009, when leaders agreed on a co-ordinated stimulus in response to the financial crisis. Central banks are now heading in different directions, the Federal Reserve has just tightened monetary policy while the European Central Bank and the Bank of Japan are committed to easing. Trade creates tighter links between countries, but global trade growth has been sluggish in recent years. The OECD thinks that trade grew by only 2% in volume in 2015. No longer is trade rising faster than Global GDP, as it was before the crisis. International agreements require compromise, which leaves politicians vulnerable to criticism from inflexible components. Voters are already dissatisfied with their lot after years of sluggish gains (or declines) in living standards. When populist politicians suggest that voters’ woes are all the fault of foreigners, they find a ready audience. Furthermore, economic woes can lead to much more aggressive foreign policy. In the developed world, demographic constraints (a static or shrinking workforce) may limit the scope for the kind of rapid growth needed to reduce the debt burden and make voters happier. Boosting that sluggish growth rate through domestic reforms (breaking up producer cartels, making labour markets more flexible) is very hard because such reforms arouse strong opposition from those affected. The danger is that a vicious cycle sets in. Global problems are not tackled because governments fail to co-operate, voters get angrier and push their leaders into more nationalistic positions and conflict which poses a threat to all. 390. What can be concluded from the example of the Greek bailout cited in the passage? (a) The approach to the Greek financial crisis by Euro zone was not appropriate. (b) There is tremendous political turmoil in Greece. (c) Greece has recovered from the financial crisis. (d) A comprehensive system of deposit insurance need not to be effective. (e) Greece is on the verge of another financial bailout. Ans: (a) The approach to the Greek financial crisis by Euro zone was not appropriate. 391. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Globalisation is on the decline which will reduce social unrest. (b) A unified approach to regional issues is unwanted and impractical. (c) Unlike America and Asia, Europe is in severe financial difficulty. (d) International co-operation is declining which is dangerous. (e) Restoring faith in developed economies will take a long time. Ans: (d) International co-operation is declining which is dangerous. 392. Which of the following has/have been the outcome(s) of economic woes? (A) Uncompromising or antagonistic foreign policy. (B) An all-powerful single financial regulator for Europe. (C) Drop in trade volumes. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (C) (d) Only (a) and (C) (e) None of (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (c) Only (b) and (C) 393. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage? (a) Europe needs greater economic integration. (b) It is difficult for developed countries to achieve a high growth rate at present. (c) Politicians need to take the right steps rather than popular ones. (d) Anti-globalisation sentiment is quite high. (e) All of the given options are true in the context of the sentence. Ans: (e) All of the given options are true in the context of the sentence. 394. Which of the following can be said about the G20 summit in London in 2009? (a) Countries did not follow-up with a harmonised approach to the crisis. (b) It was organised to address the fallout of the financial crisis. (c) Sentiments of unity were expressed at the summit. (d) It was unsuccessful as assurances did not translate into action. (e) All the given options can be said. Ans: (e) All the given options can be said. 395. Which of the following best explains the phrase ‘The danger is that a vicious cycle sets in’ in the context of the passage? (a) With rise in income, consumption is boosted and so is debt. (b) Failure to sacrifice individual interests for common good perpetuates global problems. (c) Having common reforms take away a country’s autonomy. (d) Boosting trade with OECD countries makes economies vulnerable to oil price fluctuations. (e) A shrinking workforce in developed and developing countries worsens poverty. Ans: (b) Failure to sacrifice individual interests for common good perpetuates global problems. 396. Which of the following is the author’s view of the refugee crisis? (a) To stem migration, rich countries need to safeguard their borders. (b) It is an unmanageable problem controlling Europe and Asia. (c) Politicians have responded appropriately. (d) A joint approach is required to resolve the crisis. (e) None of the given options. Ans: (d) A joint approach is required to resolve the crisis. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given. Certain words/ phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Life is expensive for America’s poor, with financial services the primary culprit; something that also afflicts migrants sending money home. Some 8% of American households- and nearly one in three whose income is less than$15000 a year- do not have a bank account. More than half of this group say banking is too expensive for them. Many cannot maintain the minimum balance necessary to avoid monthly fees; for others; the risk of being walloped with unexpected fees becomes too large.
Doing without banks makes life costlier; but in a routine way. Cashing a pay cheque at a credit union or similar outlet typically costs % of the cheque’s value.
The unbanked often end up paying two sets of fees- one to turn their pay cheque into cash, another to turn their cash into a money order- says Joe Valents of the Centre for American Progress, a think-tank. In 2008, the Brookings Institution, another think-tank, estimated that such fees can accumulate to $40,000 over the career of a fulltime worker. Pre-paid debit cards are growing in popularity as an alternative to bank accounts. A renowned consultancy estimates that deposits on such cards rose by 5% to$570 billion in 2014. Though receiving wages or benefits on pre-paid cards is cheaper than cashing cheques, such cards typically charge plenty of other fees. Many States issue their own pre-paid cards to dispense welfare payments.
As a result, those who do not live near the right bank lose out, either from ATM withdrawal charges or from a long trek to make a withdrawal. Other terms can rankle; in Indiana; welfare cards allow only one free ATM withdrawal a month. If claimants check their balance at a machine, it costs 40 cents.
To access credit, poor typically rely on high-cost payday lenders. In 2013 the median such loan was $350, lasted two weeks and carried a charge of$15 per $100 borrowed- an interest rate of 322% (a typical credit card charges 15%). Nearly half of those who borrowed using payday loans did so more than ten times in 2013, with the median borrower paying$458 in fees. In 2014 nearly half of American households said they could not cover an unexpected $400 expense without borrowing or selling something. 2% said this would cause them to resort to payday lending. Costly credit does not mix well with lumpy welfare payments. The earned-income tax credit (EITC), an income top-up for poor families, is paid annually, as part of a tax refund. The total refund can run into thousands of dollars, making it worth more than many families’ monthly pay cheque. Unsurprisingly, cash-strapped households seek to borrow against this windfall in advance. Regulators have recently nudged banks away from issuing highcost short-term loans secured against imminent tax refunds. But it is still common to borrow to cover the cost of applying for the EITC. In 2014 almost 22 million consumers used ‘refund anticipation cheques’, which offer a loan to pay the filing costs and collect repayment automatically when the refund arrives. These products typically costs between$25 and $60 for credit that lasts only a few weeks. How might financial services be made cheaper for the poor? Mobile banking looks promising. But the poor are not yet well placed to benefit from the mobile revolution, in financial services or otherwise. Only half of those earning less than$30,000 per year own a smartphone, compared with 70% of more of those in higher income groups. Nearly, half those who do manage it have had to temporarily cancel their service for financial reasons. That might itself be the result of disparate prices; those with poor credit ratings rely on pre-paid SIM cards, which unlike normal monthly contracts do not come with a hefty discount for the handset. Low smartphone preparation in turn makes life more expensive in other ways. The unconnected do not benefit from the cheap communication, education and even transport the app economy provides.
A quarter of poor households do not use the internet at all, which makes seeking out low prices harder.
397. As mentioned in the passage, many poor American are reluctant to open a bank account because ____________.
(A) they prefer traditional methods of handling their finances.
(B) they are unwilling to provide the required documents.
(C) they find it difficult to fulfil the requirements stipulated by banks.
(a) Only B
(b) Only A
(c) Only C
(d) Both B and C
(e) Both A and C
Ans: (c)
Only C
398. Which of the following is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘RANKLE’ as used in the passage?
(a) beware
(c) irk
(d) appease
(e) written
Ans: (c)
Rankle (Verb) = if something such as an event or a remark rankles, it makes you feel angry or upset for a longtime; irk. Look at the sentence : Her comments still rankled.
399. As mentioned in the passage, one of the reasons mobile banking may prove to be a costly affair for the poor is _________.
(a) they are unable to take advantage of the services owing to financial reasons.
(b) there are not enough service providers to cater to the needs of these segment of people.
(c) incidences of theft of mobile phones is high.
(d) there are no latest hi-tech smartphones available to the poor.
(e) None of the given options
Ans: (a)
they are unable to take advantage of the services owing to financial reasons.
400. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word ‘PROMISING’ as used in the passage?
(a) worthwhile
(b) hopeless
(c) desperate
(d) tangible
(e) unhappy
Ans: (b)
Promising (Adj.) = showing signs of being good or successful ; hopeful. Look at the sentence : He was voted the most promising new actor for his part in the movie.
401. Which of the following is most nearly the same in meaning to the word ‘NUDGED’ as used in the passage?
(a) overwhelmed
(b) pushed
(c) judged
(d) welcomed
(e) annoyed
Ans: (b)
Nudge (Verb) = to push somebody gently or gradually ; to reach a particular position. Look at the sentence : Inflation is nudging 20%.
402. As mentioned in the passage, pre-paid Cards are gaining popularity because ________.
(A) It is very convenient to withdraw money using such cards.
(B) These are durable.
(C) These make provision to withdraw money without any additional fee.
(a) Only B
(b) Only A
(c) Only C
(d) Only A and B
(e) Only B and C
Ans: (b)
Only A
403. Which of the following is most nearly the opposite in meaning to the word DISPARATE as used in the passage?
(a) similar
(b) distant
(c) equity
(d) anonymous
(e) destructive
Ans: (a)
Disparate (Adj.) = so different from each other that they cannot be compared.
404. Which of the following can be a suitable title for the passage?
(a) Technology- The Only Tool To Alleviate The Poor
(b) Living the American Dream- Not A Distant Dream Anymore
(c) Understanding The Household Economics
(d) Exploring A Rich Nation Of Poor People
(e) Innovative Ways Of Banking And Their Success Stories
Ans: (e)
Innovative Ways Of Banking And Their Success Stories
405. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) Welfare programs for uplifting the poor have been extremely fruitful so far.
(b) More than seventy per cent of those who earn less than $30,000 per year do not have smartphones. (c) The EITC is given bi-annually to support the poor (d) Payday lenders are quite popular among the poor (e) All the given options are true Ans: (a) Welfare programs for uplifting the poor have been extremely fruitful so far. 406. Which of the following explains the meaning of the phrase ‘looms too large’ as used in the passage? (a) Is acceptable (b) Can be taken care of (c) Is awaited (d) Is morbid (e) Appears threatening Ans: (e) Loom large = to be worrying or frightening and seem hard to avoid. Look at the sentence : The prospect of war loomed large. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. (Indian Bank PO (Pre.) Exam, 21.01.2017 (Ist Sitting) ) Once upon a time, there was a boy named Lenny. Lenny invented all kinds of contraptions. One day Lenny decided he wanted to fly. “I am going to invent some wings and fly,” Lenny told his friend Rudy. “You’re crazy. You won’t even get off the ground,” said Rudy. “You’ll see’, said Lenny. So he went down to his workshop and began working. Day and night, he worked. No one saw Lenny for weeks. Then one day he came out of his workshop with a great big grin on his face. He called Rudy on the phone, “Rudy, tomorrow I will fly, but I need your help.” said Lenny. “Have you made wings?” asked Rudy. “Yes,” said Lenny. “They’re a little heavy though. I need you to help me drag them up to the top of Kill Devil Hill. I made them out of some scrap metal. I had laying around from when I built my helicopter last year,” said Lenny. “Metal! Don’t you think that will be too heavy to use for wings?” asked Rudy. “No, I will be like a human airplane,” said Lenny. “Ok, I will be over and we’ll try them out,” said Rudy. The next morning they dragged the wings up to the top of the hill and Lenny strapped them on. “The faster I run, the lighter they will get. The wind will lift me up and I will be flying,” said Lenny, quite confidently. So, Lenny backed up about fifty feet and started running. As he ran, the weight of the wings started to wear out his legs and he got lower and lower to the ground. Just as he got to the crest of the hill, his legs gave out and he skidded across the ground on his face. “I guess you may be right they are a little heavy, but I know the shape is just right. I will just go back to the workshop and make them out of something lighter,” said Lenny. A couple of weeks later Lenny called up Rudy, “I’ve done it,” said Lenny. “I reworked the wings. I made them out of wood and tissue paper. These things are so light I may get going by simple jumping off the roof.” When Rudy arrived, Lenny was already up on the roof with these wings. Lenny backed up a little and took a quick dash and a jump. SMACK! The wings broke right off and Lenny landed on his head in the middle of some bushes next to the house. “ I guess they may have been a little weak, but I know the shape is just right. I will just go back to the workshop and make them out of something not as heavy as the scrap metal and not as light as the tissue paper,” said Lenny. A couple of weeks later Lenny called up Rudy, “I reworked the wings. I made them out of wax and balsa wood. These things just look like bird’s wings. Meet me at Kill Devil Hill,” said Lenny. When Rudy arrived, he saw the wings. They did look good. Rudy helped him strap on the wings. Lenny backed up and began running towards the crest of the hill. He didn’t slow down and just as he got to the edge of the hill, he started to lift up into the air. He was flying! He flew higher and higher. He was really getting high now, and he started to worry. “How do I land these things”? he asked himself. That question was about to be answered. All of a sudden, he noticed that his wings were starting to melt. He had risen so high, that the sun was starting to melt the wax he used to make the wings. Pretty soon he had little tiny wings and he was flying about a hundred miles an hour down towards the woods. He crashed into the trees. Rudy ran up. “Are you all right?” he asked. “Yeah, I think so, but I am definitely going to quit trying to fly. This is too rough on the body,” said Lenny. 407. Why could Lenny not fly the first time around with the wings he had designed? (a) These were made of a material which melted in the rain. (b) These were not tied securely and fell off. (c) These broke on jumping off the cliff. (d) These were too light to help carry his weight. (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (e) The wings were heavy. 408. Which of the following is true according to the story? (a) Rudy was as brilliant as Lenny when it came to inventing things. (b) Rudy too tried to fly with the help of Lenny’s contraption. (c) Lenny had to pay with his life in order for his dream to become a reality. (d) Although Lenny did manage to fly in the end, he did not know how to land. (e) All the given statements are true. Ans: (d) Although Lenny did manage to fly in the end, he did not know how to land. 409. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word/s given in bold as used in the passage. Backed up (a) protested (b) proceeded (c) supported (d) topped (e) jumped Ans: (a) Back up = to provide support Protest = to disagree; to disapprove. Look at the sentences : Two doctors backed up by a team of nurses were sent. The director resigned in protest at the decision. 410. Which of the following can be the most appropriate title for the story? (a) The Story of Rudy (b) Lenny-The Flying Inventor (c) The Failure Named Lenny (d) How to Make Airplanes (e) Flying Across a Cliff Ans: (e) Flying Across a Cliff 411. Which of the following cannot be said about Lenny? (A) Lenny successfully learnt from his mistakes and improved upon them. (B) Lenny sought Rudy’s help several times so that he could use his wings to fly. (C) Lenny continued to make better wings for flying till the end of his life. (a) Only A and B (b) Only A (c) Only C (d) All A, B and C (e) Only A and C Ans: (e) Only A and C 412. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word/s given in bold as used in the passage. Crest (a) bottom (b) depth (c) back (d) peak (e) feather Ans: (a) Crest (Noun) = the top part of a hill or wave; peak. Bottom (Noun) = lowest part. 413. Which one of the following aspects of Lenny’s personality comes across very strongly in the story? (a) He was physically very strong. (b) He was an extremely friendly person and made a lot of friends. (c) He excelled at studies. (d) His imagination was completely out of control. (e) He was determined and focused. Ans: (d) His imagination was completely out of control. 414. Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word/s given in bold as used in the passage. Rough (a) coarse (b) smooth (c) uneven (d) harsh (e) spotted Ans: (d) Rough (Adj./Noun) = harsh; violent; severe. 415. Which of the following can be said about Rudy? (A) He was in fact jealous of Lenny. (B) He was a supportive friend. (C) He never once questioned Lenny’s ideas. (a) Only B (b) Only A (c) Only C (d) All A, B and C (e) Only A and B Ans: (a) Only B 416. Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word/s given in bold as used in the passage. Wear (a) bear (b) sport (c) tire (d) don (e) display Ans: (c) Wear (Verb) = tire Wear out = to make yourself/ somebody feel very tired. Look at the sentence : The kids have totally worn me out. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. (Indian Bank PO (Pre.) Exam, 21.01.2017 (2nd Sitting) ) In general, before the financial crisis of 2008, the financial sector the world over had been steadily liberalising. Limits on foreign ownership of banks and on the kinds of transactions they were able to engage in were being lifted. Rich countries were deregulating faster than others. Banks were given greater leeway on how much capital they should hold and how much risk they should take on. But banks the world over, did not maintain adequate capital cushions and balance sheets showed inflated profits. In 1999, America also repealed the Glass Staegall Acta 1920s Depression era law separating investment and commercial banking-without bothering about the threat to the economy. ‘Restrictions are a sign of backwardness’- But the resulting crisis of 2008 put an end to this belief. Banking supervisors in many developing countries said that tight regulations saved them from getting into trouble. Under the old rules supervisors were simply referees trying to ensure that the game was played fairly. Now regulators have gone from saying ‘tell me that all your payment systems work to saying ‘show me how your payment systems work’. Regulators are now tentatively stepping over a long standing divide between enforcing basic rules and playing a part in business decisions. This shift is particularly marked in Britain which once championed ‘light touch regulation’. This pre-crisis behaviour is being criticised as surrender to banks or as a self servicing device for attracting financial activity to Britain. In truth it was neither- It was the simple belief that markets are better than governments at allocating services. In America, too, regulators were reluctant to suppress innovation because they felt that “the self interest of lending institutions will be enough to ensure they did not all leap from the same tall building.” In rich countries, enthusiasm for prescriptive supervision depends on the degree of harm suffered during the banking crisis or to the threat from the failing banks to bring down their governments with them. But it is not easy to stop banks from making bad decisions. In the past, regulators left it to the market to judge the health of the banks. But clever, well-paid analysts failed to see the crisis coming. Now central bankers are expected to do a better job. One problem is that the rules and the laws are written with the benefit of hindsight. The good ideas that may have prevented the last crisis however can make regulators dangerously overconfident about being able to predict and prevent the next one. Also, if regulators underwrite certain strategies that seem safe such as lending to small businesses, they may encourage banks to crowd into those lines of business. If enough banks pile into these markets, downturns in them can affect not just a few banks but the whole system. On the other hand prescriptive supervision can stifle financial innovation and squeeze all appetite for risk out of the banking system. In Japan, a banking crisis that started more than two decades ago still lingers on, in part because the country’s bankers have become gun shy and lend to buy government bonds rather than lend money or make foreign investments. Regulators are doing all they can to strike a balance and mitigate these risks. 417. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Banks should go back to traditional banking and abandon riskier options. (b) Regulators are lazy and shirk their duty of protecting financial systems. (c) Banks in developed countries have destroyed developing economies. (d) Today the task of financial regulation is tricky. (e) Financial systems have been damaged beyond repair. Ans: (a) Banks should go back to traditional banking and abandon riskier options. 418. Which of the following is/are the possible impact(s) of prescriptive supervision? (A) Governments are likely to collapse as people are opposed to such measures. (B) Many executives are likely to exploit the system. (C) These measures could unintentionally prolong a crisis. (a) Only B and C (b) Only C (c) Only A and B (d) All A, B and C (e) Only B Ans: (a) Only B and C 419. What is the author’s view of central banks’ present efforts at regulation? (a) These are faulty as they encourage risky financial innovations. (b) These are unnecessary and harmful to banks. (c) To succeed these should be co-ordinated and uniform across countries. (d) The measures they prescribe have no loopholes. (e) They have done their best to effectively regulate. Ans: (a) These are faulty as they encourage risky financial innovations. 420. Which of the following can be said about ‘light touch regulation’ adopted by Britain? (a) It forced banks to invest in government bonds. (b) It gave Britain’s financial institutions very little autonomy. (c) It resulted in banks holding too much capital. (d) It encouraged financial activity in the country. (e) It stifled banks’ appetite for risk. Ans: (b) It gave Britain’s financial institutions very little autonomy. 421. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) Markets can easily regulate themselves. (b) The financial crisis of 2008 did not impact developing countries. (c) Developing economies should not allow foreign investment at present. (d) After the crisis, America’s central bank has imposed unnecessary regulations. (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. 422. Why has the author cited the reference of repealing the Gass-Steagall Act? (a) To criticise the backward restrictions that rich countries imposed on developing countries. (b) To indicate that regulations were relaxed without appreciating the impact on the economy. (c) To show that the economy had not progressed much since the Depression. (d) To illustrate that only America could foresee the financial crisis. (e) To indicate the soundness of America’s financial system prior to depression. Ans: (b) To indicate that regulations were relaxed without appreciating the impact on the economy. 423. Which of the following difficulties is faced by regulators at present? (a) Tremendous competition between local and foreign banks. (b) Banks lack the expertise to comply with norms. (c) Striking a balance between protecting and stifling the economy. (d) Unwillingness of government to bail out failing banks. (e) Lack of adequate manpower. Ans: (c) Striking a balance between protecting and stifling the economy. 424. Which of the following approaches was adopted by the financial sector of rich world economies prior to the crisis? (a) Banks maintained very large capital cushions. (b) Banks strictly adhere to outdated laws. (c) They were innovative and took a lot of risks. (d) They withdrew investment from traditional banking. (e) Not clearly mentioned in the passage. Ans: (c) They were innovative and took a lot of risks. 425. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning to the word CROWD given in bold as used in the passage. (a) flock (b) multitude (c) party (d) crew (e) not Ans: (a) Crowd (Verb) = to gather in large numbers around something; throng; fill almost completely; flock. Look at the sentence : I need sometime to do this work properly, so don’t crowd me. 426. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word FAILING given in bold as used in the passage. (a) passing (b) increasing (c) successful (d) depleting (e) important Ans: (c) Failing (Adj.) = not successful Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words are given in bold to help you to locate them while some answering some of the questions. In our day and age, technology is omnipresent and an integral part of our lives. However, although the main purpose of technology is to make our life easier, the reactions and opinions on technology are very diverse. This year, various sessions at the Women’s Forum covered the influence of new technologies on our daily life. It is worthwhile analyzing two contrasting perspectives in depth, to understand how broad this debate is. On the one hand, technology and digital media can be a great help to reach out to other people and spread your message to a very large platform. The session “How to be a digital influencer” this past Thursday was analyzing exactly this question, and introduced various platforms and strategies on how to use the digital world to your advantage. “Social media removes all distances: geographic, social, hierarchical. You can reach anyone, at any time, and communicate in real time. Thus, a permanent link of communication has been created”. Today everyone has the ability to transmit knowledge, and thus credibility of the creator of the knowledge is more important than ever before. Technology has taken the universal communication method of storytelling and transformed it, in a way that now more stories can reach more people through social media platforms than ever before. People should find their digital media voice, tell sharable stories, and drive engagement. Also, it is very important to be authentic and truly passionate about the message you are trying to convey through the digital media. Another session, the very same day, analyzed how exactly the opposite is true and how new technologies actually cause stress and suffering, because of a concept referred to as “Infobesity.” During the session it was argued that due to the acceleration of our lives led by the acceleration of technology, we have changed the way we consume and generate information. People are trying to live 10 lives at once and a lot of stress and anxiety occurs from that. The two speakers even argue that we are suffering from digital bulimia, meaning that we take in a lot of information at once, without really processing it for ourselves, and in turn create a lot of new information. Thus, it is obvious that technological advancement has failed at its mission of making everybody’s life easier, as many people are reacting negatively to it. It is really an irony on the one hand; the technology we are surrounding ourselves with is designed to give us more time for ourselves — which is something we all want. However, today, while technology is as developed as ever before, we are living in a time with the biggest scarcity of time.” For Example the invention of the car allowed us to save time, when compared to walking. However, it also made us want to go further by giving us this option, so overall we spend more time getting to places. The same is true for other technologies — we want to travel to more countries, learn more, fall in love more often. The search for content and experience has become the meaning of life for many.” So whether technology is aiding our life and making it easier, or creating new challenges and stress for us, really depends on how we react and interact with the new technologies. If — when technology solves one of our problems — we keep immediately coming up with new, larger problems, no technology will ever be able to satisfy our constantly new needs. However, if we allow technology to make our life easier, and focus more on the quality, rather than the quantity of life, and also learn how to use technology to our greatest advantage — such as how to use it to influence others — we can all greatly benefit. 427. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT TRUE about the characteristics of the ‘Infobesity’? (a) With the help of technology, people try to do multiple things at the same time leading to stress (b) The pace of our lives has increased significantly due to technology (c) Technology makes our life sedentary and leads to health problems (d) Due to technology each individual is bombarded with excess information (e) All the given options are true according to the passage Ans: (e) All the given options are true according to the passage. 428. Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the passage? DIVERSE (a) Separate (b) Similar (c) Interwoven (d) Simultaneous (e) Together Ans: (b) Similar Diverse (Adj.) : very different from each other and of various kinds ; not similar. 429. Which of the following can be said about the invention of the car? (A) More than being a boon, this invention has become inconvenience to us. (B) It has invoked in us the desire to travel to places that we would not have otherwise gone to. (C) It has enabled us to have more time for ourselves. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) and (C) (c) Only (b) and B (d) All the three (b) (a) and (C) (e) Only B Ans: (a) Only (a) and (C) 430. Which of the following can be the MOST SUITABLE TITLE for the passage? (a) The Different Types of Technology Available (b) The paradox of Technological influence (c) Technology Propagation-The Road to Nowhere (d) Technology and Gainful insight (e) Technological Progress Across the Continents Ans: (b) The Paradox of Technological influence. 431. According to the author, which of the following can be said about reaching out to people through the medium of technology? (A) Today’s digital age has made it essential for an individual to send a message that is genuine in nature. (B) The ability to impact many people through a message is solely dependent on the number of times the same message goes out, regardless of its authenticity. (C) Technology has made it easier to reach out to masses of people at the same time. (a) All (b), (a) and (C) (b) Only C (c) Only (b) and (C) (d) Only (b)and (a) (e) Only (a) Ans: (c) Only (b) and (C) 432. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? (A) It is in our own interest that we keep a check on the amount of digital information that we generate. (B) The promise on which technology was designed was that it should make our lives simpler. (C) It is best that we learn to survive without any technological intervention in our lives. (a) All the three (b), (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) and (a) (c) Only (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) (e) Only (a) Ans: (b) Only (b) and (a) 433. According to the passage, which of the following is the author’s opinion/statement about technology? (a) Take responsibility for how you let technology impact your life (b) Beware! Technology can only bring doom if allowed to proliferate. (c) Go ahead and invest in the latest technology, it is worth it. (d) What the future of technology holds for us is unknown, wait and watch (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (a) Take responsibility for how you let technology, impact your life. 434. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage? ENGAGEMENT (a) Involvement (b) Appointment (c) Meeting (d) Rendezvous (e) Date Ans: (a) Involvement Engagement (N.) : being involved with somebody/something in an attempt to understand them. 435. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage? DESIGNED (a) Deliberated (b) Calculated (c) Attracted (d) Created (e) Patterned Ans: (d) Created Design (V.) : to make, plan or intend something for a particular purpose or use; create. 436. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage? SPREAD (a) Take (b) Collect (c) Restrict (d) Join (e) Multiply Ans: (c) Restrict Restrict (V.) : to l imi t the amount, size or range of something. Spread (V.) : to cover or make something cover a larger area. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Core competencies and focus are now the mantras of corporate strategists in Western economies. But while managers in the West have dismantled many conglomerates assembled in the 1960s and 1970s, the large, diversified business group remains the dominant form of enterprise throughout most emerging markets. Some groups operate as holding companies with full ownership in many enterprises, others are collections of publicly traded companies, but all have some degree of central control. As emerging markets open up to global competition, consultants and foreign investors are increasingly pressuring these groups to conform to Western practice by scaling back the scope of their business activities. The conglomerate is the dinosaur of organizational design, they argue, too unwieldy and slow to compete in today’s fastpaced markets. Already a number of executives have decided to break up their groups in order to show that they are focusing on only a few core businesses. There are reasons to worry about this trend. Focus is good advice in New York or London, but something important gets lost in translation when that advice is given to groups in emerging markets. Western companies take for granted a range of institutions that support their business activities, but many of these institutions are absent in other regions of the world. Without effective securities regulation and venture capital firms, for example, focused companies may be unable to raise adequate financing; and without strong educational institutions, they will struggle to hire skilled employees. Communicating with customers is difficult when the local infrastructure is poor, and unpredictable government behavior can stymie any operation. Although a focused strategy may enable a company to perform a few activities well, companies in emerging markets must take responsibility for a wide range of functions in order to do business effectively. In the case of product markets, buyers and sellers usually suffer from a severe dearth of information for three reasons. First, the communications infrastructure in emerging markets is often under-developed. Even as wireless communication spreads throughout the West, vast stretches in countries such as China and India remain without telephones. Power shortages often render the modes of communication that do exist ineffective. The postal service is typically inefficient, slow, or unreliable; and the private sector rarely provides efficient courier services. High rates of illiteracy make it difficult for marketers to communicate effectively with customers. Second, even when information about products does get around, there are no mechanisms to corroborate the claims made by sellers. Independent consumer-information organizations are rare, and government watchdog agencies are of little use. The few analysts who rate products are generally less sophisticated than their counterparts in advanced economies. Third, consumers have no redress mechanisms if a product does not deliver on its promise. Law enforcement is often capricious and so slow that few who assign any value to time would resort to it. Unlike in advanced markets, there are few extrajudicial arbitration mechanisms to which one can appeal. As a result of this lack of information, companies in emerging markets face much higher costs in building credible brands than their counterparts in advanced economies. In turn, established brands wield tremendous power. A conglomerate with a reputation for quality products and services can use its group name to enter new businesses, even if those businesses are completely unrelated to its current lines. Groups also have an advantage when they do try to build up a brand because they can spread the cost of maintaining it across multiple lines of business. Such groups then have a greater incentive not to damage brand quality in any one business because they will pay the price in their other businesses as well. 437. Which of the following sentence(s) is/are CORRECT in the context of the given passage? (A) Consultants and foreign investors argue that the conglomerate is the dinosaur of organisational design too unwieldly and slow to compete in today’s fast-paced markets. (B) Core competencies and focus are now the mantras of corporate strategists in western economies. (C) Due to lack of information required, companies in emerging markets face much higher costs in building credible brands in comparison to their counterparts in advanced economies. (a) Only (a) and (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (a) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All (b), (a) and (C) 438. What suggestions have been cited by the writer in regard to raising adequate financing and hiring skilled employees? (a) Effective securities regulation and venture capital firms (b) Effective securities regulation (c) Effective securities regulation and venture capital firms and strong educational institutions (d) Both (b) and (c) (e) None of these Ans: (c) Effective securities regulation and venture capital firms and strong educational institutions. 439. The writer has cited some hurdles in the case of product markets regarding shortage of information. Which of the following statement(s) in this regard is/are TRUE? (A) Communications infrastructure in emerging markets is often under developed. (B) Postal service is typically inefficient, slow or unreliable. (C) High rates of illiteracy make it difficult for marketers to communicate effectively with customers. (a) Only (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (a) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All (b), (a) and (C) 440. Which of the following statements is CORRECT in regard to the given passage? (a) Unlike in advanced markets there are few extrajudicial arbitration mechanisms in emerging markets to which one can appeal. (b) The few analysts in emerging markets who rate products are generally less sophisticated than their counterparts in advanced economies. (c) Even as wireless communication spreads throughout the West, vast regions of China and India remain without telephones. (d) Unpredictable government behaviour can stymie any operation. (e) All are correct Ans: (e) All are correct 441. Established brands can wield tremendous power in emerging markets because (a) they have much political nexus and strong man power (b) a conglomerate with a reputation for quality products and services can use its group name to enter new businesses. (c) they have excess of money and customers (d) they have greater incentive to damage brand quality in any one business (e) None of these Ans: (b) a conglomerate with a reputation for quality products and services can use its group name to enter new businesses. 442. What should be the MOST APPROPRIATE TITLE of this passage? (a) What is an Emerging market (b) Hurdles in Emerging markets (c) Lack of Information in Emerging Markets (d) Advanced Markets Eat Emerging Markets (e) None of these Ans: (b) Hurdles in Emerging market Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 443. CONFORM TO (a) Conflict between (b) Comply (c) Confirm (d) Confiscate (e) Confine to Ans: (b) Comply Conform to (V.) : to agree with or match something; comply ; to obey. Confirm (V.) : to show/state that something is definitely true/ correct. Confiscate (V.) : to officially take something away from somebody (as a punishment). 444. DISMANTLE (a) Hold (b) Take together (c) Take apart (d) Disorder (e) Dismount Ans: (c) Take apart Dismantle (V.) : to take apart ; to end an organisation or system gradually in an organised way. Dismount (V.) : to get off a horse, bicycle/motorcycle Directions: Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage. 445. CAPRICIOUS (a) Predictable (b) Unpredictable (c) Changeable (d) Captive (e) Reasonable Ans: (a) Predictable Capricious (Adj.) : unpredictable, changeable ; changing suddenly and quickly. Captive (Adj.) : unable to escape; kept as a prisoner 446. DEARTH (a) Shortage (b) Scarcity (c) Paucity (d) Abundance (e) Debility Ans: (d) Abundance Abundance (N.) : in large quantities ; more than enough. Dearth (N.) : a lack of something; the fact of there not being enough of something; scarcity. Paucity (N.) : a small amount of something; less than enough of something Debility (N.) : physical weakness (illness) Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Manufacturers of consumer packaged goods (CPG) facing two key challenges this year. The first is continued slow or negative growth in people’s disposable incomes. The second is changing consumer attitudes toward products and brands, as the great fragmentation of consumer markets take another turn. In response, companies must dramatically shift the route they take to reach consumers in terms of both product distribution and communications. In many markets, consumer wages have been static for five years now. Even where economies are starting to perform better, the squeeze on after-tax wages, especially for the middle class younger people and families, is depressing consumer spending. Although growth in developing countries is still better than in the United States and Europe, a slowdown in emerging countries such as China – where many countries had hoped for higher sales- has translated quickly into lower-than-expected consumer spending growth. Meanwhile, what we call the great fragmentation is manifested in consumer behaviour and market response. In both developed and emerging markets, there is a wider variety among consumers now than at any time in the recent past. Growth is evident both at the top of the market (where more consumers are spending for higher-quality food and other packaged goods) and at the lower end (where an increasing number of consumers are concentrating on value). But the traditional middle of the market is shrinking. Further, individual consumer behaviour is more pluralistic. We are used to seeing, for example, spirited buyers purchasing a premium brand in a bar, a less costly label at home for personal consumption and yet another when entertaining guests. But this type of variegated shopping has now spread to the grocery basket as well. Fewer consumers are making one big stocking-up trip each week. Instead, shoppers are visiting a premium store and a discounter as well as a supermarket, in multiple weekly shops ¾ in addition to making frequent purchases online. During recession, more shoppers became inclined to spend time hunting for bargains and as some traditional retailers either went out of business or shuttered down, retail space was freed up and was often filled by convenience stores, specialty shops, and discounters. A decade ago, VCPG companies had only a handful of sales channels to consider supermarkets, convenience stores, hypermarkets in advanced economies and traditional small and large retailers in emerging countries. Since then, various discounters have made-significant inroads, including no frills, low variety outlets, such as Europe’s Aldi and Lidi, which sell a limited range of private- label grocery items in smaller stores and massive warehouse clubs, such as Costco and Sam’s club, which initially operated solely in the U.S. but are now expanding internationally. In addition, dollar stores, specialised retailers, and online merchants are having an impact on the CPG landscape, Economising consumers have been pleasantly, surprised by the savings generated by spreading their business among multiple channels, as well as by the variety and product quality they find. The result has been greater demand for more products and brands, with different sizes, packaging and sales methods. At most CPG companies, SKUs are proliferating despite there being little increase in overall consumption. A better outcome can be seen at smaller food and beverage suppliers, which are benefiting from consumer demand for variety and authenticity. A recent report found that in the U.S., small manufacturers (with revenues of less thanUS$ l billion) grew at twice the compound annual rate of large manufacturers (with revenues of more than $3 billion) between 2009 and 2012. Consumers’ media usage has also fragmented with the rise of digital content and the proliferation of online devices. Each channel- from the Web, Mobile and social sites for radio, TV, and print- has its own requirements, audience appeal and economies, needing specialised attention. But, at the same time, media campaigns need to be closely coordinated for effective consumer messaging. Collectively, these shifts challenge the way CPG companies manage their brand and business portfolios and call for a rethinking of their go-to-market approach, with an emphasis on analytics. Our work with INSEAD shows that among business leaders, applying analytics-especially for tracking consumer behaviour and product and promotional performance- considered one of the most effective ways to improve results and outpace the competition. But it’s not just about insight. It’s also about using the insight wisely to determine how to manage costs. The more knowledgeable about customer needs and preferences a company is, the smarter and more focused it must be in managing its own economics to cost-effectively deliver both variety and value to be squeezed consumer. 447. The CENTRAL THEME of the given passage is (a) Shift towards offering luxury goods to consumers. (b) The shrinking market. (c) Products to offer consumers with squeezed pockets. (d) To highlight products consumed by the middle class. (e) Gaining insight into changing consumer behaviour towards CPGs. Ans: (e) Gaining insight into changing consumer behaviour towards CPGs. 448. In the context of the passage, which of the following brands existed otherwise but is now being manifested in buying groceries as well? (a) Consumer willing to purchase goods for a longer period of time. (b) Consumers purchasing the same products for over a period of time. (c) Consumers preferring luxury goods over regular goods. (d) Consumers are more aware of their rights. (e) Consumers prefer buying goods from a variety of stores. Ans: (e) Consumers prefer buying goods from a variety of stores. 449. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word DEPRESSING as used in the passage? (a) Sunny (b) Encouraging (c) Doubtful (d) Light (e) Nil Ans: (b) Encouraging Encouraging (Adj.) : giving somebody support, courage or hope. Depressing (Adj.) : making you feel very sad and without enthusiasm. 450. As mentioned in the passage, CPG companies may have to reassess their present strategies of operating to (A) retain their customers. (B) keep pace with changing consumer preferences as they have access to multiple media channels. (C) make more cost-effective decisions. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) All the three (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (C) (e) Only (b) and (a) Ans: (c) All the three (b), (a) and (C) 451. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) Impact on disposable incomes of people barely affects the CPG manufacturing industry. (b) In the U.S., during the three year period after 2009, small manufacturers did not fare well as compared to their larger counterparts. (c) Post-tax wages, especially for the middle class, are one of the critical factors which have reduced spending behaviour of consumers. (d) CPG have always been a favourite among consumers. (e) None of the given options is true. Ans: (c) Post-tax wages, especially for the middle class, are one of the critical factors which have reduced spending behaviour of consumers. 452. Which of the following CORRECTLY EXPLAINS the meaning of phrase, A HANDFUL OF as used in the passage? (a) Planned (b) Boundless (c) Satisfactory (d) Limited (e) Imperfect Ans: (d) Limited A handful of (Id.) : small number of people or things, limited. 453. As mentioned in the passage, one of the most critical factors that aids in catering to the needs of consumers is (a) assess their requirements and appropriately plan to meet them. (b) persuading them to purchase goods produced by the organization. (c) offering them products that an organization regularly manufactures. (d) concentrating only on being aware about changing preferences of consumers. (e) None of the given options. Ans: (a) assess their requirements and appropriately plan to meet them. 454. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word SHRINKING as used in the passage (a) Annoying (b) Developing (c) Narrowing (d) Wasting (e) Rising Ans: (c) Narrowing Shrink (V.) : become smaller/ make smaller in size or amount. 455. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word VARIEGATED as used in the passage (a) Composite (b) Diverse (c) Strong (d) Narrow (e) Valued Ans: (b) Diverse Variegated (Adj.) : consisting of many different types of things or persons; having different colours; diverse. 456. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word SHUTTERED as used in the passage (a) Retail (b) Closed (c) Flourished (d) Gratified (e) Nearest Ans: (c) Flourished Flourish (V.) : to develop quickly; thrive. Shutter (V.) : close. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. From a technical and economic perspective, many assessments have highlighted the presence of cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy use in buildings. However several bodies note the significance of multiple barriers that prevent the take-up of energy efficiency measures in buildings. These include lack of awareness and concern, limited access to reliable information from trusted sources, fear about risk, disruption and other ‘transaction costs’ concerns about up-front costs and inadequate access to suitably priced finance, a lack of confidence in suppliers and technologies and the presence of split incentives between landlords and tenants. The widespread presence of these barriers led experts to predict that without a concerted push from policy, twothirds of the economically viable potential to improve energy efficiency will remain unexploited by 2035. These barriers are albatross around the neck that represent a classic market failure and a basis for governmental intervention. While these measurements focus on the technical, financial or economic barriers preventing the take-up of energy efficiency options in buildings, others emphasise the significance of the often deeply embedded social practices that shape energy use in buildings. These analyses focus not on the preferences and rationalities that might shape individual behaviours, but on the ‘entangled’ cultural practices, norms, values and routines that underpin domestic energy use. Focusing on the practice-related aspects of consumption generates very different conceptual framings and policy prescriptions than those that emerge from more traditional or mainstream perspectives. But the underlying case for government intervention to help to promote retrofit and the diffusion of more energy efficient particles is still apparent, even though the forms of intervention advocated are often very different to those that emerge from a more technical or economic perspective. Based on the recognition of the multiple barriers to change and the social, economic and environmental benefits that could be realised if they were overcome, government support for retrofit (renovating existing infrastructure to make it more energy efficient) has been widespread. Retrofit programmes have been supported and adopted in diverse forms in many setting and their ability to recruit householders and then to impact their energy use has been discussed quite extensively. Frequently, these discussions have criticised the extent to which retrofit schemes rely on incentives and the provision of new technologies to change behaviour whilst ignoring the many other factors that might limit either participation in the schemes or their impact on the behaviours and practices that shape domestic energy use. These factors are obviously central to the success of retrofit schemes, but evaluations of different schemes have found that despite these they can still have significant impacts. Few experts that the best estimate of the gap between the technical potential and the actual in-situ performance of energy efficiency measures is 50%, with 35% coming from performance gaps and 15% coming from ‘comfort taking’ or direct rebound effects. They further suggest that the direct rebound effect of energy efficiency measures related to household heating is likley to be less than 30% while rebound effects for various domestic energy efficiency measures vary from 5 to 15% and arise mostly from indirect effects (i.e., where savings from energy efficiency lead to increased demand for goods and services). Other analyses also note that the gap between technical potential and actual performance is likely to vary by measure, with the range extending from 0% for measures such as solar water heating to 50% for measures such as improved heating controls. And others note that levels of comfort taking are likely to vary according to the levels of consumption and fuel poverty in the sample of homes where insulation is installed, with the range extending from 30% when considering homes across all income groups to around 60% when considering only lower income homes. The scale of these gaps is significant because it materially affects the impacts of retrofit schemes and expectations and perceptions of these impacts go on to influence levels of political, financial and public support for these schemes. The literature on retrofit highlights the presence of multiple barriers to change and the need for government support, if these are to be overcome. Although much has been written on the extent to which different forms of support enable the wider take-up of domestic energy efficiency measures, behaviours and practices, various areas of contestation remain and there is still an absence of robust ex-post evidence on the extent to which these schemes actually do lead to the social, economic and environmental benefits that are widely claimed. 457. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word CONCERTED as used in the passage? (a) Piled (b) Collaborative (c) Subtracting (d) Necessary (e) Weak Ans: (e) Weak Weak (Adj.) : without enthusiasm, not strong; not good at something Concerted (Adj.) : done in a planned and determined way ; strong. 458. Which of the following is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word ROBUST as used in the passage? (a) Loose (b) Manual (c) Vogue (d) Flimsy (e) Flexible Ans: (d) Flimsy Flimsy (Adj.) : not strong enough; rickety. Robust (Adj.) : strong; sturdy; vigorous. 459. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to the word UNEXPLOITED as used in the passage? (a) Unanswered (b) Untapped (c) Explored (d) Developed (e) Vacant Ans: (b) Untapped Unexploited (Adj.) : untapped; available but not yet used. 460. The TITLE for the given passage could be (a) Barriers to effective usages of energy. (b) How to measure the impact of Retrofit programmes of energy conservation. (c) Views of stalwarts on disadvantages of Retrofit programmes. (d) Existing practices of conserving energy. (e) How much energy is to be consumed. Ans: (a) Barriers to effective usages of energy. 461. According to the author, to make programmes for conserving energy more successful (A) only latest technology must be employed. (B) the author’s country must adhere to norms followed in countries where such programmes have been successful. (C) change must be brought in the attitudes of people with respect to efficient usage of energy. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (C) (d) Both (b) and (a) (e) Both (a) and (C) Ans: (c) Only (C) 462. Which of the following is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning to word UNDERPIN as used in the passage? (a) Determine (b) Undermine (c) Criticise (d) Abandon (e) Dispose Ans: (a) Determine Underpin (V.) : to support or form the basis of an argument, a claim etc. 463. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) The Government so far has been least supportive of retrofit programmes. (b) Employing retrofit programmes is relatively a new concept and is yet to become popular. (c) Lack of trust on landlords has been cited as one of the major barriers to employing energy efficiency schemes. (d) Retrofit schemes are dependent on incentives to bring attitudinal change towards energy efficiency schemes. (e) All the given statements are true. Ans: (d) Retrofit schemes are dependent on incentives to bring attitudinal change towards energy efficiency schemes. 464. What is the author trying to convey through the phrase ALBATROSS AROUND THE NECK as used in the passage? (a) Prevent from achieving success (b) As light as a bird (c) Are worthless (d) Act as controllers (e) Always provide adequate guidance Ans: (a) Prevent from achieving success Albatross (N.) : a thing that causes problems or prevents you from doing something 465. The author in the given passage is (A) of the view that no amount of efforts can bring about in employing energy efficiency schemes in his country. (B) positive that more evidence on retrofit schemes is essential to make people more aware and sensitive towards them. (C) cynical about the present state of energy efficiency measures taken in his country. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (C) (d) Both (b) and (a) (e) Both (a) and (C) Ans: (a) Only (a) 466. As mentioned in this passage and according to the experts, in order to exploit potential to better energy efficiency measures (a) availability of reliable information from dependable source must be ensured. (b) availability of sufficient funding is a must. (c) adequate and trustworthy suppliers of energy must be made available. (d) governmental support by implementing adequate policies is essential. (e) All those given as options Ans: (e) All those given as options Directions: Read the following stroy carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. On January 19th every year, Americans celebrate the life and achievements of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., (MLK), a Baptist clergyman turned activist, who is often credited with spearheading the country’s civil rights movement It is thanks to his efforts that America is today a nation where everyone has equal rights, regardless of race, color or creed. MLK who would have celebrated his 86th birthday on January 15th, 2015, was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1929, a city where racial divide was a way of life. Blacks and whites lived totally disparate lives. They went to different schools, ate at different restaurants and even sat on specially designated seats on buses and trains. Though this did not seem right to the young boy, just like the others, he accepted it as a way of life. Things started to change in the summer of 1944 when 15-year-old MLK left Atlanta to work in the tobacco fields of Simsbury, Connecticut. To his surprise, the black residents in the Northern states were not subjected to the same kind of racial injustice. The young boy expressed his astonishment in a letter he wrote to his father in June saying, “After we passed Washington there was no discrimination at all. The white people here are very nice. We go to any place we want to and sit any where we want to.” By the end of the summer, the seeds of what would transform MLK into America’s most influential civil rights leader had been firmly planted. In 1954, MLK who was by now an ordained Minister and married chose to become pastor of a church in Montgomery, Alabama, a city that was notorious for its racial discrimination. His foray into activism began gradually – by encouraging Montgomery residents to register to vote and join the NAACP, the nation’s oldest and largest civil rights organization. However, his passive stance changed on December 1st, 1955, after fellow activist Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to vacate her seat on a public bus for a white passenger. Enraged, MLK asked the black residents of Montgomery to boycott all public transportation. This was no easy request. The buses were the only commute mode for the residents, whose jobs often entailed traveling long distances. But they took the challenge not for just one day or month, but a full year! As the news of the boycott spread, black people from other parts of the nation that had similar laws, joined in! In 1956, the activists won their first battle when the Supreme Court of the United States passed a ruling that abolished the transportation segregation law. But MLK was just getting started. He decided to dedicate his life to the cause and spent the next decade traveling around the country, spurring all Americans to stand up to segregation in a non-violent peaceful manner by organizing sitins, boycotts and protest marches. While he gave many inspiring speeches, his most memorable one was delivered on August 28th, 1963. The events leading to the oftquoted ‘I have a dream’ speech began in June of that year when President John F. Kennedy asked the US Congress to pass a civil rights bill – one that would give all Americans equal access to public places. To convince government officials to pass the bill, MLK along with other civil rights leaders asked people to demonstrate their support by staging a.peaceful march in Washington D.C. Over 250,000 Americans from all over the country flew, drove, rode buses and even walked, to participate in what the history books now call the March on Washington! It was at this event while standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, that MLK articulated his dream of living in a country where everyone was treated equally. Unfortunately, the civil rights activist was killed while on a trip to Memphis, Tennessee in 1968, and did not live long enough to see it come true. But had MLK been alive, he sure would have been proud to see how far the country has come in recognizing that everyone is equal – regardless of race, color or creed! 467. Why did he initially accept discrimination as a way of life? (a) As his father wanted him to accept that as a form of life. (b) As he was afraid of the whites. (c) So as to save himself from the abuses and the beatings by the whites. (d) Because he lacked decision making capabilities as he was young, (e) As he was ignorant to the cause of the blacks. Ans: (d) Because he lacked decision making capabilities as he was young, What happened when he went to Simsbury in the summer of 1944? (a) His passive stance changed. (b) It was the first time he saw specially designated seats on buses and trains for blacks. (c) He was stupefied by what he saw there. (d) He encouraged the residents there to vote. (e) He gave his famous speech ‘I have a dream’. Ans: (c) He was stupefied by what he saw there. 468. Why MLK was enraged? (a) As a fellow activist was apprehended. (b) Because of specially designated bus seats for black people in Montgomery (c) Racial injustice in Washington. (d) Different schools on the basis of race. (e) He was enraged with how people accepted the discrimination. Ans: (a) As a fellow activist was apprehended. 469. What was the first victory won by the activists? (a) The voting rights granted to the black people. (b) Passing of the civil rights bill. (c) Abolishment of transportation segregation law. (d) Boycotting public transportation by the black people. (e) Right to vote. Ans: (c) Abolishment of transportation segregation law. 470. What led to the famous “I have a dream” speech? (a) Kennedy’s urge to fellow congress to pass the civil rights bill. (b) The arrest of the activist named Rosa Parks. (c) Transportation segregation law. (d) US congress’ reluctance to pass the bill. (e) None of these. Ans: (a) Kennedy’s urge to fellow congress to pass the civil rights bill. 471. What was MLK’s dream? (a) Right to vote. (b) Abolition of public transportation segregation law. (c) Equal access in all public places. (d) To exonerate Rosa parks from the accusation of violating civil rights, (e) He wanted a person who is black to be the next U.S President. Ans: (c) Equal access in all public places. Directions: Which of the following words is NEAREST in the meaning to the word as given in bold letters in the passage 472. ENTAIL (a) Prohibit (b) Involve (c) Exclude (d) Feign (e) Dissuade Ans: (b) Involve Entail (V.) : to involve something that cannot be avoided; involve. 473. FORAY (a) Retreat (b) Exodus (c) Incursion (d) Disengagement (e) Detachment Ans: (c) Incursion Foray (N.) : an attempt to become involved in a different activity or profession. Directions: Which one of the following words is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in bold letters in the passage 474. ORDAIN (a) Consecrate (b) Appoint (c) Sanctify (d) Abrogate (e) Enact Ans: (d) Abrogate Abrogate (V.) : repeal; to officially end an agreement. Ordain (V.) : to make somebody a priest, minister or RABBI. 475. SPURRING (a) Stimulant (b) Incentive (c) Inducement (d) Impetus (e) Deterrent Ans: (e) Deterrent Deter (V.) : to make somebody decide not to do something. Spur (Verb) = to encourage somebody to do something. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Earlier this year, Indonesia’s President promised a ‘massive deregulation’ aimed at attracting foreign investment. Outsiders were thrilled. His predecessor, left the country’s business climate choking on what Adam Schwarz, a consultant, calls “a regulatory miasma” that strongly discouraged investment, whereas the new President, has openly courted foreign capital. Over the past six weeks his administration has unveiled a series of deregulatory measures. The government made it easier for foreigners to open bank accounts, struck down import restrictions on goods such as tyres and cosmetics that were designed to protect local industries, and eliminated some onerous and silly business regulations. No longer, for instance, must Indonesian-language labels be affixed to imported goods before they arrive; now they can be printed in Indonesia and attached before public circulation. The time required to process some investment permits was cut and taxes were cut for exporters who deposit foreign-exchange revenue in Indonesia or convert it into rupiah — a move to shore up the country’s wobbly currency. These are the sort of simple, practical measures that are completely and directly felt by industry and to its credit, Indonesia has resisted the temptation to panic in the face of a plunging currency and rising bond yields. It has, for instance, maintained fiscal discipline— aided by a law that caps the budget deficit at 3%. Markets nonetheless seem unconvinced. The rupiah continued its slide after the first two announcements. It has recovered some ground this month, along with other emerging-market currencies, but has still fallen by 8% against the dollar this year. Economic growth is at its slowest since 2009. Nobody doubts the new deregulatory measures are better than nothing, but they are hardly “massive”. One foreign businessman, long resident in Indonesia, assesses them as resulting from “bureaucrats talking to themselves about how we can be a better bureaucracy rather than how we can be more receptive to foreign investment.” For the most part, the President’s new measures remove regulations that should never have been implemented in the first place. They neither fundamentally change Indonesia’s investment climate nor signal to investors that Indonesia is preparing for bigger reforms. Indonesia’s negative-investment list, which details the sectors that are barred to foreign capital, remains sizeable. Hiring foreigners is still a burdensome process: one rule requires businesses to hire ten Indonesians for every foreign worker. Businesses complain that bureaucrats pass rules hastily, without even trying to understand their effect on the private sector. A rule banning metal-ore exports remains in place and will continue to remain so; it was intended to encourage a domestic smelting industry but instead has cost thousands of jobs and billions in export revenue. Infrastructure development— the centrepiece of the President’s ambitious economic plans— has begun to pick up, but only after severe delays, and the programme remains well below its targets for this year. Perhaps most damaging is a pervasive sense of disarray. Policies are announced and then scrapped, whether because of objections that should have been aired before, as with a law to force foreigners to pass a language test, or because they conflict with other plans, as happened with a proposed road tax. Ministries seem to pass rules independently, without consulting each other or the President. Decentralisation— meaning a huge devolution of power from the National Government to the regional level— may have held the country together in the early 2000s, but today it impedes infrastructure development and hinders policy co-ordination. Poor communication from the President compounds these problems. The good news, as Mr Schwarz notes, “is that country has come to an intersection and the President has said, ‘I’ve got to do something different because what we’ve been doing isn’t working.’ These bold words are welcome. But bold actions would be better still. 476. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? (a) Indonesia has too many unnecessary regulatory procedures and systems. (b) Indonesia’s new government is adopt at communications about and implementing schemes. (c) Indonesian economy is heavily dependent on exports of goods like cosmetics. (d) The current government has no intention of truly reforming Indonesia. (e) None of the given options can be inferred from the passage. Ans: (a) Indonesia has too many unnecessary regulatory procedures and systems. 477. Why according to the author, are foreign investors not attracted to Indonesia? (A) Time consuming regulations. (B) Stock market crash in 2009. (C) Lack of political stability. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) All (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (C) (e) Only (a) and (C) Ans: (b) Only (b) 478. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word DISCIPLINE given in bold as used in the passage. (a) specially (b) punishment (c) order (d) classification (e) train Ans: (c) Discipline (Noun) = controlled state ; order Look at the sentence : Some teachers find it difficult to keep their classes in order. 479. According to the author how can the Indonesian economy regain health? (a) Removal of concessions to exporters. (b) putting a brake on its massive reform agenda. (c) Stricter control of the private sector. (d) Ensure stability by implementing the previous government’s policies. (e) Other than those given as options Ans: (e) Other than those given as options 480. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are (a) measure(s) that has/have been implemented by the present inclination government? (A) Reduction in imports to reduce the fiscal deficit. (B) Reducing the red tape for businesses. (C) Opening up of the mining sector by encouraging foreign investment in it. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) All (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (C) (e) Only (a) and (C) Ans: (a) Only (a) 481. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Indonesia’s present government is not doing enough and should be voted out of power. (b) Indonesia needs more meaningful and developing reforms to boost economic growth. (c) Indonesia is headed for a financial crash and foreign investors are pulling out quickly. (d) Indonesia’s reforms are too radical in nature and must destabilise its economy. (e) None of these Ans: (b) Indonesia needs more meaningful and developing reforms to boost economic growth. 482. What do the statistics cited about Indonesia’s economy reveal? (a) The measures taken by Indonesia’s new government have ensured economic recovery. (b) Indonesia’s economy was not affected by the financial crisis of 2008. (c) The Indonesian government has not revealed the true extent of its economic recession. (d) Indonesia’s economy is not flourishing at present outside the government’s efforts. (e) Other than those given as options Ans: (d) Indonesia’s economy is not flourishing at present outside the government’s efforts. 483. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word PERVASIVE given in bold as used in the passage. (a) determinant (b) invasive (c) restrictive (d) insensitive (e) continual Ans: (c) Pervasive (Adj.) = existing in all parts of a place or thing ; spreading gradually ; prevalent ; extensive. Restrictive (Adj.) = confined ; limited ; prohibitive. Look at the sentences : A sense of social change is pervasive in her novels. In those days women led fairly restrictive (restricted) lives. 484. Which of the following describes Indonesia’ labour market at present? (a) It will provide employment to millions of workers in the mining industry. (b) Its labour force is not skilled and foreign workers are much in demand. (c) It provides the right of locale at the cost of hiring foreign workers. (d) It has implemented an ambitious programme to skill Indonesian workers. (e) Not clearly mentioned in the passage. Ans: (c) It provides the right of locale at the cost of hiring foreign workers. 485. Which of the following best describes the author’s view of Indonesia’s attempt at decentralisation of powers? (a) It will foster corruption and has hampered development of the lucrative mining industry. (b) It has been well implemented as the President cannot interfere at the regional level. (c) It has many ministries accountable for their decisions and improved co-ordination among them. (d) It is a build move which he hopes will succeed when implemented. (e) It impedes infrastructure development and hinders policy co-ordination Ans: (e) It impedes infrastructure development and hinders policy coordination Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The expression “the glass ceiling” first appeared in the Wall Street Journal in 1986 and was then used in the title of an academic article by A.M. Morrison and others published in 1987. Entitled “Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach the Top of America’s Largest Corporations?”, it looked at the persistent failure of women to climb as far up the corporate ladder as might be expected from their representation in the working population as a whole. The idea behind the expression was that a transparent barrier, a glass ceiling, blocked them. Invisible from the bottom, when women started their careers, it was steely strong in stopping them attaining equality with men later on. It helped explain the fact that in large corporations in Europe and North America women rarely came to account for more than 10% of senior executives and 4% of CEOs and chairmen. A secondary issue is that of women’s pay. There is evidence that even when women do reach the highest levels of corporate management, they do not receive the same pay as men for the same job; a figure of 75% is often quoted. And rather than getting better over time, the position seems to be deteriorating. One survey found that women executives in the United States were earning an even lower percentage of their male counterparts’ remuneration in 2000 than they were in 1995. So worried was the American government about the issue that in 1991 it set up something called the Glass Ceiling Commission, a 21-member body appointed by the president and Congress and chaired by the labour secretary. The commission focused on barriers in three areas : the filling of management and decision-making positions; skills-enhancing activities; and compensation and reward systems. The Glass Ceil ing Commission “completed i ts mandate” in 1996 and was disbanded. Needless to say, the problem did not disappear with it. One of the first women to head a major Japanese company, when asked in 2005 what had changed least in Japanese business in the previous 20 years, said: “The mindset of Japanese gentlemen.” Several theories have been presented to explain the glass ceiling : l The time factor : One theory is that the cohorts of first-class female graduates have not yet had time to work through the pipeline and reach the top of the corporate hierarchy. Qualifications for a senior management post usually include a graduate degree and 25 years of continuous work experience. In the early 1970s, when today’s senior managers were graduating, fewer than 5% of law and MBA degrees were being awarded to women. Nowadays, women gain over 40% of all law degrees in the United States and 35% of MBAs. l Motherhood : Sometimes the blame for the glass ceiling is laid at the door of motherhood. Women are distracted from their career path by the need to stay at home and rear children. They are unable to undertake the tasks required to reach the top; for example, extended trips abroad, wearing air miles like battle medals, long evenings “entertaining” clients and changing plans at short notice. l Lack of role models : In her 1977 book “Men and Women of the Corporation”, Rosabeth Moss Kanter suggested that because managerial women are so often a token female in their work environment they stand out from the rest. This makes them (and their failures) much more visible, and exaggerates the differences between them and the dominant male culture. Some authors recently have gone so far as to challenge the metaphor of the glass ceiling, arguing that it presents the image of a one-off blockage somewhere high up the career ladder, whereas in reality there is a whole series of obstacles along the way that hold women back. 486. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true in the context of the given article? I. The American government formed a Glass Ceiling Commission in 1991 regarding women’s poor participation in corporations. II. Rosabeth Moss Kanter wrote the book ‘Men and Women of the Corporation’. III. Now a days women gain over 40% of all law degrees in the United States and 35% of MBAs. (a) Only II (b) Only I (c) Only I and II (d) Only II and III (e) All three I, II and III Ans: (e) As he was ignorant to the cause of the blacks. 487. Worried by the poor participation of women in America’s largest corporations, the government appointed a 21–member body chaired by the labour secretary. Which of the following area(s) was/were of their focus? I. Employment for management and decision making positions. II. How to enhance the women’s skills III. How to improve women’s presence in duty and their working hours. (a) Only II (b) Only I (c) Only I and III (d) Only I and II (e) All three I, II and III Ans: (d) He encouraged the residents there to vote. 488. What should be the most appropriate title of the given passage? (a) Breaking the glass ceiling (b) Breaking the wooden ceiling. (c) Rising women in America’s corporations (d) Global participation of women (e) None of these Ans: (a) As a fellow activist was apprehended. 489. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the given passage? (a) The expression ‘the glass ceiling’ first appeared in the title of an academic article by A.M. Morrison. (b) In large corporations in Europe and North America women rarely come to account for more than 10% of senior executives and 4% of CEOs and chairmen. (c) The idea behind the expression ‘the glass ceiling’ was that a transparent barrier blocked women in their progress. (d) According to a survey, women executives in the United States were earning an even lower percentage of their male counterparts remuneration in 2000 than they were in 1995. (e) None of these Ans: (a) The voting rights granted to the black people. 490. Several theories have been presented to explain the glass ceiling. Which of the following is/are correct in this regard? I. Because managerial women are so often a token female in their work environment they stand out from the rest. II. Sometimes the blame for glass ceiling is laid at the door of motherhood. III. The cohorts of first–class female graduates have not yet had time to work through the pipeline and reach the top of the corporate hierarchy. (a) Only II (b) Only I (c) Only I and II (d) Only II and III (e) All three I, II and III Ans: (e) Kennedy’s urge to fellow congress to pass the civil rights bill. 491. Select the correct statement in the context of the given passage. (a) Women are not distracted from their career path by the need to stay at home and rear children. (b) In early 1970, fewer than 6% of law and MBA degrees were being awarded to women. (c) The women get same pay for same job as compared to men. (d) The Glass ceiling commission completed its mandate in 1996 and was disbanded. (e) None of these Ans: (d) To exonerate Rosa parks from the accusation of violating civil rights, Directions: Which one of the following words is most similar in meaning to the word given in bold letters in the passage? 492. Persistent (a) perquisite (b) relenting (c) unrelenting (d) transient (e) perseverance Ans: (c) Persistent (Adj.) = continuing for a long time without interruption; unrelenting. Look at the sentence : Persistent rain has caused flood– like situation in the streets of my city. 493. Stand out (a) watch (b) to be noticeable (c) remain valid (d) isolate (e) support Ans: (b) Stand out = to be easily seen; to be noticeable. Look at the sentence : The lettering stood out well against the dark background. Directions: Which one of the following words is most opposite in meaning to the word given in bold letters in the passage? 494. Distracted (a) distressed (b) diverted (c) inattentive (d) distinguished (e) attentive Ans: (e) Distracted (Adj.) = unable to pay attention to something because you are worried; inattentive. Look at the sentence : I was distracted a bit by noise. 495. Deteriorate (a) decline (b) to become worse (c) degrade (d) improve (e) retrogress Ans: (d) Deteriorate (Verb) = to become worse; decline; degrade. Improve (Verb) = to become better than before. Look at the sentences : The discussion quickly deteriorated into an angry argument. His quality of life has improved dramatically since the operation. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Most of the declarations of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 have faded from memory. But the linkage made there between women’s rights and poverty and the assumption that discrimination actually impedes progress-has survived. Since then the promotion of equal rights has become a central economic priority for international aid agencies. The World Bank has declared the enfranchisement of women the single most important issue for effective development. A sweeping statement, perhaps, but since 1805 the bank has lent billions of dollars on programmes that encourage girls’ education, better maternal health and on micro-credit initiatives that funnel money directly into the hands of women. This is a substantial sum dedicated to women. If not, most developing countries, women produce more food than men and bear primary responsibility for feeding, sheltering and educating the young. But lack of education coupled with social customs which treat women as second- class citizens restrict their participation in the economy. The figures are startling. Globally those women who do work are concentrated at the bottom end of the labour market and receive far less pay. A significant proportion of the world’s illiterate are women and women account for half of all refugees. Anything that helps women catch up with men should be welcome on grounds of equity alone. But fairer treatment of women is also one of the most effective ways to improve an economy’s efficiency as well. It is widely recognised educating more women in developing countries and specifically making education available to men and women equally is likely to raise the productive potential of an economy significantly. As education levels rise, so do household incomes. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, 70% of young children whose mothers have secondary information receive their vaccinations, as opposed to just 30% of those whose mothers have no formal schooling at all. A cross-country analysis concluded that gains in women’s education made the single largest contribution to declines in malnutrition in 13 countries between 1970 and 1995. Some researchers reckon that, if female farmers in places like Cameron or Kenya were afforded the same schooling and other opportunities as male farmers, crop yields would rise quite hefty. One economic analysis estimates that, if countries in South Asia, Africa and the Middle East had closed the gender gap in schooling at the same rate as East Asia after 1960. Income per head could have grown substantially over the actual growth rates achieved. But one country’s gender bias is another’s ancient tradition, entrenched in laws and institutions. Some South American countries, like Bolivia and Guatemala restrict wives employment outside the home in South African nations like Botswana, women have no independent right to manage of own land but now girls are offered stipends for secondary education- a long standing programme now holstered by multilateral aid. Elsewhere in Africa in Ghana, peripatetic bankers act as lenders and financial advisors, often helping women as particular to set up small businesses. Part of the rationale for micro-finance (small icons) that caters to women is that some studies have shown women tend to spend money more prudently on vital goods and services that benefit families, men often squander it. This finding may seem implausible to many men. Not many women would be surprised. 496. Which of the following is an appropriate title for the passage? (a) Catching Lip with Africa (b) Enabling Asia- The Long Road Ahead (c) Raising Children in the 21st Century (d) Poverty-A Matter of Geography? (e) Gender Fairness Equals Economic Development Ans: (e) None of these 497. Which of the following is/are (a) hindrance(s) in the economic development of the countries mentioned in the passage? (A) Time-honoured traditions in these countries. (B) Women’s limited access to education. (C) Population explosion in the 1960s. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) All (b), (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (C) (e) Only (b) and (a) Ans: (e) perseverance 498. What do the statistics in the passage indicate? (a) Maternal health and life expectancy of women has improved since 1995. (b) The female infanticide rate in African countries has dropped significantly. (c) Education of mothers has improved health and immunisation in Sub-Saharan Africa. (d) Much of the World Bank aid for health has been utilised effectively. (e) Economic development in Africa is on the rise. Ans: (c) remain valid 499. Which of the following best describes the author’s opinion regarding international aid efforts? (a) Aid will soon dry up as donors are facing economic troubles of their own. (b) These have been ineffective on account of rampant corruption in aided countries, (c) Aid should be withdrawn from countries which do not promote equal opportunities. (d) The goals are unrealistic as many of aided countries are facing political conflicts. (e) These are generous but effectiveness is hampered by prevailing local factors. Ans: (e) attentive 500. Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word FADED given in bold as used in the passage? (a) disappeared (b) tainted (c) darkened (d) drooped (e) deepened Ans: (a) Fade (Verb) = to disappear gradually ; to become less bright. Look at the sentence : Hopes of reaching agreement seem to be fading away. 501. Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word IMPEDES given in bold as used in the passage? (a) improves (b) impels (c) subjects (d) pampers (e) hinders Ans: (e) Impede (Verb) = to delay or stop the progress of something ; hinder; hamper. Look at the sentence : Work on the building was impeded by severe weather. 502. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage? (a) International conferences on gender equality have not resulted in any concrete aid and action. (b) Women in Asia and Africa have access to primary but not higher education. (c) There has been much focus on the issue of gender equality in the past two decades. (d) Over half the women in Sub Saharan Africa are illiterate. (e) All of the given statements are true in the context of the passage. Ans: (c) There has been much focus on the issue of gender equality in the past two decades. 503. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word FAIRER given in bold as used in the passage, (a) mysterious (b) dimmer (c) depressing (d) biased (e) dusty Ans: (d) Fair (Adj.) = treating everyone equally and according to the rules or law ; unbiased. Biased (Adj.) = having a tendency to show favour ; making unfair judgements. Look at the sentences : She has always been scrupulously fair. We have to be fair to both players. A biased jury did unjustice to the innocent. 504. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word IMPLAUSIBLE given in bold as used in the passage. (a) open (b) questionable (c) hypocritical (d) credible (e) fake Ans: (d) Implausible (Adj.) = not seeming reasonable or likely to be true ; unbelievable. Credible (Adj.) = that can be trusted or believed ; convincing, plausible. Look at the sentences : It was all highly implausible that an unarmed person killed five strong men. It is just not credible that she would cheat. 505. According to the passage, what can be said with regard to Africa? (a) While cultural attitudes are changing fast, gender equal policies lag behind. (b) It is struggling to improve the situation with regard to discrimination against women. (c) Today there is parity between men and women in terms of property rights. (d) Micro-credit programmes here have not enjoyed the same success as they did in Asia. (e) None of the given options can be said. Ans: (b) It is struggling to improve the situation wi th regard to discrimination against women. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. What is immediately needed today is the establishment of a World Government or an International Federation of mankind. It is the utmost necessity of the world today, and all those persons who wish to see all human beings happy and prosperous naturally feel it keenly. Of course, at times we feel that many of the problems of our political, social, linguistic and cultural life would come to an end if there were one Government all over the world. Travellers, businessmen, seekers of knowledge and teachers of righteousness know very well that great impediments and obstructions are faced by them when they pass from one country to another, exchange goods, get information, and make an effort to spread their good gospel among their fellow-men. In the past, religious sects divided one set of people against another, colour of skin or shape of the body set one against the other. But today when philosophical light has exploded the darkness that was created by religious differences, and when scientific knowledge has falsified the superstitions, they have enabled human beings of all religious views and of all races and colours to come in frequent contact with one another. It is the governments of various countries that keep people of one country apart from, those of another. They create artificial barriers, unnatural distinctions, unhealthy isolation, unnecessary fears and dangers in the minds of common men who by their nature want to live in friendship with their fellow-men. But all these evils would cease to exist if there were one Government all over the world. 506. What divides people of a country against another? (a) Different language (b) Different religions (c) Different social and political systems of different people (d) Governments of various countries (e) None of these Ans: (d) Look at the sentence : It is the governments of various countries that keep people of one country apart from, those of another. 507. What is the urgent need of the world today? (a) The establishment of a world government (b) The establishment of an international economic order (c) The creation of a cultural international social order (d) The raising of an international spiritual army (e) None of these Ans: (a) It is obvious from the first sentence of the passage. 508. What will the world Government be expected to do? (a) it will end all wars for all time to come (b) it will arrange for interplanetary contacts (c) it will bring about a moral regeneration of mankind (d) it will kill the evil spirit in man (e) None of these Ans: (c) Look at the sentence : It is the utmost necessity of the world today and all those persons who wish to see all human beings mankind. 509. Choose the word which is SIMILAR in meaning as the word “righteousness” as used in the passage. (a) religiosity (b) rectitude (c) requirement (d) scrupulousness (e) Immorality Ans: (b) Righteousness (Noun) = morally right and good; moral acceptance; fairness; great concern for morals and ethics; propriety; scrupulousness; rectitude. Immorality (Noun) = not considered to be good or honest. Look at the sentences : Lord Buddha believed in righteousness of action. Society doesn’t accept men of immorality. 510. Which of the following problems has not been mentioned in the passage as likely to be solved with the establishment of world Government? (a) Political Problems (b) Social Problems (c) Cultural Problems (d) Economic Problems (e) None of these Ans: (d) Economic Problems 511. Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning to the word ‘impediments’ as used in the passage. (a) furtherance (b) handicaps (c) providence (d) hindrances (e) obstacles Ans: (a) Impediment (Noun) = something that delays or stops the progress of something; obstacle; hindrance. Furtherance (Noun) = the process of helping something to develop or to be successful. Look at the sentences : The level of inflation is a serious impediment to economic recovery. He took these actions purely in the furtherance of his own career. 512. The most appropriate title of the above passage may be (a) The man can make his destiny (b) The evils of the world order (c) The need of world Government (d) The role of Religion in the Modern Times (e) None of these Ans: (c) The need of world Government 513. What was the factor, according to the passage, that set one man against another? (a) Superior physical strength of some persons. (b) Material prosperity of certain people in the midst of grinding poverty. (c) Colour of skin or shape of the body. (d) Some people being educated and other illiterate. (e) None of these Ans: (c) Colour of skin or shape of the body. 514. The theory of racial superiority stands falsified today by (a) the ascendancy of people who were here to fore considered of inferior racial stock (b) knowledge derived from scientific advances (c) the achievements of the so called backward countries in every field of life (d) the precedence given to the physical powers of different races (e) None of these Ans: (b) knowledge derived from scientific advances 515. In the past religious sects (a) interfered in political affairs (b) united the people with one another (c) did a good job by way of spreading message of love and peace (d) divided one set of people from another (e) None of these Ans: (d) divided one set of people from another Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has tilted the other way. policymakers once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science but this is changing. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books and Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up. The reversal is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths; at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for sometime, a gulf has appeared. In all G4 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an extra year of schooling. The OECD deems literacy to be the most important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science. Youngsters in this group, with nothing to build on or shine at, are prone to drop out of school altogether. To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first look at what they do outside it. The average 15-year old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spend more time playing video games and trawling the internet. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter. Once in the classroom, boys long to be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as a teacher used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of masculinity that ignores academic achievement. Boys’ disdain for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days have long gone. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to delusion : 12% of boys told the OECD that they are familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive sealing”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls.) But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymised tests than in teachers assessments. What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are polite, eager and stay out of flights, all attributes that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be docked for bad behaviour. 516. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word DOCKED given in bold as used in the passage. (a) stopped (b) raised (c) widened (d) flown (e) cut short Ans: (b) Dock (Verb) = cut short; to remove part of something. Raise (Verb) = increase; improve. Look at the sentences : As a punishment, the Army docked the soldiers’ wages by 15% and took away their leave. They raised their offer to$ 400.
517. According to the passage, what can be said about the school education today?
(a) Online education can easily address its problems such as shortage of teaching staff.
(b) Science education is deteriorating rapidly.
(c) It fosters rote learning instead of creative thinking.
(d) The amount of homework for children is prohibitive.
(e) Girls are doing better at school as compared to boys on some parameters.
Ans: (e)
Girls are doing better at school as compared to boys on some parameters.
518. Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word DRAW given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) tie
(b) sketch
(c) raffle
(d) represent
(e) divert
Ans: (e)
Draw (Verb) = distract; to take attention away; divert. Look at the sentence : The war drew people’s attention away from the economic situation.
519. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) Efforts to improve representation of girls in education have had success.
(b) Boys perform better than girls on subjective teacher assessments.
(c) By and large teachers are female and they discriminate against boys.
(d) Education in rich countries needs to be subsidised to reduce dropout numbers.
(e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage.
Ans: (b)
Boys perform better than girls on Subj.ive teacher assessments.
520. Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word PRONE given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) flat
(b) unconscious
(c) likely
(d) lifeless
(e) opinionated
Ans: (c)
Prone (Adj.) = likely to suffer from something; liable. Look at the sentence : Working without a break makes you more prone to error.
521. Which of the following factors can have an impact on results of boys in school?
(A) Perceptions of teachers.
(B) Societal attitude towards educational achievement and boys.
(C) Overconfidence of male students.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (b) and (C)
(e) Only (b) and (a)
Ans: (c)
All (b), (a) and (C)
522. What do the OECD statistics in the passage indicate?
(a) Despite the perception that girls are doing better than boys in school, the same is not true.
(b) Schools dropout rates among boys are higher in developing countries than in rich ones.
(c) Today boys are more at risk than girls in terms of educational achievement in developed countries.
(d) Enrolment of girls in schools has doubled while that of boys has fallen.
(e) By and large teenagers have very low educational achievement in rich countries.
Ans: (c)
Today boys are more at risk than girls in terms of educational achievement in developed countries.
523. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word DELUSION given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) superstition
(b) myth
(c) precipitating
(d) reality
(e) familiarity
Ans: (d)
Delusion (Noun) = a false belief or opinion; not real or not true; deception Reality (Noun) = the true situation Look at the sentences : Don’t go getting delusions of grandeur. You are out of touch with reality.
524. Which of the following best describes the author’s opinion about the ‘boy crisis’?
(a) Policymakers should address the issue of ‘uneducated’ boys as it will impact boys employment subsequently.
(b) It is not as much of a problem as it is made out to be.
(c) It can be addressed by implementing quotas at university level.
(d) It is a rich country phenomenon and can be easily addressed through increased funding for schools.
(e) None of the given options.
Ans: (a)
Policymakers should address the issue of ‘uneducated’ boys as it will impact boys employment subsequently.
525. Which of the following is an appropriate title for the passage?
(a) Men Storming Up the Irony Tower
(b) Finding the Glass Ceiling
(c) Pay and Job Flexibility
(d) Attention! A New Gender Gap
(e) A Broken Safety Net
Ans: (d)
Attention! A New Gender Gap
Directions:
Read the following questions carefully and answer the given questions.
Everyone admires serial entrepreneurs for their pluck and persistence, but they pose a big risk for the investors who fund their dreams. Our research shows that instead of learning from mistakes, serial entrepreneurs are just as apt to be overoptimistic after failure as before.
Overoptimism—defined as the tendency to believe that one is more likely than others to experience positive events and less likely to experience negative ones—comes with the start-up territory, of course. Studies have shown that entrepreneurs of all types are more prone to it than the general population.
Although overoptimism is useful in getting a business off the ground, it can also help cause that business to tank.
It is associated with a greater tendency to commit to and overinvest in risky projects, to neglect to plan for the unexpected, and to throw good money after bad while postponing the inevitable.
Experiencing failure can temper this surplus of optimism among some entrepreneurs—but not serial entrepreneurs.
In a survey of 576 UK–based entrepreneurs in a variety of industries, conducted through questionnaires that covered successes, failures, and attitudes, we found that those who hold multiple businesses simultaneously—we call them portfolio entrepreneurs—seem able to adjust their expectations according to experience. If they’ve suffered flops, they’re typically more realistic than novice entrepreneurs. Because they learn from their setbacks, they may be especially good candidates for investment.
But serial entrepreneurs, who take on one project at a time, are a different breed. Even if some retain specific lessons about what worked and what didn’t, their overoptimism remains undimmed by failure. Others refuse even to look at why things went wrong. “Spending your time thinking about what happened is a ticket to the graveyard,” one told us.
Paradoxically, serial entrepreneurs’ greater propensity to remain overoptimistic may be due in part to the deep pain, even trauma, they feel when their projects fail— pain that is especially acute precisely because they involve themselves in only one business at a time. Psychological research suggests that strong emotions often prompt people to blame others or external events rather than themselves so that they can maintain some semblance of self-esteem and a sense of control. This “attributional bias” appears to make serial entrepreneurs less capable of learning from failure than portfolio entrepreneurs, whose attachment is spread among multiple initiatives.
526. Which of the following statements is correct in regard to the research made on overoptimism?
(a) Overoptimism is a tendency to believe that one is more likely to experience negative results.
(b) Overoptimism is a tendency to believe that one is less likely to experience positive results.
(c) Overoptimism is a tendency to more likely experience positive events and less likely to experience negative ones.
(d) Serial entrepreneurs learn greatly from failures
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
Overoptimism is a tendency to believe that one is less likely to experience positive results.
527. Select the incorrect statement (s) in the context of the given passage that relate/s to the survey.
I. The survey was conducted on 567 UK based entrepreneurs.
II. The survey covered questionnaires on successes, failures and attitudes.
III. Portfolio entrepreneurs seem able to adjust their expectations according to experience.
(a) Only I and II
(b) Only I
(c) Only II and III
(d) Only II
(e) All three I,II and III
Ans: (b)
Only I
528. Which of the following cannot be associated with overoptimism in the context of the given passage?
(a) Overoptimistic entrepreneurs have a tendency to throw good money after bad.
(b) Overoptimism commits to and overinvests in risky projects.
(c) Overoptimism causes to pay heed to the inevitable.
(d) Overoptimism is useful in getting a business but also causes it to tank.
(e) None of these.
Ans: (c)
Overoptimism causes to pay heed to the inevitable.
529. What should be the most suitable title of the given passage?
(a) Optimism- a tool to lead
(b) Effects of overoptimism.
(c) No success without overoptimism
(d) Serial and portfolio entrepreneurs
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Effects of overoptimism.
530. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct in regard to the given passage?
I. Serial entrepreneurs are admired for their pluck and persistence.
II. Portfolio entrepreneurs are those who hold multiple businesses simultaneously.
III. Over optimism of serial entrepreneurs remains undimmed by failure.
(a) Only II and III
(b) Only I
(c) Only I and II
(d) Only II
(e) All three I, II and III
Ans: (e)
All three I, II and III
531. What the psychological research on entrepreneurs suggests?
(a) The overconfidence of portfolio entrepreneurs is their invaluable asset.
(b) The self-confidence of serial entrepreneurs leads them to success.
(c) The attributional bias of serial entrepreneurs makes them less capable of learning from failure.
(d) Every entrepreneur has a tendency to blame internal events for its failure.
(e) None of these
Ans: (c)
The attributional bias of serial entrepreneurs makes them less capable of learning from failure.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
The Economic Issues series aims to make available to a broad readership of nonspecialists some of the economic research being produced in the International Monetary Fund on topical issues. The raw material of the series is drawn mainly from IMF Working Papers, technical papers produced by Fund staff members and visiting scholars, as well as from policy-related research papers.
This material is refined for the general readership by editing and partial redrafting.
In 1978, after years of state control of all productive assets, the government of China embarked on a major program of economic reform. In an effort to awaken a dormant economic giant, it encouraged the formation of rural enterprises and private businesses, liberalized foreign trade and investment, relaxed state control over some prices, and invested in industrial production and the education of its workforce. By nearly all accounts, the strategy has worked spectacularly.
While pre-1978 China had seen annual growth of 6 per cent a year (with some painful ups and downs along the way), post-1978 China saw average real growth of more than 9 per cent a year with fewer and less painful ups and downs. In several peak years, the economy grew more than 13 per cent. Per capita income has nearly quadrupled in the last 15 years, and a few analysts are even predicting that the Chinese economy will be larger than that of the United States in about 20 years. Such growth compares very favorably to that of the “Asian tigers”— Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan Province of China— which, as a group, had an average growth rate of per cent over the last 15 years.
Curious about why China has done so well, an IMF research team recently examined the sources of that nation’s growth and arrived at a surprising conclusion. Although capital accumulation—the growth in the country’s stock of capital assets, such as new factories, manufacturing machinery, and communications systems—was important, as were the number of Chinese workers, a sharp, sustained increase in productivity (that is, increased worker efficiency) was the driving force behind the economic boom. During 19 productivity gains accounted for more than 42 per cent of China’s growth and by the early 1990s had overtaken capital as the most significant source of that growth. This marks a departure from the traditional view of development in which capital investment takes the lead. This jump in productivity originated in the economic reforms begun in 1978.
Economists studying China face thorny theoretical and empirical issues, mostly deriving from the country’s years of central planning and strict government control of many industries, which tend to distort prices and misallocate resources. In addition, since the Chinese national accounting system differs from the systems used in most Western nations, it is difficult to derive internationally comparable data on the Chinese economy. Figures for Chinese economic growth consequently vary depending on how an analyst decides to account for them.
Although economists have many ways of explaining— or modeling—economic growth, a common approach is the neoclassical framework, which describes how productive factors such as capital and labor combine to generate output and which offers analytical simplicity and a welldeveloped methodology. Although commonly applied to market economies, the neoclassical model has also been used to analyze command economies. It is an appropriate first step in looking at the Chinese economy and yields useful “benchmark” estimates for future research. The framework does, however, have some limitations in the Chinese context.
Original data for the new IMF research came from material released from the State Statistical Bureau of China and other government agencies. Problematically, the component statistics used to compile the Chinese gross national product (GNP) have been kept only since 1978; before that, Chinese central planners worked under the concept of gross social output (GSO), which excluded many segments of the economy counted under GNP. Fortunately, China also compiled an intermediate output series called national income, which lies somewhere between GNP and GSO and is available from 1952 to 1993. After making appropriate adjustments to the national income statistics, including adjusting for indirect business taxes, these data can be used to analyze the sources of Chinese economic growth.
532. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct in the context of the given passage?
I. Before 1978, the government of China had control of all productive assets.
II. The Economic Issues series produced by IMF aims to make available to a broad readership of specialists some of the economic research on topical issues.
III. By nearly all accounts, the strategy of economic reforms in China has worked spectacularly.
(a) Only I and III
(b) Only III
(c) Only II and III
(d) Only I and II
(e) All three I, II and III
Ans: (a)
Only I and III
533. In 1978 China, now the second largest world economy took a significant decision of economic reforms.
In an effort to awaken a dormant economy it encouraged several steps. Which of the following step(s) was/were taken in this regard?
I. China encouraged the formation of rural enterprises and private businesses.
II. China encouraged investment in industrial production and took keenly to educate its workforce.
III. China liberalised foreign trade and investment.
(a) Only II and III
(b) Only II
(c) Only III
(d) Only I and III
(e) All three I, II and III.
Ans: (e)
All three I, II and III.
534. What should be the most appropriate title of the given passage?
(a) Economic reforms and fallouts
(b) Encouraging effects of Economic Reforms in China
(c) Depressing World Economy
(d) The Economic Issues Series of IMF
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Encouraging effects of Economic Reforms in China
535. After initiating economic reforms Chinese economy did so well. It compelled IMF research team to examine the sources of that nation’s growth. Which of the following is/are the conclusion(s) arrived at?
I. The growth in the country’s stock of capital assets such as new factories, manufacturing machinery and communications systems was not important.
II. The number of Chinese workers, and a sharp, sustained increase in productivity were the driving force behind the economic boom.
III. During 19, productivity gains accounted for more than 42 per cent of China’s growth.
(a) Only I and III
(b) Only III
(c) Only II and III
(d) Only II
(e) All three I, II and III
Ans: (c)
Only II and III
536. Original data for the new IMF research came from material released from the state statistical Bureau of China and the other government agencies. Select the correct statement(s) in this regard.
I. China has called national income which lies between GNP and GSO from 1953 to 1994.
II. Before 1978, Chinese central planners worked under the concept of gross social output.
III. Statistical data were made available by IMF itself.
(a) Only II
(b) Only I
(c) Only III
(d) Only I and II
(e) Only II and III
Ans: (a)
Only II
537. Select the correct statement in regard to the thorny theoretical and empirical issues by Economists studying China.
(a) Only raw data are available.
(b) Due to China’s years of central planning and strict government control, distorted prices and misallocated resources are available.
(c) There is central organisation that makes correct data available.
(d) There are many divergent agencies that provide inconsistent data.
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Due to China’s years of central planning and strict government control, distorted prices and misallocated resources are available.
538. Select the correct statement(s) in the context of the given passage.
I. Neoclassical framework describes how productive factors combine to generate output.
II. Although neoclassical framework is commonly applied to market economies, it is also used to analyse command economies.
III. Neoclassical framework though yields useful benchmark estimates for future research, however it has some limitations in the Chinese context.
(a) Only III
(b) Only II
(c) Only I and II
(d) All three I, II and III
(e) Only I
Ans: (d)
All three I, II and III
Directions:
Read the following passage and answer the given questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
There is a market failure in cyber security. Solutions being suggested or tried include increasing transparency about data losses, helping consumers and firms to make more informed decisions about cyber-security; shedding more light on how internet-service providers (ISPs) tackle malware infections they spot on customers’ computers; and using liability laws to force software companies to produce safer code. On transparency, America has led the way. Almost all American states now have data-breach laws that require firms to reveal any loss of sensitive customer information. In Europe telecoms firms have been obliged to notify customers of breaches for some time now, and there are plans to extend reporting to a wider range of industries.
Breach laws have encouraged insurance companies to offer coverage against potential losses. This is helpful because they are in a position to gather and share information about best practices across a wide range of companies.
A cyber-insurer advises companies on defensive tactics, and also on how to minimise the damage if something goes wrong. The American government should create a cyber-equivalent of the National Transportation Safety Board, which investigates serious accidents and shares information about them. Such a body could look into all breaches that cost over, $50m and make sure the lessons are shared widely. But insurers are likely to remain wary of taking on broader risks because the costs associated with a serious cyber-incident could be astronomic. Insurers can deal with acts of God, but not acts of Anonymous (hacking groups or acts of state sponsored hacking). This explains why the overall cyber-insurance market is still small. Governments are weighing in, too, not least by supporting private-sector efforts to clean up “botnets”, or networks of compromised computers controlled by hackers. These networks, which are prevalent in countries such as America and China, can be used to launch attacks and spread malware. In Germany an initiative called Bot-Frei, which helps people clean up their infected computers, received government support to get started, though it is now self-financing. The American government has also worked closely with private firms to bring down large botnets. Another strategy involves issuing standards to encourage improved security. America’s National Institute of Standards and Technology published a set of voluntary guidelines for companies in critical-infrastructure sectors such as energy and transport. Britain has also launched a scheme called “cyber-essentials” under which firms can apply for a certificate showing they comply with certain minimum security standards. Applicants undergo an external audit and, if successful, are awarded a badge which they can use on marketing materials. Whether governments are best placed to set minimum standards is debatable, but they have certainly raised awareness of cyber-security as an issue that needs attention. They could also help to get more information into the public domain. Researchers have argued persuasively that collecting and publishing data about the quantity of spam and other bad traffic handled by ISPs could encourage the worst performers to do more to tackle the problem, thus improving overall security. Another debate has revolved around getting software companies to produce code with fewer flaws in it. One idea is to make them liable for damage caused when, say, hackers exploit a weakness in a software program. Most software companies currently insist customers accept end-user licensing agreements that specifically protect firms from legal claims unless local laws prohibit such exclusions. The snag is that imposing blanket liability could have a chilling effect on innovation. Companies that are selling millions of copies of programmes might take fright at the potential exposure and leave the business. Strict liability be applied only to firms which produce software that cannot be patched if a security flaw is found. There is quite a lot of that sort of code around. 539. Which of the following is the SAME in meaning as the word BROADER as used in the passage? (a) subtle (b) spacious (c) weaker (d) comprehensive (e) approximate Ans: (d) Broader (Adj.) = complete; general; including almost all; comprehensive. 540. Which of the following is/are the argument(s) in favour of cyber-essentials? (A) It boosts transparency and promotion of firms. (B) The certification is given by hackers which makes it authentic. (C) Firms benefit from paying attention to cyber-security and so do users. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (C) (d) Only (a) and (C) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (c) Only (b) and (C) 541. Which of the following is the SAME in meaning as the word TRIED as used in the passage? (a) accused (b) convicted (c) attempted (d) exasperated (e) None of the given options Ans: (c) Try (Verb) = to make an attemp or effort to do or get something. 542. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE of the word SERIOUS as used in the passage? (a) witty (b) genuine (c) noisy (d) insignificant (e) irresistible Ans: (d) Serious (Adj.) = that must be treated as important; significant. Look at the sentences : We need to get down to the serious business of working out costs. He made her insignificant and stupid. 543. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE of the word CHILLING as used in the passage? (a) reassuring (b) promoting (c) encouraging (d) fostering (e) All the given options Ans: (e) Chilling (Adj.) = frightening; discouraging; terrifying. Look at the sentence : The monument stands as a chilling reminder of man’s inhumanity to man. 544. Which of the following best describes the author’s view of liability laws? (a) These are pointless as they cannot be uniformly or strictly implemented. (b) These will act as incentives for computer firms to produce more secure software. (c) These will not greatly impact computer firms as the financial profits from software are huge. (d) These are not an appropriate approach to cyber security. (e) None of the given options Ans: (b) These will act as incentives for computer firms to produce more secure software. 545. Which of the following can be said about government efforts with regard to cyber security? (A) Government efforts have been coupled with private sector co-operation. (B) Government efforts have been focused on destroying botnet infrastructure (C) These are not worth while and too small in magnitude. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (b) and (a) (d) Only (a) and (C) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (e) All (b), (a) and (C) 546. Why has the author mentioned the National Transportation Security Board in the passage? (A) To urge America to set up a body to share data in cyber-related instances. (B) To monitor cyber security episodes whose losses are over a certain sum. (C) To publish and enforce standards for cyber-security for sectors like energy. (a) Only (b) and (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (a) (d) Only (a) and (C) (e) All (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (c) Only (a) 547. Which of the following is/are (a) theme(s) of the passage? (a) Cyber-crime infrastructure in certain countries. (b) Holding cyber firms accountable for flaws in their products. (c) Ways to secure cyber-space. (d) Limits of cyber-insurance. (e) All the given options are themes. Ans: (e) All the given options are themes. 548. Which of the following is/are true in the context of the passage? (a) America is leading the way in terms of laws for disclosure of cyber-breaches. (b) Breach laws can be helpful for organisations. (c) Pressure is increasing on software companies to produce safer products. (d) Varied efforts are being made to create a market which values cyber-security. (e) All the given options are true in the context of the passage. Ans: (e) All the given options are true in the context of the passage. Directions: Read the following passage and answer the given questions. Certain words or phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Stocks of grain and other foods are high, with another bumper harvest due in the northern hemisphere this year. The number of hungry people has been falling too, by 167 million in the past decade, according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), chiefly thanks to progress in China and India. Yet that leaves nearly 800 million, a third of which are in Africa, The UN reckons that one measure, “prevalence of undernourishment” has the dropped from 18.6% of the world population in 19 to 10.9% now. That broadly meets a target the world set itself in 2000, in the Millennium Development Goals. But international bodies such as the G7 are worried about the coming decades. The world’s population will exceed nine billion in 2050, with most of the growth in developing countries. The United States Department of Agriculture reckons that the number of hungry (“food insecure”) people in sub-Saharan Africa will rise by a third. The FAO reckons that food production will need to increase by 70%. Worries abound. Crop yields are flat. And many trends are negative : new crop diseases, urbanisation, desertification, salinisation and soil erosion, which outstrips renewal even in developed countries. That does not mean disaster is looming. Agricultural productivity is often shockingly low in “traditional” farming practices. That leaves plenty of room for improvement. But in most kinds of agriculture, scarce water can be used more sensibly. A study by Britain’s Institution of Mechanical Engineers estimated that 550 billion litres are wasted annually in crop production. Eliminating waste, for example by drip-feed irrigation, could raise food production by 60% or more. Phosphorus {a finite resource, unlike water) is wasted too : only a fifth of the phosphorus mined actually ends up in food. Climate change will indeed hurt some farmers but help others (so, perhaps, does more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere). Genetically Modified (GM) crops (such as drought-resistant rice, heat-resistant maize or blight-resistant wheat) have huge potential. Technology is only part of the solution. The food chain lacks resilience to other forms of disruption too, from political strife to consumer panics. Panics about contamination (real or imagined), for example, can send food flying off the shelves. A new report by Lloyds of London insurance market highlights the need for more innovation to help farmers and food manufacturers deal with adverse weather and other potential risks. The Gulf countries have long been preoccupied by the question of how to feed their people. The region’s population is expected to grow by 40% between 2010 and 2030. Some gulf countries import as much as 10% of their food. Their governments have been unsure of the best way to keep everyone fed- and content. Qatar reportedly declared that it would produce 70% of its food at home by 2023, by adopting new technologies of desalination and hydroponics. Adding a layer of the hydroponic sand under the topsoil stops water from reaching away, making it easier to grow crops in odd climates or in water-scarce lands. Agricultural entrepreneurs reckon that such innovation could allow the country to grow more of its own food. That idea was soon dropped. Saudi Arabia, with the busiest farm sector among the six countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council, scaled back wheat grown by irrigation because it was draining non-renewable aquifers. Heavy reliance on imports is problematic when countries such as Argentina suddenly restrict their exports in response to rising prices. Buying farmland in countries such as Sudan, Tanzania and Pakistan is another Gulf ploy. The UAE and Saudi Arabia are among the top ten investors in land abroad, according to Land Matrix, a body that tracks such deals. But this has drawbacks, too. Getting big projects off the ground in places that lack infrastructure is tricky. Many of the region’s rulers are now considering investing in food companies abroad, often in more developed countries. The UAE’s Al Dahra Agriculture, which works closely with the government and owns land abroad, recently bought eight farm companies in Serbia for$400m. It has also invested in an Indian rice producer. In addition, countries like Saudi Arabia are looking at ways of keeping strategic food reserves. Gulf rulers may end up following a mixture of such strategies to fill their peoples’ stomachs. They should at least be commended for grappling with the problem, says a regional food expert. Poorer and hungrier Arab countries, like Egypt and Yemen, are far less willing to address it.
549. Why has the author mentioned the example of Qatar in the passage?
(A) To illustrate how increased dependence on foreign food imports backfires.
(B) It demonstrates the tremendous impact climate change has on agriculture which is going unnoticed.
(C) To show that some countries are innovative and making tremendous efforts to improve agriculture.
(a) Only C
(b) Only A
(c) Only B and C
(d) Only A and C
(e) All three A, B and C
Ans: (a)
Only C
550. Which of the following is the SAME in meaning as the word FLAT as used in the passage?
(a) totally
(b) categorical
(c) unvarying
(d) pre-determined
(e) All the given options
Ans: (c)
Flat (Adj.) = complete or certain, and not likely to change; unvarying.
551. Which of the following can be said about agriculture in Gulf countries?
(A) Though genetically modified such food has proven more nutritious.
(B) Some countries are highly dependent on food imports.
(C) It is a tricky issue to address and needs a variety of remedies.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) Only C
(d) Only A and C
(e) All three A, B and C
Ans: (e)
All three A, B and C
552. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE of the word DROPPED as used in the passage?
(a) sustained
(b) upheld
(c) supported
(d) backed
(e) All the given options
Ans: (a)
Drop (Verb) = to stop doing or discussing something; to not continue with something doing or discussing something; to not continue with something. Sustain (Verb) = to make something continue for sometime.
553. Which of the following is/are (a) theme(s) of the passage?
(a) Food security in gulf countries
(b) Factors impacting food production
(c) Challenges to agricultural productivity even in developed countries
(d) Wastage of water resources
(e) All the given options are themes
Ans: (e)
All the given options are themes
554. Which of the following best describes the author’s view of the global food situation?
(a) There is a food crisis imminent in the coming decades.
(b) The world has been successful to an extent in addressing the issue of hunger.
(c) Countries cannot rely solely on imports to meet their food needs.
(d) Technology can be harnessed to address the issue of food security.
(e) All the given options
Ans: (e)
All the given options
555. Which of the following is/are the argument(s) in favour of investing in agriculture abroad?
(A) It is a means to boost food security in countries which invest.
(B) Agriculture at home is too costly in terms of scarce natural resources.
(C) It will help countries which do so to address discontent at home.
(a) Only (a)
(b) Only (b)
(c) All (b), (a) and (C)
(d) Only (a) and (C)
(e) Only (b) and (C)
Ans: (c)
All (b), (a) and (C)
556. Which of the following is the OPPOSITE of the word POTENTIAL as used in the passage?
(a) unthinkable
(b) inept
(c) impending
(d) incapable
(e) None of the given options
Ans: (e)
Potential (Noun/Adj.) = someone’s or something’s ability to develop, achieve or succeed. Look at the sentence : The region has enormous potential for economic development.
557. Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?
(a) China, India have made strides in addressing food security.
(b) Gulf countries are rich on account of vast soil reserves and food needs are easily met through imports.
(c) Drip-feed irrigation is an efficient means of irrigation.
(d) The population is growing in gulf countries.
(e) All the given options are true in the context of the passage.
Ans: (b)
Gulf countries are rich on account of vast soil reserves and food needs are easily met through imports.
558. Which of the following is the SAME in meaning as the word TRACKS as used in the passage?
(a) monitors
(b) paths
(c) prints
(d) captures
(e) None of the given options
Ans: (a)
Track (Verb) = to record the progress ; monitor. Look at the sentence : The study tracked the careers of 100 doctors who trained at the Medical school.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Over a couple of days in February, hundreds of thousands of point-of-sale printers in restaurants around the world began behaving strangely. Some churned out bizarre pictures of computers and giant robots signed, “with love from the hacker God himself. Some informed their owners that, “YOUR PRINTER HAS BEEN PWND’D”. Some told them, “For the love of God, please close this port”.
When the hacker God gave an interview to Motherboard, a technology website, he claimed to be a British secondary- school pupil by the name of “Stackoverflowin”. Annoyed by the parlous state of computer security, he had, he claimed, decided to perform a public service by demonstrating just how easy it was to seize control.
Not all hackers are so public-spirited, and 2016 was a bonanza for those who are not. In February of that year cyber-crooks stole $81m directly from the central bank of Bangladesh—and would have got away with more were it not for a crucial typo. In August America’s National Security Agency (NSA) saw its own hacking tools leaked all over the internet by a group calling themselves the Shadow Brokers. (The C1A suffered a similar indignity this March,) In October a piece of software called Mirai was used to flood Dyn, an internet infrastructure company, with so much meaningless traffic that websites such as Twitter and Reddit were made inaccessible to many users. And the hacking of the Democratic National Committee’s e-mail servers and the subsequent leaking of embarrassing communications seems to have been part of an attempt to influence the outcome of the American elections. Away from matters of great scale and grand strategy, most hacking is either show-off vandalism or simply criminal. It is also increasingly easy. Obscure forums oil the trade in stolen credit-card details, sold in batches of thousands at a time. Data-dealers hawk “exploits”: flaws in code that allow malicious attackers to subvert systems. You can also buy “ransomware”, with which to encrypt photos and documents on victims’ computers before charging them for the key that will unscramble the data. So sophisticated are these facilitating markets that coding skills are now entirely optional. Botnets—flocks of compromised computers created by software like Mirai, which can then be used to flood websites with traffic, knocking them offline until a ransom is paid—can be rented by the hour. Just like a legitimate business, the bot-herders will, for a few dollars extra, provide technical support if anything goes wrong. The total cost of all this hacking is anyone’s guess (most small attacks, and many big ones, go unreported). But all agree it is likely to rise, because the scope for malice is about to expand remarkably. “We are building a world-sized robot,” says Bruce Schneier, a security analyst, in the shape of the “Internet of Things”. The loT is a buzz-phrase used to describe the computerisation of everything from cars and electricity meters to children’s toys, medical devices and light bulbs. In 2015 a group of computer-security researchers demonstrated that it was possible to take remote control of certain Jeep cars. When the Mirai malware is used to build a botnet it seeks out devices such as video recorders and webcams; the botnet for fridges is just around the corner. 559. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage? (a) Broken Computer Security (b) Public spirited Hackers (c) Hacking: The Criminal Offence (d) The Internet of Things (e) The Growing Artificial Intelligence Ans: (a) Broken Computer Security 560. According to the paragraph, why did ‘the hacker god’ decide to perform a public service? (a) To show the people that hacking was very easy (b) To hack the NSA server (c) To influence the outcome of the American elections (d) To aware the people about the computer security threats. (e) None of these Ans: (a) To show the people that hacking was very easy 561. Which of the following is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) The hacking of the Democratic National Committee’s e-mail servers was performed with the help of a malware named “Mirai”. (b) The lot is a buzz-phrase used to describe the computerisation of everything from cars and electricity meters to children’s toys, medical devices and light bulbs. (c) A group called “the Shadow Brokers” leaked hacking tools of America’s National Security Agency all over the internet. (d) Obscure forums oil the trade in stolen credit-card details, sold in batches of thousands at a time. (e) All of these are true in the context of the passage. Ans: (a) The hacking of the Democratic National Committee’s e-mail servers was performed with the help of a malware named “Mirai”. 562. According to the paragraph, what caused the websites like ‘twitter and reddit’ inaccessible to the users? (a) Due to unscramble of the encrypted data on the websites. (b) It was caused due to hacking of the security contents of the website. (c) Due to Dyn, an infrastructure company. (d) Due to surge in the worthless traffic which was forced by the hackers. (e) All are correct Ans: (c) Due to Dyn, an infrastructure company. 563. Which of following statement(s) is/are correct about ‘Internet of Things’ according to passage? (A) To take remote control of all digital devices. (B) A world sized Robot. (C) It means computerization of everything. (a) Only (a) is correct (b) Only (b) is correct (c) Both (b) and (C) are correct (d) Both (a) and (C) are correct (e) All are correct Ans: (e) All are correct Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 564. Malice (a) Malevolence (b) Antipathy (c) benignity (d) Audacity (e) Valour Ans: (c) Malice (Noun) = a feeling of hatred for somebody that causes a desire to harm them. Benignity (Noun) = kindness; unhurting, tolerance towards others. Look at the sentences : He sent the letter out of malice. He has a face of great benignity set on a gangling body. 565. Parlous (a) fatal (b) adventurous (c) terrible (d) innocuous (e) risky Ans: (d) Parlous (Adj.) = full of danger or uncertainty; precarious; dreadful; risky; unsafe. Innocuous (Adj.) = harmless; safe; non – dangerous. Look at the sentences : Relations between the two countries have been in a parlous state for some time. Some mushrooms look innocuous but are in fact poisonous. Directions: Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage. 566. Subsequent (a) direct (b) consequent (c) anterior (d) foregoing (e) prior Ans: (b) Subsequent (Adj.) = following; upcoming; consequent; ensuing. Look at the sentence : The book discusses his illness and subsequent resignation from politics. 567. Subvert (a) comply (b) vitiated (c) undermine (d) betray (e) overwhelm Ans: (c) Subvert (Noun) = to try to destroy or damage something; undermine; vitiate. Look at the sentence : The rebel army is attempting to subvert the government. 568. Typo (a) defeat (b) advantage (c) strength (d) bug (e) stain Ans: (d) Typo (Noun) = a small mistake in a text made when it was typed or printed; faults and mistakes. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. The international definition of water stress is 1,000 cubic metres of usable water per person per year. The average northern Chinese has less than a fifth of that amount. China has 20 percent of the population but only 7 percent of its fresh water. China has built as many large dams as the rest of the world put together. But, while the South of China is a lush, lake–filled region, the north– which has half the population and most of the farmland is more like a desert and the shortage is worsening. In the 1950s the country had 50,000 rivers with catchment areas of 100 square kilometres or more. Today, China has only 23,000 as a result of over–exploitation by farms or factories. China was hoping for a shale gas revolution but does not have enough water for it since most of the gas reserves are in the driest parts of the country. The World Bank puts the cost of China’s water problems-mostly damage to health– at 2.3 percent of the year’s GDP. China clearly needs to do something to remedy the situation in the North and has initiated one of the biggest engineering projects the world has never seen– a diversion to move water along 2,000 miles of water canals. Aside from the massive cost, the two rivers involved have very different ecosystems and taking water from one to another could do irreparable environmental harm. The parts of the project completed have already killed many organisms. Such projects could also hurt China’s neighbours and all these projects would increase the amount of water in China by only a few percentage points. The Government would do better to focus on demand, reducing consumption of water in order to make better use of limited supplies. Water is too cheap in most cities and such mispricing results in extravagance. Industry recycles too little water, agriculture wastes too much. Higher water prices would raise costs for farms and factories but would be better than spending millions on shipping water around the country. Development plans such as building cities of a million people in the Gobi desert should be rewritten. China should also fine polluters stiffly. China’s engineers have performed amazing feats in the past but the current water problem in the North should also involve economists and environmental regulators in the solution. 569. Which of the following is the CENTRAL IDEA of the story? (a) Northern China is experiencing a water crisis and suggested remedies need to be rethought. (b) China needs to devote its resources to expanding infrastructure. (c) China’s efforts to solve its water crisis are praiseworthy and are an example to the world. (d) The Chinese government is obvious to sharing water resources with its neighbours. (e) China’s politicians were ill-equipped to handle the country’s water problems which are beyond remedy. Ans: (a) Northern China is experiencing a water crisis and suggested remedies need to be rethought. 570. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are the consequences of the China’s efforts to remedy its water problems? (A) Many aquatic organisms have been sacrificed. (B) Water has become unaffordable in China. (C) The Government has put on hold its ambitious plans for urban housing. (a) Only (C) (b) Only (a) (c) Only (b) (d) All (b), (a) and (C) (e) Only (b) and (C) Ans: (c) Only (b) 571. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage? (a) China is willing to implement novel solutions to the water crisis despite uprisings. (b) China is over exploiting its water resources which is detrimental. (c) China has an abundance of fresh water resources for its population but these are mismanaged. (d) The finances generated from shale gas reserves have been used to remedy China’s water problems. (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (b) China is over exploiting its water resources which is detrimental. 572. Which of the following is an APPROPRIATE TITLE for the passage? (a) Mighty Rivers : A Conflict Among Neighbours (b) China Divided : River Disputes (c) Rivers in China : A Sustainable Marvel (d) Free Water : A Necessity (e) Northern China : A Future Drying Up Ans: (e) Northern China : A Future Drying Up 573. According to the author, what approach should China adopt to handle its water crisis? (a) Penalise industries for polluting excessively and provide water to farmers at discounted rates. (b) Approach neighbouring countries to rework water sharing agreements. (c) Implement a multi-pronged approach–keeping in mind economic and environmental conditions. (d) Adopt the recommendations of the ‘World Bank to resolve the issue. (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (c) Implement a multi-pronged approach–keeping in mind economic and environmental conditions. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. A generation ago Medellin was Colombia’s and the world’s most violent city. But a mathematician who served as major in 20 began the task of turning Medellin around. He invested in urban projects designed to bridge the city’s socio-economic divide, such as cable cars connecting shanty towns to the metro and to new public libraries in poorer areas. With a relatively small budget, he concentrated on drawing open security and development plans-building “education parks” in each municipality emblematic buildings designed as teachers’ centres but also meant to mobilise communities to improve the quality of schooling. The problem is that income distribution for Colombia as a whole is among the most unequal in Latin America, behind only Hads and Honduras. When the government recently carried out the first agricultural census for 45 years, it found that two-thirds of all farms have less than 5 hectares (12.4 acres) and together occupy less than 5% of all agricultural and grazing land. Still, the proportion of people living in poverty (defined as income per head of$4 a day or less in purchasing-power-parity terms) fell from almost 50% in 2002 to 29.5% in 2014, and incomes of the poorest 40% have grown faster than average, according to international aid organisations such as the World Bank. Many more children now benefit from education, though Colombia still hovers near the bottom of the OCED’s (a club of oil producing countries) PISA rankings that test children in 65 economies for reading, maths and science. There are “three Colombias”. One, in the main cities, is a sophisticated place with rapid economic growth and first-world social indicators. A second has seen social improvements but lack good jobs. A third, made up of 3 million people, lacks even basic services. Not coincidentally, this third Colombia is where conflict has persisted.
But three things are still missing. The first is better roads. The Government has embarked on an ambitious infrastructure Programme, but it is confined to the main national route. Second, security, though much improved, still needs to get better. Third, if farmers are not to be dependent solely on cocoa, they need credit and technical advice. Local political and state institutions will also need to be strengthened. These suffer “chronic deficiencies” such as corruption and lack of technical competence, democratic accountability and budget resources, as the UN stated in a report last year. The government is setting up a $400m fund with money from the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank to install drinking water and sewerage in the coast’s four main cities. The rural economy will need more attention too. State agricultural agencies need a complete revamp to be able to expand credit and technical help to small farmers. Together with changes to social policies, this could close the rual-urban development gap within 20 years. 574. Which of the following correctly describes international aid efforts in Colombia? (a) These have further damaged Colombia’s economy. (b) These are non-existent owing to global economic conditions. (c) These are likely to widen the rural-urban divide in Colombia. (d) It has had an adverse impact on rural agricultural incomes. (e) None of the given options correctly describes aid efforts in Colombia Ans: (c) These are likely to widen the rural-urban divide in Colombia. 575. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word CONFINED given in bold as used in the passage. (a) discharged (b) imprisoned (c) withhold (d) extensive (e) unlocked Ans: (d) Confined (Adj.) = restricted; limited Extensive (Adj.) = covering a large area. 576. Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word EMBLEMATIC given in bold as used in the passage. (a) warning (b) symbolic (c) valuable (d) belief (e) flagged Ans: (b) Emblematic (Adj.) = that represents or is a symbol of something; representative; typical; symbolic). Look at the sentence : The violence is emblematic of what is happening in our inner cities. 577. Which of the following correctly explains the phrase ‘These suffer chronic deficiencies’ as used in the passage? (a) Water-borne diseases in Colombia are widespread. (b) For the past few years crops in Colombia are suffering from chronic diseases. (c) Local institutions are plagued by systemic flaws. (d) Poor Colombians suffer from many vitamin related deficiencies. (e) It is impossible to correct the agricultural sector which needs complete revamp. Ans: (c) Local institutions are plagued by systemic flaws. 578. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage? (a) Colombia is a poor undeveloped nation on the brink of war. (b) Colombia has split into various blocs, each of which is demanding sovereignty. (c) Agricultural reform is the answer to Colombia’s problems. (d) Colombia has taken adequate steps to address its infrastructure issues. (e) Security and development are key if Colombia is to reach its potential. Ans: (e) Security and development are key if Colombia is to reach its potential. 579. Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word HOVERS given in bold as used in the passage. (a) flies (b) leaves (c) attacks (d) remains (e) delays Ans: (d) Hover (Verb) = to stay in the air in one place; to stay close to something Look at the sentence : Temperatures hovered around freezing. 580. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are (a) factor(s) impacting the situation in Colombia? (A) Tremendous increase in poverty. (B) Availability of funds for development programmes. (C) Lack of infrastructure. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (a) and (C) (d) Only (b) and (C) (e) All three (b), (a) and (C) Ans: (d) Only (b) and (C) 581. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage? (a) Haiti and Honduras are the most prosperous Latin American nations, (b) Colombia’s poverty estimates are drastically under- reported. (c) Colombia’s education system needs reform. (d) Urban Development projects in Colombia had failed owing to lack of funds. (e) All the given statements are true in the context of the passage. Ans: (c) Colombia’s education system needs reform. 582. Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word PERSISTED given in bold as used in the passage. (a) grown (b) wasted (c) escaped (d) advanced (e) faded Ans: (e) Persist (Verb) = to continue to exist Fade (Verb) = to disappear gradually Look at the sentences : Hopes of reaching an agreement seems to be fading away. If the symptoms persist, consult your doctor. 583. What does the author want to convey through the anecdote of Medellin cited in the passage? (a) Innovative low-cost development schemes have benefited Colombia. (b) Medellin is ripe for social unrest as the gap between the rich and poor is too wide. (c) Academics do not make able administrators. (d) Medellin’s PISA ranking is well deserved. (e) Other than those given as options. Ans: (a) Innovative low-cost development schemes have benefited Colombia. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The term “shadow bank” was coined in 2007 to describe risky off-balance-sheet vehicles hatched by banks to sell loans repackaged as bonds. Today, the term is used more loosely to cover all financial intermediaries that perform bank-like activity but are not regulated as one. These include mobile payment systems, pawnshops, peer-to-peer lending websites, hedge funds and bond-trading platforms set up by technology firms. Among the biggest are management companies. In 2013 investment funds make such loans raised a whooping$97 billion worldwide. The Financial Stability Board, an international watchdog estimates that globally, the informal lending sector serviced assets worth $80 trillion in 2014 up from$26 trillion more than a decade earlier. Shadow banks have flourished in part because the traditional ones, battered by losses incurred during the financial slump, are under pressure.
Tighter capital requirements and fear of heavy penalties have kept them grounded. In China, where banks are discouraged from lending to certain industries and are mandated to offer frustratingly low interest rates on deposits, non-banks fill the gap. About two-thirds of all lending in the country by shadow banks are in fact ‘bank loans in disguise’. Critics worry that unlike banks, which lend against deposits from customers, non-banks loan money using investor’s cash and rotating lines of credit. This is especially risky when skittish investors who bet on short term gains withdraw their money at once. But non-bank financing need not always be a bad thing. It offers an additional source of credit to individuals and businesses in countries where formal banking is either expensive or absent. It also takes some burden off banks which have big ‘maturity mismatches’ (the difference between the amount of time a depositor’s money is parked in the bank minus the time than it is loaned out). And belatedly, regulators, too, are waking up to the new financial order of shadow banking. Banks must now declare structured investment vehicles on their balance sheets. Authorities are imposing leverage limits on various forms of shadow banks in America and Europe. It is a small start to rein in an industry that accounts for a quarter of the global financial system.
584. Which of the following can be said about banking regulators?
(a) Their approach to regulation of shadow banks is unnecessarily stringent.
(b) These have been innovative in helping economies recover from the 2008 crisis.
(c) These have washed their hands off and warned people against shadow banks.
(d) These have been slow to respond to the growth of shadow banking.
(e) None of the given statements can be said about banking regulators
Ans: (d)
These have been slow to respond to the growth of shadow banking.
585. Which of the following is the central theme of the passage?
(a) Shadow banking, an indispensable part of the global financial system, is unnecessarily perceived as risky.
(b) The global economy is headed for a financial collapse given the state of China’s economy.
(c) There is tremendous upheaval in the banking sector with only state-owned banks safe and sound.
(d) Shadow banks which can be useful are a high risk alternative to traditional banks and need regulation.
(e) Traditional banks are the safest bet given the risk the financial system currently faces.
Ans: (a)
Shadow banking, an indispensable part of the global financial system, is unnecessarily perceived as risky.
586. Which of the following has/have impacted the growth of shadow banks?
(A) Faulty adults of these institutions by the Financial Stability Board.
(B) The state of traditional banks post the financial crisis.
(C) Need for credit which traditional banks are unable to meet.
(a) Only (a) & (C)
(b) Only (b) & (a)
(c) Only (a)
(d) All (b), (a) & (C)
(e) Only (b) & (C)
Ans: (a)
Only (a) & (C)
587. Which of the following can be used to replace the phrase ‘Among the biggest are management companies’?
(a) The financial crisis hurt asset management companies in China the most.
(b) Asset management companies are responsible for over half the credit in America.
(c) Asset management companies occupy the largest share of shadow banking firms.
(d) With high rates of interest asset management companies are showing the highest profits.
(e) None of the given statements.
Ans: (c)
Asset management companies occupy the largest share of shadow banking firms.
588. Which of the following apty describes the tone of the passage?
(a) Reckless
(b) Obsequious
(c) Poignant
(d) Acrimonious
(e) None of these
Ans: (b)
Obsequious
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.
These are difficult times for America’s free-traders.
There is anger at ‘globalism’. Even Americans who were in favour of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)-an ambitious new agreement between 12 Pacific-rim-countrieshave turned against i t. This may be l inked to a globalisation of supply chains. Production of traded goods has become ‘unbundled’. Firms once tended to design new gadgets and order the supplies needed to build them in a single factory or city. In the past few decades, more efficient global shipping and improvements in communications allow firms to spread production across far-flung locations to design a phone in America, source parts from several Asian economies, and assemble it in China. The share of parts and components in trade rose from 22% to 28% between 1980 and 2000. In 2005, trade in ‘intermediate inputs’ accounted for an estimated 56% of trade in goods and 73% in services across rich countries. This contributed to a dramatic acceleration in global trade growth.
It also changed the way many workers view trade. As production has spread around the world, countries have specialised in different segments of the supply-chain.
While those, such as China, with lots of low-cost labour, focused on manufacturing and assemble, more advanced economies followed a different path. Cities like New York and San Francisco enjoyed an initial advantage in the most lucrative bits of the modern supply chain: research and development, engineering and finance. As a result, growth in supply-chain trade has been a boon for the powerful and profitable firms with headquarters in those cities, and for the highly skilled, well compensated workers they employ. America’s lot in this new world is, on the whole, a happy one. Many countries envy its fortunate position as a hub for innovative cities. Most studies of the potential effects of TPP conclude that the deal would raise American output by a small but meaningful amount: just under a percentage point of GDP, perhaps over the next 15 years. But the obstacles confronting new trade deals are formidable. More generous redistribution, perhaps through an expanded programme of trade-adjustment assistance, could help neutralise some opposition. But discomfort with TPP is mostly rooted in a mistrust of the elite. Voters who are sceptical of the value of TPP will be unlikely to change their stripes without some demonstration that pacts of its kind benefit the many rather than just the few.
589. Which of the following is true in context of the passage?
(a) In America, wages of low skilled workers’ have risen tremendously over the last decade.
(b) Global public opinion is against America’s trade policies.
(c) America’s GDP growth has fallen in the past few years.
(d) American firms are no longer leader in technology.
(e) Non of these
Ans: (b)
Global public opinion is against America’s trade policies.
590. Which of the following best describes the America’s view of TPP?
(a) The TPP is detrimental as it has fuelled longterm conflicts between rich and developing nations.
(b) Americans are unequivocally in favour of the TPP as it will benefit them the most.
(c) The TPP has elevated mass unemployment and is resented by all Americans.
(d) The TPP has strengthened America’s relationship with Asia and Europe.
(e) Americans are wary of the TPP as its benefits are indeterminate.
Ans: (b)
Americans are unequivocally in favour of the TPP as it will benefit them the most.
591. What do the statistics in the passage convey?
(a) The TPP has benefitted China and America the most.
(b) Developed countries are benefitting most from trade agreements.
(c) China’s dominance in manufacturing is waning.
(d) Global trade has grown explosively.
(e) Contrary to political projections, trade in Asian has not risen dramatically.
Ans: (a)
The TPP has benefitted China and America the most.
592. Which of the following is the author’s view of free trade?
(a) There have been tremendous shifts in free trade but its benefits need to be more equitably distributed.
(b) Uniform laws and regulations across developing countries have vastly benefitted free trade.
(c) Protecting national interest at the cost of free trade is the need of the hour.
(d) It is service to reduce the gap between the haves and the have-nots.
(e) None of the options illustrate the author’s view of free trade.
Ans: (a)
There have been tremendous shifts in free trade but its benefits need to be more equitably distributed.
593. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are (an) effects of ‘unbundling’?
(A) Unfair and exploitative working conditions in developing countries.
(B) Drop in quality standards of manufactured goods.
(C) Unemployment for some sections of the workforce in developed countries.
(a) Only (a) & (C)
(b) Only (b) & (a)
(c) Only (C)
(d) All (b), (a) & (C)
(e) Only (b) & (C)
Ans: (e)
Only (b) & (C)
Direction :
Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions.
There is a parallel universe beyond the confines of China’s banking system: shadow banking. This is where borrowers and industries, shunned by banks, look for funding. Regulators look the other way. Until the early 2000s banks accounted for nearly all lending in China, but in the past five years their share has come down to just three-fifths of all new credit. On a conservative estimate, China’s shadow financing now adds up to 40 trillion Yuan, nearly two-thirds of its GDP. Compared with advanced economies, this is modest. America’s shadowbanking sector is 1.5 times the size of its GDP. But China’s shadow assets have increased by more than 30% annually over the past three years compared with less than 10% for the rest of the world, according to the Financial Stability Board. In theory, shadow banks seek higher returns but also take care to manage risks. In practice, it often does not work out like that. China’s boom in shadow banking had an innocent enough start. In 2010, regulators reined in bank lending after the credit binge that helped lift the economy out of the global financial crisis.
Projects from highways to apartment blocks were left halffinished.
To see them through to completion, regulators tolerated an expansion in non-bank financial institutions.
It was a work around that seemed to shift risk away from the banks yet kept credit flowing. The most prominent of the shadow lenders were trust companies, versatile institutions that could lend money and take direct stakes.
Trusts charged higher rates on loans than banks and also offered higher returns to their wealthy investors (the minimum investment is 1m Yuan.) Today, they hold assets of 16 trillion Yuan, more than the insurance sector. Five years ago, Chinese shadow banking was driven mainly by companies that could not get bank loans. Now it is ordinary people looking for higher returns. It is a vicious cycle.
Seeing savers’ insatiable appetite for these products banks feel compelled to create yet more and are straying, distant enough from conventional banking to offer higher rates but close enough that their customers still feel reassured.
Shadow banking far from being a new kind of efficient lending, has spread hidden risks throughout the economy and regulators buying their heads in the sand harms conventional banks.
594. Which of the following can be said about trust companies?
(a) These are the newest shadow banking entities.
(b) These are lucrative but high risk ventures.
(c) Though plagued by frauds they continue to flourish in America.
(d) These are innovative institutions with an array of sale financial products.
(e) None of the given statements can be said about trust companies.
Ans: (b)
Trust companies offer higher returns to their wealthy investors but high risk is hidden.
595. Which of the following aptly describes the tone of the passage?
(a) Indifferent
(b) Sarcastic
(c) Disheartened
(d) Rational
(e) Compassionate
Ans: (d)
The tone of the passge is rational. Both positive and negative aspects have been highlighted.
596. Which of the following is the central theme of the passage?
(a) China’s shadow banking sector is highly regulated and repressed and in need of liberalisation.
(b) China’s banking system is more transparent today than in the early 2000s.
(c) Shadow banking is a necessary evil in China’s financial system.
(d) China’s large state-owned traditional banks are a model for developed countries.
(e) China’s risk laden banking sector is on the verge of creating a global financial crisis.
Ans: (c)
Shadow banking has created a parallel universe beyond the confines of China’s banking system. Though high risk is hidden, it supports the Chinese economy.
597. Which of the following has/have impacted China’s traditional banking sector?
(A) Regulators distancing themselves from the shadow banking sector.
(B) Tightened lending regulations for traditional banks.
(C) Growth of online finance.
(a) Only (a) and (C)
(b) Only (b) and (a)
(c) Only (a)
(d) All (b), (a) and (C)
(e) Only (b) and (C)
Ans: (b)
Shadow banking is where borrowers and industries, shunned by banks, look for funding.
598. Which of the following can be used to replace the phrase “It is a vicious cycle”?
(a) Regulators discourage shadow banking thereby amplifying the lack of credit problem.
(b) The most vulnerable do not have access to credit and insurance in China.
(c) There is a lack of funds for infrastructure development in China.
(d) More and more risky financial products and institutions are springing up owing to demand.
(e) None of the given statements.
Ans: (d)
Vicious circle/cycle Þ a situation in which one problem causes another problem which then makes the first problem worse.
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.
Economists agree that foreign trade has afforded big benefits to Britain overall. More recently, as countries like Vietnam and China have become manufacturing giants, consumers have enjoyed cheap imported goods. However, a body of Research on the American company shows that import competition from poor countries can depress the incomes of the low skilled, at least in the short run.
Britain’s economy is twice as exposed to foreign trade as America’s. For the period 20, British workers in industries that suffered from high levels of import exposure to Chinese products earned less. They also spent more time out of employment than those in other industries.
Studies also show that a one standard-deviation increase in import competition worsened rates of mental illness by 1.2 percentage points. Unfortunately, the pain tends to be concentrated geographically. In the past decade, the number of over-25s unemployed for more than one year has increased much faster in manufacturing hubs- areas where manufacturing makes up more than 20% of the local economy than in areas where it makes up less. On the ground, the result is clear to see these manufacturing centres are fading- left out of Britain’s generally healthy economic growth. It does not have to be this way. The large overall gains from free trade mean it should be possible to compensate its losers. That means “trade adjustment assistance” should work. In Germany, the upgrading the skill of the workforce is the norm and is accomplished through a sophisticated system of apprenticeships.
But Amercia’s trade adjustment assistance programme which funds training and support for workers displaced by foreign competition and Britain’s preferred programme, are feeble. In Britain it is supposed to provide training and support when there are mass redundancies. But it is a murky operation, there are almost no data on what it does. In 2008, its budget was a pitiful £6m (8m). Data from the OECD, a club mostly of rich countries, suggest that even after accounting for Britain’s’ low unemployment rate, for years it has been a stingy spender on “active” labour-market policies (i.e. those that seek to improve the skills of the (low-skilled) unemployed, not just let them languish). Until this failure to share the proceeds is corrected, don’t expect opposition to globalisation to go away any time soon. 599. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are (an) outcome(s) of the present “trade adjustment assistance”? (A) A large number of low skill individuals in Britain are still unable to find employment. (B) The resistance to globalisation of trade will continue in countries like America and Britain. (C) Rise in incomes of highly skilled individuals. (a) Only (a) (b) Only (b) and (a) (c) Only (C) (d) All (b), (a) and (C) (e) Only (b) and (C) Ans: (b) Low skill individuals in Britain find difficulty in getting employment. Last sentence says something more. 600. Which of the following is the author’s view of Britain’s manufacturing hubs? (a) These are holding their own against manufacturing giants like Vietnam. (b) These have prospered tremendously with globalisation. (c) Most of those employed in these hubs are low skill immigrants. (d) These are deteriorating and dying on account of globalisation of trade. (e) These have been shielded from globalisation by the government’s protectionist policies. Ans: (d) The passage clearly indicates deteriorating state of manufacturing hubs. 601. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage? (a) Economists were caught unawares by Britain’s exit from the European Union. (b) Expanded global trade has benefited some Asian economies. (c) America’s trade adjustment assistance programme is modelled on that of Germany. (d) Globalisation of trade has reduced the gap between the have and have not’s in developing countries. (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. Ans: (e) None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage. 602. What do the statistics in the passage convey? (a) Investment in education has reduced un employment in developed countries. (b) Effort to compensate workers hurt by globalisation contributed to the global financial crisis. (c) The youth of today are better educated than the previous generation, in Britain. (d) Unemployment benefits are sizeable and very effective in all developed countries. (e) The effects of free trade are severe but not enough is being done to mitigate its impact. Ans: (e) The effects of free trade are severe but not enough is being done to mitigate its impact. 603. Which of the following best describes experts’ view of foreign trade? (a) Contrary to perception, opening up of trade has done more harm than good in developing countries. (b) The reports of the ill-effects of foreign trade are grossly exaggerated. (c) The cost of foreign trade to a country is not just economic but is also social and psychological. (d) OECD countries have benefitted unduly from foreign trade causing a backlash in developed countries. (e) None of the given options. Ans: (c) The cost of foreign trade to a country is not just economic but is also social and psychological. # Vocabulary Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words areMOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are MOST nearly the same or opposite in meaning and indicate the number of the correct letter combination. (Canara Bank PO Exam. 09.02.2003) 1. (A) Prolixity (B) Brevity (C) Agreement (D) Proposition (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) A-C (e) A-D Ans: (b) A–B (b) Prolixity (N.) : the fact of using many words and therefore creating a piece of writing, a speech, etc. that is boring (a) Brevity (N.) : the quality of using few words (speaking/writing) (b) and (a) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 2. (A) Suffuse (B) Deplete (C) Fight (D) Delay (a) C-D (b) B-C (c) A-C (d) A-D (e) A-B Ans: (e) A–B (b) Suffuse (V.) : spread all over something. (a) Deplete (V.) : reduce greatly the quantity, size, power or value of (something). (b) and (a) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 3. (A) Forensic (B) Delectable (C) Leaflike (D) Charming (a) B-D (b) A-C (c) A-D (d) B-C (e) A-B Ans: (a) B–D (b) Forensic (Adj.) : Connected with the scientific tests used by the police when trying to solve a crime. (a) Delectable (Adj.) : extremely pleasant to smell, taste/look at; very attractive (C) Leaflike (Adj.) : resembling a leaf (D) Charming (Adj.) : very pleasant/ attractive (a) and (D) are SAME meaning words. 4. (A) Benevolent (B) Alarming (C) Charitable (D) Stupendous (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) A-C (e) B-D Ans: (d) A–C (b) Benevolent (Adj.) : kind, helpful and generous (a) Alarming (Adj.) : causing worry and fear (C) Charitable (Adj.) : helping people who are poor/in need (D) Stupendous (Adj.) : extremely large/impressive, especially greater/better than you expect (b) and (C) are SAME meaning words. 5. (A) Convenient (B) Intolerant (C) Endurant (D) Protestant (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) B-C (d) B-D (e) C-D Ans: (c) B–C (a) Intolerant (Adj.) : not willing to accept ideas/ways of behaving that are different from your own (C) Endurant (Adj.) : capable of bearing hardship, misfortune, or the like (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 6. (A) Eject (B) Spread (C) Mark (D) Spout (a) A-C (b) B-D (c) B-C (d) A-B (e) A-D Ans: (e) A–D (b) Eject (V.) : to force somebody to leave a place/position (D) Spout (V.) : to send out something (liquid) with great force (b) and (D) are SAME meaning words. 7. (A) Push (B) Thrive (C) Flourish (D) Arrange (a) A-D (b) A-C (c) C-D (d) B-C (e) B-D Ans: (d) B–C (a) Thrive (V.) : flourish (a) and (C) are SAME meaning words. 8. (A) Refuse (B) Discourage (C) Lurk (D) Hide (a) C-D (b) A-C (c) B-D (d) B-C (e) A-D Ans: (a) C–D Lurk (V.) : be or stay hidden, especially when waiting to attack, wait near a place trying not to attract attention; linger without being clearly shown. (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words 9. (A) Delirious (B) Confluent (C) Curt (D) Gracious (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) B-D (e) A-D Ans: (c) C–D (b) Delirious (Adj.) : very excited and happy. (a) Confluent (Adj.) : flowing or coming together, uniting. (C) Curt (Adj.) : rudely brief; abrupt. (D) Gracious (Adj.) : kind, polite and generous; marked by luxury, elegance and leisure. (C) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words 10. (A) Punishment (B) Divergence (C) Confluence (D) Confidence (a) B-D (b) B-C (c) C-D (d) A-B (e) A-C Ans: (b) B–C (a) Divergence (N.) : the fact/process of separating/becoming different; a difference in opinions, views, etc. (C) Confluence (N.) : the fact of two/ more things becoming one (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words areMOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the CORRECT letter combination. (Union Bank of India PO Exam. 27.11.2005) 11. (A) Endeavour (B) Travelable (C) Strive (D) Trauma (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) A-D (d) B-C (e) B-D Ans: (a) A-C (b) Endeavour (N.) : an attempt to do something, especially something new/difficult (C) Strive (V.) : to try very hard to achieve something (b) and (C) are SAME meaning words. 12. (A) Dreadful (B) Pleasant (C) Resentful (D) Envious (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) B-C (e) B-D Ans: (b) A-B (b) Dreadful (Adj.) : very bad/unpleasant (b) and (a) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 13. (A) Productive (B) Drowsy (C) Transparent (D) Fruitful (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) A-D (d) B-C (e) B-D Ans: (c) A-D (b) and (D) are SAME meaning words. 14. (A) Slack (B) Perfect (C) Taut (D) Mannish (a) A-B (b) B-C (c) C-D (d) B-D (e) A-C Ans: (e) A-C (b) Slack (Adj.) : not stretched tight; loose (C) Taut (Adj.) : stretched tightly (D) Mannish (Adj.) : having qualities that are thought of as typical of or suitable for a man (woman) (b) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 15. (A) Consent (B) Colliery (C) Conflict (D) Assent (a) A-B (b) A-C (c) A-D (d) B-D (e) C-D Ans: (b) A-C (b) Consent (N.) : permission to do something (authority); agreement about something (a) Colliery (N.) : a coal mine with its buildings and equipment (C) Conflict (N.) : a situation in which people, groups/countries are involved in a serious disagreement/ argument (D) Assent (N.) : official agreement to/approval of something (b) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 16. (A) Disprove (B) Discard (C) Substantiate (D) Abandon (a) A-C (b) B-C (c) C-D (d) B-D (e) A-B Ans: (d) B-D (b) Disprove (V.) : to show that something is wrong/false (a) Discard (V.) : to get rid of something that you no longer want/ need (C) Substantiate (V.) : to provide information/ evidence to prove that something is true (D) Abandon (V.) : to leave a thing/ place (b) and (D) are SAME meaning words. 17. (A) Energy (B) Minimize (C) Enlarge (D) Burst (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) A-D (d) B-D (e) B-C Ans: (e) B-C (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words 18. (A) Authorize (B) Abate (C) Subside (D) Condensing (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) A-C (d) B-D (e) A-D Ans: (a) B-C (b) Authorize (V.) : to give official permission for something/for somebody to do something (a) Abate (V.) : to become/makeless strong (C) Subside (V.) : to become calmer/quieter (a) and (C) are SAME meaning words. 19. (A) Auspicious (B) Mortal (C) Generous (D) Benevolent (a) A-C (b) B-C (c) C-D (d) A-D (e) B-D Ans: (c) C-D (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words 20. (A) Scarce (B) Sacrilegious (C) Nostalgic (D) Copious (a) B-D (b) A-C (c) B-C (d) A-B (e) A-D Ans: (e) A-D (b) Scarce (Adj.) : short in supply (a) Sacrilegious (Adj.) : treating a holy thing/place without respect (C) Nostalgic (Adj.) : having/bringing a feeling of sadness mixed with pleasure and affection when you think of happy times in the past (D) Copious (Adj.) : in large amounts (b) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words. Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are MOST nearly the SAME orOPPOSITE in meaning. Find two words which are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the CORRECT letter combination as your answer. 21. (A) Waive (B) Speculate (C) Pursue (D) Revise (a) C – B (b) A – B (c) D – C (d) C – A (e) D – B Ans: (d) C–A (b) Waive (V.) : to choose not to demand something in a particular case, even though you have a legal or official right to do so ; forgo. (a) Speculate (V.) : to form an opinion about something without knowing all the details/facts (C) Pursue (V.) : to continue to discuss. (D) Revise (V.) : to change your opinions/ plans (b) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words 22. (A) Contrary (B) Compatible (C) Incomparable (D) Ambiguous (a) B – C (b) A – B (c) C – D (d) A – C (e) B – D Ans: (b) A–B (b) Contrary : opposite; different from something; against something. (a) Compatible : able to exist together without causing problems. (C) Incomparable (Adj.) : unmatched; ideal; exceptional; perfect (D) Ambiguous (Adj.) : cryptic; dubious; obscure; uncertain; vague (b) and (a) are OPPOSITE meaning words 23. (A) Pliable (B) Dependable (C) Flexible (D) Viable (a) B – C (b) A – D (c) B – D (d) C – D (e) A – C Ans: (e) A–C (b) Pliable (Adj.) : easy to bend without breaking; flexible. (D) Viable (Adj.) : that can be done ; that will be successful (a) Dependable (Adj.) : loyal; trustworthy; sure; tried (C) Flexible (Adj.) :malleable; adjustable; pliant; soft (b) and (C) are SAME meaning words 24. (A) Contingent (B) Permissive (C) Confirmed (D) Endorsed (a) C – A (b) B – A (c) C – B (d) B – D (e) D – C Ans: (e) D–C (b) Contingent (Adj.) : depending on something that may/may not happen (a) Permissive (Adj.) : allowing/ showing a freedom of behaviour that many people do not approve of (C) Confirmed (Adj.) : having a particular habit/way of life and not likely to change ; accepted ; proved ; settled (D) Endorsed (Adj.) : approved ; affirmed ; settled (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words 25. (A) Repeat (B) Reverberate (C) Retaliate (D) Reciprocate (a) C – D (b) B – D (c) A – C (d) A – B (e) B – C Ans: (a) C–D (b) Repeat (V.) : to say/write/do/ happen again (a) Reverberate (V.) : echo; to be repeated several times as it is reflected off different surfaces (C) Retaliate (V.) : to do something harmful to somebody because they have harmed you first (D) Reciprocate (V.) : to behave or feel towards somebody in the same way as they behave/feel towards you (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words Directions: In each of these questions four words are given denoted by (A), (B), (C) and (D). Two of these words may be either SYNONYMS or ANTONYMS. Find out the CORRECT pair in each question. (Canara Bank PO Exam. 15.03.2009) 26. (A) Ecstasy (B) Depression (C) Intoxication (D) Compression (a) B — D (b) A — B (c) B — C (d) C — D (e) None of these Ans: (b) A–B (b) Ecstasy (N.) : a feeling or state of very great happiness; bliss. (a) Depression (N.) : the state of being very sad and without hope. (C) Intoxication (N.) : the state of being under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (D) Compression (N.) : the act of pressing/squeezing/reducing (b) and (a) are ANTONYMS 27. (A) Tranquility (B) Loyalty (C) Calamity (D) Uproar (a) B — D (b) A — C (c) B — C (d) C — D (e) None of these Ans: (e) None of these (b) Tranquility (N.) : peace, serenity. (D) Uproar (N.) : a situation in which people shout and make a lot of noise; outcry. 28. (A) Vilification (B) Nullification (C) Denigration (D) Falsification (a) B — C (b) A — B (c) A — C (d) B — D (e) None of these Ans: (c) A–C (b) Vilification (N.) : saying or writing unpleasant things about somebody/ something ; malignancy. (a) Nullification (N.) : making null and void (C) Denigration (N.) : criticism. (D) Falsification (N.) : the act of changing a written record/information so that it is no longer true (b) and (C) are SYNONYMS 29. (A) Opaque (B) Transparent (C) Transverse (D) Transvestite (a) B — D (b) A — D (c) C — A (d) B — A (e) None of these Ans: (d) B–A (b) Opaque (Adj.) : not clear enough to see through or allow light through. (a) Transparent (Adj.) : allowing you to see through it. (C) Transverse (Adj.) : placed across something (D) Transvestite (N.) : a person, especially a man, who enjoys dressing as a member of the opposite sex (a) and (b) are ANTONYMS 30. (A) Exorbitant (B) Expeditious (C) Quick (D) Quest (a) A — B (b) C — D (c) A — D (d) C — B (e) None of these Ans: (d) C–B (a) Expeditious (Adj.) : that works well without wasting time, money, etc. efficient. (C) and (a) are SYNONYMS Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are MOST nearly the SAME orOPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the CORRECT letter combination as answer. (United Bank Of India PO Exam. 21.06.2009) 31. (A) Unite (B) Association (C) Separate (D) Distant (a) A–B (b) A–C (c) B –C (d) B–D (e) A–D Ans: (b) A–C (b) Unite (V.) : to join together with other people in order to do something as a group. (a) Association (N.) : union; combination (C) Separate (V.) : to divide things into different parts or groups. (D) Distant (N.) : far; remote; apart (b) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words 32. (A) Explicit (B) Cautious (C) Introvert (D) Clear (a) B –D (b) A–B (c) A– C (d) A–D (e) C – D Ans: (d) A–D (b) Explicit (Adj.) : clear and easy to understand. (a) Cautious (Adj.) : vigilant; watchful; alert (C) Introvert (N.) : egoist; solitary; loner (D) Clear (Adj.) : apparent; evident; lucid (b) and (D) are SAME meaning words 33. (A) Fearful (B) Beautiful (C) Hostile (D) Amicable (a) C –D (b) B – D (c) A– B (d) B –C (e) A –D Ans: (a) C–D (b) Fearful (Adj.) : afraid; nervous ; disturbed; uneasy (a) Beautiful (Adj.) : charming; graceful (C) Hostile (Adj.) : very unfriendly or aggressive and ready to fight or argue. (D) Amicable (Adj.) : done or achieved in a polite or friendly way and without arguing. (C) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words 34. (A) Fraud (B) Barbarous (C) Guilty (D) Civilized (a) A–B (b) A–C (c) B–D (d) A–D (e) C–D Ans: (c) B–D (b) Fraud (N.) : deceit; cheat (a) Barbarous (Adj.) : uncivilized; showing a lack of education and good manners. (C) Guilty (Adj.) : convicted; responsible; wrong; accusable (D) Civilized (Adj.) : cultured; humane (a) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words 35. (A) Loud (B) Prominent (C) Salient (D) Legible (a) B–D (b) A–C (c) C–D (d) A–D (e) B–C Ans: (e) B–C (b) Loud (Adj.) : boisterous; powerful; deafening (a) Prominent (Adj.) : important and well known. (C) Salient (Adj.) : most important and noticeable. (D) Salient (Adj.) : most important and noticeable (a) and (C) are SAME meaning words Directions: Below is given a single word with options to its meaning in different contexts. You have to select all those options which are SYNONYMS of the word when the context is changed. Select the CORRECT alternative. 36. LABOUR (A) expedite (B) to move faster (C) controlled (D) toil (a) Both (b) and (C) (b) Only (D) (c) Only (a), (C) and (D) (d) Only (b), (C) and (D) (e) All (b), (a), (C) and (D) Ans: (b) Only (D) Labour (V.) : struggle; work hard; move with difficulty and effort; toil. 37. MEAN (A) imply (B) understand (C) average (D) characterized by malice (a) Both (b) and (D) (b) Only (C) (c) Only (b), (C) and (D) (d) Only (b), (a) and (D) (e) All (b), (a), (C) and (D) Ans: (c) Only (b), (C) and (D) Mean (N./Adj./V.) : have as meaning; imply; average; not generous; cheap; unkind. 38. REGULAR (A) present (B) common (C) indiscriminate (D) uniform (a) Both (a) and (D) (b) Only (D) (c) Both (b) and (C) (d) Only (a), (C) and (D) (e) All (b), (a), (C) and (D) Ans: (a) Both (a) and (D) Regular (Adj.) : usual; ordinary; frequent; uniform. 39. MASK (A) cover (B) hide (C) conceal (B) disguise (a) Both (a) and (D) (b) Only (b) (c) Only (a), (C) and (D) (d) Only (b), (a) and (C) (e) All (b), (a), (C) and (D) Ans: (e) All (b), (a), (C) and (D) Mask (N./V.) : to hide a feeling etc; disguise; cover; conceal. 40. ALONE (A) exclusively (B) morose (C) solitary (D) human being (a) Both (b) and (C) (b) Only (b) (c) Both (a) and (C) (d) Only (b), (C) and (D) (e) All (b), (a), (C) and (D) Ans: (a) Both (b) and (C) Alone (Adv.) : without any other people; solitary; lonely; exclusively. Directions: Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold. 41. PREDISPOSED (a) Unprepared (b) Reluctant (c) Ready (d) Hesitant (e) Interested Ans: (c) Ready Predisposed (V.) : to influence somebody so that they are likely to think/behave in a particular way Reluctant (Adj.) : hesitating before doing something because you do not want to do it/because you are not sure that it is the right thing to do 42. STRESS (a) Emphasise (b) Enforce (c) Pressurise (d) Suppress (e) Implement Ans: (a) Emphasise Stress (V.) : emphasise ; to become/make somebody become too anxious/tired to be able to relax Enforce (V.) : to make sure that people obey a particular law/rule Suppress (V.) : to put an end, by force ; to prevent yourself from having/expressing a feeling/an emotion Implement (V.) : to make something that has been officially decided, start to happen/be used 43. AFTERMATH (a) Disharmony (b) Devastation (c) Posterity (d) Consequence (e) Contemporary Ans: (d) Consequence Consequence (N.) : a result of something that has happened Aftermath (N.) : the situation that exists as a result of an important event Devastation (N.) : great destruction/damage Disharmony (N.) : a lack of agreement about important things Posterity (N.) : all the people who will live in the future Contemporary (Adj.) : belonging to the same time/present time Directions: Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in bold. 44. AGREEMENT (a) Harmony (b) Dissension (c) Refusal (d) Misunderstanding (e) Differential Ans: (b) Dissension Dissension (N.) : disagreement between people/within a group 45. SETTLED (a) Unprecedented (b) Dislocated (c) Irrelevant (d) Stabilised (e) Unfounded Ans: (b) Dislocated Dislocated (V.) : to stop a system, plan, etc. from working/ continuing in the normal way; to put out of usual or proper place Unprecedented (Adj.) : that has never happened, been done/been known before Irrelevant (Adj.) : not important to/connected with a situation Stabilised (V.) : to become/to make something become firm, steady and unlikely to change Unfounded (Adj.) : not based on reason/fact ; not established Settled (Adj.) : not likely to change/move ; to establish as a resident Directions: Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold. 46. OBSOLETE (a) Irregular (b) Transparent (c) Outmoded (d) Strange (e) Straightforward Ans: (c) Outmoded Obsolete (Adj.) : antique; dead; discussed; extinct; old; oldfashioned; out of date; out moded. 47. BALEFUL (a) Ruinous (b) Uncovered (c) Gentle (d) Trial (e) Sheepish Ans: (a) Ruinous Ruinous (Adj.) : causing serious problems/damage Baleful (Adj.) : malignant; of evil influence; painful; sorrowful; harmful ; ruinous. Sheepish (Adj.) : looking/feeling embarrassed because you have done something silly/wrong 48. HOODWINK (a) Anticipate (b) Bamboozle (c) Desperate (d) Humble (e) Embrace Ans: (b) Bamboozle Bamoozle (V.) : to confuse somebody, by tricking them Hoodwink : bamboozle; cheat; deceive; delude; dupe; fool; hoax; mislead; rook; swindle; take in 49. NIMBLE (a) Honest (b) Clumsy (c) Needless (d) Agile (e) Noteworthy Ans: (d) Agile Nimble (Adj.) : active; agile; alert; brisk; light footed; lively; nipply; proficient; prompt; quick; ready; smart; slightly; swift; 50. BASE (a) Helpful (b) Exalted (c) Unmarked (d) Harsh (e) Immoral Ans: (e) Immoral Base (Adj.) : basis; bottom; camp; centre; core; essence; essential; foot; foundation; fundamental; groundwork; headquarters; home; key; origin; pedestral; root; starting point; immoral Exalted (Adj.) : full of great joy and happiness ; of high rank, position/great importance Directions: Choose the word which is MOST nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word given in bold. 51. FIDELITY (a) Loyalty (b) Perfidy (c) Amnesty (d) Freshness (e) Vivacity Ans: (b) Perfidy Perfidy (N.) : unfair treatment of somebody who trusts you Fidelity (N.) : adherence; allegiance; devotion; loyality; accuracy; closeness, precision; reliability Amnesty (N.) : an official statement that allows people who have been put in prison for crimes against the state to go free ; a period of time during which people can admit to a crime/give up weapons wi thout being punished Vivacity (N.) : the quality of being lively and attractive 52. INDIGNATION (a) Insolence (b) Animosity (c) Forbearance (d) Alertness (e) Indolence Ans: (c) Forbearance Forbearance (N.) : the quality of being patient and sympathetic towards other people, especially when they have done something wrong Indignation (N.) : anger; exasperation; ire; outrage; resentment; scorn; wrath Animosity (N.) : a strong feeling of opposition, anger/hatred Insolence (N.) : extremely rude behaviour that shows a lack of respect for somebody Indolence (N.) : the feeling of not wanting to work; lazy behaviour 53. LOFTY (a) Imposing (b) Deserted (c) Solitary (d) Lowly (e) Adrift Ans: (d) Lowly Lowly (Adj.) : low in status/ importance ; humble ; obscure Lofty (Adj.) : high; exalted; elevated; dignified; distinguished; majestic; proud; Deserted (Adj.) : with no people in it ; abandoned Imposing (Adj.) : impressive to look at ; making a strong impression Solitary (Adj.) : without other people ; done alone Adrift (Adj.) : feeling alone and without a direction/an aim in life 54. HEED (a) Neglect (b) Assist (c) Uphold (d) Conceal (e) Disguise Ans: (a) Neglect Neglect (V.) : to fail to take care of somebody/something; to not give enough attention to something Heed (V.) : to take notice; to attend to Uphold (V.) : to support something that you think is right and make sure that it continues to exist Conceal (V.) : to hide somebody/ something Disguise (V.) : to change your appearance so that people cannot recognize you 55. INTREPID (a) Acquired (b) Audacious (c) Evident (d) Simple (e) Bashful Ans: (e) Bashful Bashful (Adj.) : shy and easily embarrassed Intrepid (Adj.) : brave; fearless; undaunted Audacious (Adj.) : willing to take risks/to do something shocking ; daring Acquired (Adj.) : gained by one’s own efforts Directions: Choose the word which is MOST nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold. 56. ACCESS (a) Loan (b) Reach (c) Help (d) Advantage (e) Utility Ans: (b) Reach Access (N.) : a way of entering/ reaching a place 57. ADVENT (a) Departure (b) Shining (c) Power (d) Force (e) Arrival Ans: (e) Arrival Advent (N.) : the coming of an important event, person, invention, etc. 58. TRADITIONAL (a) Excessive (b) Religious (c) Old (d) Customary (e) Sick Ans: (d) Customary Customary (Adj.) : usual ; habitual Traditional (Adj.) : being part of the beliefs, customs/way of life of a particular group of people, that have not changed for a long time Directions: Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in bold. 59. BURGEONING (a) Retarding (b) Growing (c) Dipping (d) Unique (e) Common Ans: (a) Retarding Retarding (V.) : to make the development/ progress of something slower Burgeoning (Adj.) : growing or developing rapidly. 60. STAGNATING (a) Redundant (b) Developing (c) Over working (d) Fixed (e) Stationery Ans: (b) Developing Stagnating (V.) : to stop developing/ making progress Redundant (Adj.) : not needed/ useful Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two wrods are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the CORRECT letter combination. 61. (A) Proximate (B) Elevated (C) Nimble (D) Agile (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) A-C (d) B-D (e) C-D Ans: (e) C–D (b) Proximate (Adj.) : nearest or next, wi thout anything between a cause and its effect. (a) Elevated (Adj.) : dignified, elated, grand, high, lofty, noble, raised, sublime (C) Nimble (Adj.) : active, agile, alert, brisk, deft, light-fotted, lively, ready (D) Agile (Adj.) : active, adroit, brisk, clever, quick, sharp, swift, spry (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words. 62. (A) Notion (B) Symbol (C) Concept (D) Message (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) A-C (d) C-D (e) B-D Ans: (c) A–C (b) Notion (N.) : apprehension, belief, idea, concept, fancy, image, judgement, knowledge, view (a) Symbol (N.) : badge, emblem, image, logo, representation sign, token, type (C) Concept (N.) : abstraction conception, construct, idea, image, type, view, notion (D) Message (N.) : information, memo, note, bulletin (b) and (C) are SAME meaning words 63. (A) Limpid (B) Luscious (C) Acrid (D) Benign (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) B-D (e) A-C Ans: (a) B–C (b) Limpid (Adj.) : bright, clear, comprehensible, crystal-clear, glassy, intelligible, pure (a) Luscious (Adj.) : appetising, delicious, desirable, juicy, savoury, sweet, tasty (C) Acrid (Adj.) : acid, acrimonious, bitter, sharp, burning, punget, sarcastic (D) Benign (Adj.) : amiable, benevolent, friendly, genial, gentle, good, gracious (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words 64. (A) Asinine (B) Furious (C) Fortunate (D) Ridiculous (a) A-B (b) A-D (c) A-C (d) B-C (e) B-D Ans: (b) A–D (b) Asinine (Adj.) : of or like an ass, idiotic (a) Furious (Adj.) : angry, boiling, enraged, fierce, fuming, livid, mad, raging, violent, stormy, (C) Fortunate (Adj.) : advantageous, blessed, bright, lucky, happy, successful, felicitious, opportune (D) Ridiculous (Adj.) : absurd, comical, derisory, farcical, fool ish, funny, stupid, ludicrous (b) and (D) are SAME meaning words 65. (A) Companion (B) Amateur (C) Adept (D) Adherent (a) B-D (b) B-C (c) C-D (d) A-B (e) A-D Ans: (b) B–C (b) Companion (N.) : accomplice, aide, ally, assistant, associate mate, partner (a) Amateur (N.) : buff, dabbler, dilettante, fanier, ham, layman, non-professional, unskilled (C) Adept (Adj.) : able, accomplished, adroit, versed, skilled, proficient, practiced, nimble. (D) Adherent (N.) : admirer, advocate, devotee, disciple, fan, follower, supporter (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words 66. (A) Squander (B) Disunite (C) Flicker (D) Preserve (a) B-C (b) A-C (c) A-D (d) C-D (e) B-D Ans: (c) A–D (b) Squander (V.) : blow, consume, dissipate, expend, fritter, waste, scatter, misuse (a) Disunite (V.) : to separate from union, detach, divide, to sever or surrender (C) Flicker (V.) : flare, flash, flutter, waver, vibrate, twinkle, glimmer (D) Preserve (V.) : care for, conserve, continue, defend, guard, keep, uphold, shelter (b) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 67. (A) Mitigate (B) Acquiesce (C) Relinquish (D) Duplicate (a) B-D (b) A-C (c) A-B (d) C-D (e) B-C Ans: (e) B–C (b) Mitigate (V.) : to mollify, appease, alleviate, reduce (a) Acquiesce (V.) : accede, accept, agree, allow, approve, assent, comply, concur (C) Relinquish (V.) : abandon, cede desert, discard, forgo, resign, vacate (D) Duplicate (Adj.) : corresponding, identical , twofold, twin (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words. 68. (A) Fable (B) Legend (C) Portrayal (D) Contract (a) B-C (b) A-C (c) B-D (d) A-B (e) C-D Ans: (d) A–B (b) Fable (N.) : legend. (a) Legend (N.) : fable; tale ; story; fiction (C) Portrayal (N.) : description; representation (D) Contract (N.) : agreement; deal (b) and (a) are SAME meaning words 69. (A) Occurrence (B) Pretence (C) Profusion (D) Extravagance (a) C-D (b) B-D (c) B-C (d) A-C (e) A-B Ans: (a) C–D (b) Occurence (N.) : situation, dventure, affair, instance, incident, episode (a) Pretence (N.) : acting, affectation, claim, allegation, appearance, charade, grab (C) Profusion (N.) : abundance, copiousness, glut, multitutde, wealth, extravagance (D) Extravagance (N.) : abundance, excess, folly, squander, waste, profusion (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words 70. (A) Excellent (B) Passionate (C) Apathetic (D) Discrepant (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) A-D (d) B-C (e) C-D Ans: (d) B–C (b) Excellent (Adj.) : admirable, commendable, unequalled, superb, wonderful, worthy (a) Passionate (Adj.) : ardent, erotic, violent, wild, zealous, fiery, inflamed, fervent (C) Apathetic (Adj.) : cold, cool, impassive, passive, unemotional, indifferent (D) Discrepant (Adj.) : contrary, disagreeing (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the CORRECT letter combination. 71. (A) Instigate (B) Enquire (C) Construe (D) Interpret (a) A – B (b) A – C (c) C – D (d) B – D (e) A – D Ans: (c) C–D (b) Instigate (V.) : to make something start/happen (official/bad) (a) Enquire (V.) : to ask somebody for some information (C) Construe (V.) : to understand the meaning of a word, a sentence/an action in a particular way ; interpret (D) Interpret (V.) : to explain/ understand the meaning of something (C) and (D) are SAME meaning words 72. (A) Superficial (B) Superfluous (C) Enlightened (D) Surplus (a) A – B (b) A – C (c) B – C (d) B – D (e) A – D Ans: (d) B–D (b) Superficial (Adj.) : not studying/ looking at something thoroughly ; seeing only what is obvious ; appearing to be true, real/important until you look at it more carefully (a) Superfluous (Adj.) : unnecessary ; more than you need/want (C) Enlightened (Adj.) : having/ showing an understanding of people’s needs, a situation, etc. that is not based on oldfashioned attitudes/prejudice (D) Surplus (Adj.) : an amount that is extra/more than you need (a) and (D) are SAME meaning words 73. (A) Appalling (B) Sinister (C) Perturbed (D) Threatening (a) B – D (b) A – B (c) A – C (d) A – D (e) D – C Ans: (a) B–D (b) Appalling (Adj.) : shocking ; extremely bad (a) Sinister (Adj.) : seeming evil/ dangerous ; making you think something bad will happen ; menacing (C) Perturbed (Adj.) : worried/ anxious ; alarmed (D) Threatening (Adj.) : expressing a threat of harm/violence ; menacing (a) and (D) are SAME meaning words 74. (A) Imprison (B) Torture (C) Excruciate (D) Extract (a) B – C (b) B – D (c) A – B (d) C – D (e) A – C Ans: (a) B–C (b) Imprison (V.) : to put somebody in a prison/another place from which they cannot escape (a) Torture (V.) : to hurt somebody, in order to punish them ; to make somebody feel extremely unhappy/anxious ; torment (C) Excruciate (V.) : torture ; to inflict severe pain on (D) Extract (V.) : take away from ; remove ; take out (a) and (C) are SAME meaning words 75. (A) Pertinent (B) Impolite (C) Irrelevant (D) Insecure (a) B – D (b) A – C (c) C – D (d) A – D (e) B – C Ans: (b) A–C (b) Pertinent (Adj.) : relevant ; appropriate to a particular situation (b) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are most nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are most nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and find the number of the correct letter combination, that is your answer. 76. (A) Consent (B) Nascent (C) Emerging (D) Insecure (a) B – D (b) A – C (c) B – C (d) A – D (e) A – B Ans: (c) B–C (b) Consent (N.) : permission to do something (a) Nascent (Adj.) : beginning to exist ; not yet fully developed (C) Emerging (Adj.) : starting to exist, grow, or become known (D) Insecure (Adj.) : not safe/ protected (a) and (C) are SAME meaning words 77. (A) Elated (B) Eccentric (C) Explicit (D) Abnormal (a) B – D (b) A – B (c) A – C (d) A – D (e) D – C Ans: (a) B–D (b) Elated (Adj.) : very happy and excited because something good has happened/will happen (a) Eccentric (Adj.) : a person who is considered by other people to be strange/unusual (C) Explicit (Adj.) : clear and easy to understand (D) Abnormal (Adj.) : different from what is usual/expected, especially in a way that is worrying, harmful/not wanted (a) and (D) are SAME meaning words 78. (A) Abundance (B) Incomparable (C) Projection (D) Plethora (a) A – B (b) A – C (c) C – D (d) B – D (e) A – D Ans: (e) A–D (b) Abundance (N.) : a large quantity that is more than enough (a) Incomparable (Adj.) : matchless ; so good/impressive that nothing can be compared to it (C) Projection (N.) : bulge, overhang, prominence, estimate (D) Plethora (N.) : an amount that is greater than is needed/can be used ; excess (b) and (D) are SAME meaning words 79. (A) Purposefully (B) Inaccurately (C) Inadvertently (D) Unchangeably (a) A – B (b) A – C (c) B – C (d) B – D (e) A – D Ans: (b) A–C (b) Purposefully (Adv.) : in a way that has a useful purpose ; with a clear aim and determination (a) Inaccurately (Adv.) : in a way that is not exact/accurate or has mistakes (C) Inadvertently (Adv.) : by accident ; without intending to ; unintentional (D) Unchangeably (Adv.) : in an unalterable and unchangeable manner (b) and (C) are SAME meaning words 80. (A) Germane (B) Generate (C) Reliable (D) Irrelevant (a) B – C (b) B – D (c) A – B (d) C – D (e) A – D Ans: (e) A–D (b) Germane (Adj.) : relevant (a) Generate (V.) : to produce or create something (C) Reliable (Adj.) : that can be trusted ; that is likely to be correct/true (D) Irrelevant (Adj.) : not important to/connected with a situation (b) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are most nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are most nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the correct letter combination. 81. (A) consent (B) nascent (C) emerging (D) insecure (a) B-D (b) A-C (c) B-C (d) A-D (e) A-B Ans: (c) Nascent (Adj.) = beginning to exist; not yet fully developed. Emerging = beginning to exist; to become or appear known. 82. (A) elated (B) eccentric (C) explicit (D) abnormal (a) B-D (b) A-B (c) A-C (d) A-D (e) D-C Ans: (a) Eccentric = considered by other people to be strange or unusual; whimsical. Abnormal = different from what is usual or expected. 83. (A) abundance (B) incomparable (C) projection (D) plethora (a) A-B (b) A-C (c) C-D (d) B-D (e) A-D Ans: (e) Plethora = an amount that is greater than is needed or can be used; excess Abundance = a large quantity that is more than enough 84. (A) purposefully (B) inaccurately (C) inadvertently (D) unchangeably (a) A-B (b) A-C (c) B-C (d) B-D (e) A-D Ans: (b) Inadvertently = by accident; without intending to, unintentionally. Purposefully = intentionally 85. (A) germane (B) generate (C) reliable (D) irrelevant (a) B-C (b) B-D (c) A-B (d) C-D (e) A-D Ans: (e) Germane = relevant; connected with something Irrelevant = not important to or connected with a situation Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are MOST nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of that pair of words as the answer. 86. (A) Audacious (B) Venturous (C) Abstruse (D) Silent (a) B — C (b) A — C (c) C — D (d) A — B (e) B — D Ans: (d) A–B (b) Audacious (Adj.) : willing to take risks/to do something shocking; daring (a) Venturous (Adj.) : taking/ willing to take risks; daring (C) Abstruse (Adj.) : difficult to understand (b) and (a) are SAME meaning words 87. (A) Eudemonia (B) Extol (C) Eulogise (D) Energise (a) B — C (b) A — B (c) B — D (d) A — D (e) C — D Ans: (a) B–C (b) Eudemonia (N.) : happiness (philosophy) (a) Extol (V.) : to praise somebody/something very much (C) Eulogise (V.) : to praise somebody/something very highly (D) Energise (V.) : to make somebody enthusiastic about something (a) and (C) are SAME meaning words 88. (A) Recluse (B) Pandemic (C) Transparent (D) Opaque (a) C — D (b) A — B (c) A — C (d) A — D (e) B — D Ans: (a) C–D (b) Recluse (N.) : a person who lives alone and likes to avoid other people (a) Pandemic (Adj.) : that spreads over a whole country/the whole world (disease) (C) Transparent (Adj.) : allowing you to see through it (D) Opaque (Adj.) : not clear enough to see through/allow light through (C) and (D) are OPPOSITE meaning words 89. (A) Diminutive (B) Intelligent (C) Large (D) Prolific (a) B — C (b) B — D (c) A — C (d) A — B (e) C — D Ans: (c) A–C (b) Diminutive (Adj.) : very small (D) Prolific (Adj.) : producing many works, etc. (artist, writer, etc.) (b) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words 90. (A) Enormous (B) Malign (C) Absorb (D) Slander (a) B — C (b) A — C (c) C — D (d) B — D (e) A — D Ans: (d) B–D (b) Enormous (Adj.) : extremely large (a) Malign (V.) : to say bad things about somebody/something publicly; slander (C) Absorb (V.) : consume; soak; grasp (D) Slander (V.) : to make a false spoken statement about somebody that is intended to damage the good opinion that people have of them (a) and (D) are SAME meaning words Directions: In each of the following questions four words are given of which two words are most nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning. Find the two words which are most nearly the SAME or OPPOSITE in meaning and indicate the number of the correct letter combination, by darkening the appropriate oval in your answersheet. 91. (A) Prolixity (B) Brevity (C) Agreement (D) Proposition (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) A-C (e) A-D Ans: (b) A–B (b) Proxility (N.) : the fact of using too many words and therefore creating a piece of writing, a speech, etc. that is boring (a) Brevity (N.) : the quality of using few words when speaking/writing (D) Proposition (N.) : proposal; plan; project (b) and (a) are OPPOSITE meaning words 92. (A) Suffuse (B) Deplete (C) Fight (D) Delay (a) C-D (b) B-C (c) A-C (d) A-D (e) A-B Ans: (e) A–B (b) Suffuse (V.) : to spread all over/thorough somebody/ something (colour, light, feeling) (a) Deplete (V.) : to reduce something by a large amount so that there is not enough left (b) and (a) are OPPOSITE meaning words 93. (A) Forensic (B) Delectable (C) Leaflike (D) Charming (a) B-D (b) A-C (c) A-D (d) B-C (e) A-B Ans: (a) B–D (b) Forensic (Adj.) : connected with the scientific tests used by the police when trying to solve a crime (a) Delectable (Adj.) : extremely pleasant to taste, smell/look at (food, drink) (C) Leaflike (Adj.) : resembling a leaf (D) Charming (Adj.) : very pleasant and attractive (a) and (D) are SAME meaning words 94. (A) Benevolent (B) Alarming (C) Charitable (D) Stupendous (a) B-C (b) A-B (c) C-D (d) A-C (e) B-D Ans: (d) A–C (b) benevolent (Adj.) : kind, helpful and generous (a) Alarming (Adj.) : causing worry and fear (C) Charitable (Adj.) : connected with charity (helping people who are in need/poor (D) Stupendous (Adj.) : extremely large/impressive (b) and (C) are SAME meaning words 95. (A) Convenient (B) Intolerant (C) Endurant (D) Protestant (a) A-C (b) A-B (c) B-C (d) B-D (e) C-D Ans: (c) B–C (a) Intolerant (Adj.) : not willing to accept ideas/ways of behaving that are different from your own; not willing/able to tolerate/endure (C) Endurant (Adj.) : capable of bearing fatigue, pain, hunger, etc. (D) Protestant (Adj.) : belonging to/connected with the part of the western Christian Church that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century (a) and (C) are OPPOSITE meaning words Directions: In each item two of the words are related in some way i e. they are SIMILAR or OPPOSITE. Pick out the option which represents this pair. 96. (A) Genuine (B) Proof (C) True (D) Fundamental (a) B–C (b) A–B (c) A–C (d) C–D (e) B–D Ans: (c) A–C (b) and (C) are SIMILAR meaning words 97. (A) Permit (B) Corrupt (C) Convince (D) Sanction (a) B–D (b) A–B (c) A–D (d) B–C (e) A–C Ans: (c) A–D (b) and (D) are SIMILAR meaning words 98. (A) Sentiment (B) Tranquil (C) Serious (D) Solemn (a) B–C (b) A–B (c) B–D (d) C–D (e) A–D Ans: (d) C–D (b) Sentiment (N.) : a feeling/an opinion (emotions) (a) Tranquil (Adj.) : quiet and peaceful (D) Solemn (Adj.) : not happy/ smiling; serious (C) and (D) are SIMILARmeaning words 99. (A) Minute (B) Tight (C) Reduce (D) Exact (a) A–D (b) A–B (c) B–C (d) C–D (e) A–C Ans: (a) A–D (b) Minute (Adj.) : extremely small; tiny; very detailed, careful and thorough (C) Reduce (V.) : to make something less/smaller in size, quantity, price, etc. (D) Exact (Adj.) : correct in every detail; precise (b) and (D) are SIMILAR meaning words 100. (A) Relevant (B) Explicit (C) Apt (D) Willing (a) A–C (b) A–D (c) C–D (d) B–C (e) B–D Ans: (a) A–C (a) Explicit (Adj.) : clear and easy to understand (C) Apt (Adj.) : suitable/appropriate in the circumstances (b) and (C) are SIMILAR meaning words Directions: For each of the following capitalized words, four words or phrases are given of which only one is SYNONYMOUS with the given word. Select the SYNONYM. (LIC Assistant Administrative Officer (AAO) Exam. 07.06.2009) 101. DEFER (a) Dislike (b) Respect (c) Postpone (d) Disrespect Ans: (c) Postpone Defer (V.) : to delay something until a later time; put off. 102. DUBIOUS (a) Undoubtedly (b) Clear (c) Hesitant (d) Doubtful Ans: (d) Doubtful Dubious (Adj.) : doubtful; not certain and slightly suspicious about something. 103. COARSE (a) Rough (b) Impolite (c) Polished (d) Improper Ans: (a) Rough Coarse (Adj.) : rough; rude and offensive; vulgar. 104. PROXIMITY (a) Aloofness (b) Nearness (c) Completely (d) Nearly Ans: (b) Nearness Proximity (N.) : the state of being near somebody/something. Nearly (Adv.) : almost; not completely; not quite 105. ABSTAIN (a) Tempt (b) Stay (c) Refrain (d) Pardon Ans: (c) Refrain Refrain (V.) : desist from to stop yourself from doing something. Abstain (V.) : to stay away from something. Directions: Choose the CORRECT ANTONYM from the choices for each of the following capitalised words : (LIC Assistant Administrative Officer (AAO) Exam. 07.06.2009) 106. INDIFFERENT (a) Varied (b) Curious (c) Alike (d) Uniform Ans: (b) Curious Curious (Adj.) : having a strong desire to know about something; inquisitive. Indifferent (Adj.) : having or showing no interest in somebody/ something; not very good. 107. DISCREET (a) Diplomatic (b) Wise (c) Prudent (d) Careless Ans: (d) Careless Discreet (Adj.) : careful in what you say or do; tactful. Diplomatic (Adj.) : tactful Prudent (Adj.) : sensible and careful when you make judgements and decisions; avoiding unnecessary risks 108. OBSOLETE (a) Ancient (b) Free (c) Current (d) Cultured Ans: (c) Current Obsolete (Adj.) : no longer used because something new has been invented; out of date. 109. RATIONAL (a) Insane (b) Sound (c) Judicious (d) Sensible Ans: (a) Insane Insane (Adj.) : seriously mentally ill and unable to live in normal society; very stupid, crazy or dangerous. Rational (Adj.) : based on reason rather than emotions; reasonable; of sound mind 110. SCEPTICAL (a) Convinced (b) Doubtful (c) Questioning (d) Cinic Ans: (a) Convinced Convinced (Adj.) : completely sure about something. Sceptical (Adj.) : having doubts that a claim or statement is true or that something will happen. Directions: In the following questions choose the alternative which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the given word. (Oriental Insurance AO Exam. 09.05.2010) 111. INVALID (a) Strong (b) Healthy (c) Sound (d) Deteriorating Ans: (b) Healthy Invalid (N.) : sick; not legally acceptable; ill. 112. MAGNANIMITY (a) Hypocrisy (b) Disability (c) Meanness (d) Miserliness Ans: (c) Meanness Meanness (N.) : unkindness. Magnanimity (N.) : kindness, generosity. 113. SUPERFICIAL (a) Real (b) Shallow (c) Deep (d) Artificial Ans: (c) Deep Superficial (Adj.) : not concerned with anything serious or important and lacking any depth of understanding or feeling; shallow. 114. MAR (a) Covered (b) Transparent (c) Clear (d) Make Ans: (d) Make Mar (V.) : to damage or spoil something good; blight, ruin. 115. MATERIAL (a) Ideal (b) Moral (c) Spiritual (d) Psychological Ans: (c) Spiritual Spiritual (Adj.) : connected with the human spirit rather than the body or physical things. Material (Adj.) : connected with money, possessions etc rather than with the needs of the mind or spirit. Directions: In the following questions choose the alternative which BEST expresses the MEANING of the given word. (New India Assurance AO Exam. 25.10.2009) 116. ABSOLVE (a) Agree (b) Absorb (c) Acquit (d) Abort Ans: (c) Acquit Acquit (V.) : to decide and state officially in court that somebody is not guilty of a crime Absolve (V.) : to state formally that somebody is not guilty or responsible for something. 117. BEHEST (a) See (b) Command (c) Attach (d) Harm Ans: (b) Command Behest (N.) : order; command. 118. ADHERE (a) Disguise (b) Accept (c) Fight (d) Stick Ans: (d) Stick Adhere (V.) : to stick firmly to something. 119. FRAGMENT (a) Portion (b) Smell (c) Image (d) Impression Ans: (a) Portion Fragment (N.) : a small part of something that has broken off or comes from something larger. 120. ENDORSEMENT (a) Endurance (b) Imposition (c) Award (d) Approval Ans: (d) Approval Endorsement (N.) : a public statement or action showing that you support somebody/something. Directions: Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the given word. (New India Insurance AAO Exam. 22.05.2011) 121. EXORBITANT (a) Famished (b) Barbaric (c) Counterfeit (d) Moderate Ans: (d) Moderate Moderate (Adj.) : that is neither very good, large nor very bad, small; mild; mediocre. Exorbitant (Adj.) : much too high. Barbaric (Adj.) : cruel and violent and not as expected from people who are educated and respect each other Famished (Adj.) : very hungry 122. HUMANE (a) Proud (b) Cruel (c) Cheerful (d) Tranquil Ans: (b) Cruel Humane (Adj.) : showing kindness towards people and animals. 123. OBSOLETE (a) Desolate (b) Heated (c) Renovated (d) Automatic Ans: (c) Renovated Renovated (Adj.) : to repair something so that it is in good condition again. Obsolete (Adj.) : no longer used because something new has been invented; out of date. Desolate (Adj.) : very lonely and happy 124. SUPPRESS (a) Lengthen (b) Stimulate (c) Abandon (d) Smother Ans: (b) Stimulate Stimulate (V.) : to excite; to rouse; to make something develop. Suppress (V.) : to put an end; quash; to prevent something from growing, developing. Smother (V.) : cover; hide; extinguish; quash; kill Directions: In the following questions choose the alternative which BEST expresses the MEANING of the given word. (New India Insurance AAO Exam. 22.05.2011) 125. FASTIDIOUS (a) Particular (b) Doubtful (c) Hesitant (d) Cautious Ans: (d) Cautious Fastidious (Adj.) : cautious; being careful; meticulous. 126. EMANCIPATE (a) Confuse (b) Pass (c) Free (d) Imagine Ans: (c) Free Emancipate (V.) : to free somebody; to set free. 127. HAMPER (a) Hide (b) Open (c) Notice (d) Hinder Ans: (d) Hinder Hamper (V.) : hinder; to prevent somebody from easily doing or achieving something. 128. DESPICABLE (a) Contemptible (b) Undesirable (c) Desperate (d) Faithless Ans: (a) Contemptible Contemptible (Adj.) : not deserving any respect at all Despicable (Adj.) : contemptible; very unpleasant; not deserving any respect at all. Directions: In the following questions choose the alternative which BEST expresses the MEANING of the given word. (Oriental Insurance Company Exam.08.04.2012) 129. CLANDESTINE (a) Gloomy (b) Secret (c) Paitial (d) Cautious Ans: (b) Secret Clandestine (Adj.) : done secretly or kept secret. 130. GRATIFY (a) Grant (b) Devour (c) Grab (d) Satisfy Ans: (d) Satisfy Gratify (V.) : to please or satisfy somebody. Devour (V.) : to eat al l of something quickly, because you are very hungry; gobble 131. CREDIBLE (a) Believable (b) Worthy (c) Noticeable (d) Careful Ans: (a) Believable Credible (Adj.) : that can be believed or trusted; convincing. 132. DESPICABLE (a) Faithless (b) Contemptible (c) Desperate (d) Undesirable Ans: (b) The word Despicable (Adj.) means : very unpleasant or evil; contem-ptible. Directions: Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the given word. (Oriental Insurance Company Exam.08.04.2012) 133. LUSCIOUS (a) Insipid (b) Fickle (c) Languid (d) Deteriorating Ans: (a) Insipid Insipid (Adj.) : having almost no taste or flavour; flavourless. Luscious (Adj.) : having a strong pleasant taste; delicious; rich. Fickle (Adj.) : changing often and suddenly Languid (Adj.) : moving slowly in an elegant manner, not needing energy/effort 134. UNDULATING (a) Ups (b) Flat (c) Steep (d) Gradual Ans: (b) Flat Flat (Adj.) : having a level surface, not curved or sloping. Undulating (Adj.) : moving gently up and down like waves. 135. SUPERFICIAL (a) Deep (b) Shallow (c) Real (d) Artificial Ans: (a) The word Superf icial (Adj.) means : shallow; lacking depth. Its antonym should be deep. 136. SUPPRESS (a) Lengthen (b) Stimulate (c) Abandon (d) Smother Ans: (b) The word Suppress (Verb) means : to prevent something from growing; to put an end. The word Stimulate means : to make something develop; to make somebody excited and interested about something. Directions: In the following questions choose the alternative which is OPPOSITE in meaning to the given word. (United India Insurance AAO Exam.03.06.2012) 137. LUSCIOUS (a) Insipid (b) Fickle (c) Languid (d) Deteriorating Ans: (a) The word Luscious (Adj.) means : delicious; cloying; having a strong pleasant taste; rich. The word Insipid (Adj.) means : having almost no taste ; or flavour; flavourless; not interesting or exciting. 138. HAPHAZARD (a) Indifferent (b) Safe (c) Deliberate (d) Tense Ans: (c) Deliberate Deliberate (Adj.) : done on purpose rather than by accident; intentional; planned. Haphazard (Adj.) : with no particular order or plan, not organised well; casual; random. 139. EVASIVE (a) Correct (b) Frank (c) Empty (d) Watchful Ans: (b) Frank Frank (Adj.) : honest and direct in what you say. Evasive (Adj.) : not willing to give clear answer to a question; cagey. 140. DESTITUTE (a) Characteristic (b) Stationary (c) Dazzling (d) Affluent Ans: (d) Affluent Affluent (Adj.) : prosperous; having a lot of money and a good standard of living; wealthy. Destitute (Adj.) : without money, food and the other things necessary for life. 141. DEARTH (a) Life (b) Width (c) Abundance (d) Brightness Ans: (c) Abundance Abundance (N.) : a large quantity that is more than enough. Dearth (N.) : scarcity; a lack of something. Directions: In the following questions choose the alternative which BEST expresses the MEANING of the given word. (United India Insurance AAO Exam.03.06.2012) 142. BEHEST (a) See (b) Command (c) Attach (d) Harm Ans: (b) The word Behest (Noun) means : order; command. 143. COLOSSUS (a) Huge (b) Tall (c) Lofty (d) Towering Ans: (a) Huge Colossus (N.) : extremely large; huge. 144. DEFER (a) Disguise (b) Respect (c) Postpone (d) Dislike Ans: (c) Postpone Defer (V.) : to delay something unti l a later time; put off; postpone. 145. EXASPERATION (a) Irritation (b) Exaltation (c) Amplification (d) Exception Ans: (a) Irritation Exasperation (N.) : annoyance, infuriation; irritation. Exaltation (N.) : a feeling of very great joy/happiness Amplification (N.) : the act of increasing the strength of something/ adding details to a story, statement, etc. Exception (N.) : a person/thing that is not included in a general statement 146. FRAGMENT (a) Image (b) smell (c) portion (d) Impression Ans: (c) Portion Fragment (N.) : part of something that has broken off or comes from something larger; portion. Directions: Choose the word OPPOSITE in meaning to the given word. (NICL (GIC) AO (Finance) Exam. 08.09.2013) 147. FRUGAL (a) Gluttonous (b) Miserly (c) Plentiful (d) Extravagant Ans: (d) Extravagant Extravagant (Adj.) : spending a lot more money or using a lot more of something than is necessary; costing a lot more money. Frugal (Adj.) : using only as much money or food as is necessary; meagre; miserly. 148. POACH (a) Hunt (b) Catch (c) Keep off (d) Plunder Ans: (c) Keep off Poach (V.) : to illegally hunt birds; animals or fish on somebody else’s property; trespass Plunder (V.) : to steal things from a place, using force (during a time of war) 149. SUSCEPTIBLE (a) Immune (b) Incredible (c) Predictable (d) Unpredictable Ans: (a) Immune Immune (Adj.) : that cannot be affected by something. Susceptible (Adj.) : impressionable; very likely to be harmed or affected by somebody/something. 150. CONSANGUINITY (a) Corpulent (b) Affinity (c) Estrangement (d) Anarchy Ans: (c) Estrangement Estrangement (N.) : no relationship Consanguinity (N.) : relationship by birth in the same family. Corpulent (Adj.) : Fat. Affinity (N.) : a close relationship between two people/things that have similar qualities, structures/ features Anarchy (N.) : a situation in a country, an organization, etc. in which there is no government, order/control 151. DREARY (a) Dangerous (b) Drab (c) Beautiful (d) Bright Ans: (d) Bright Dreary (Adj.) : dull and not interesting. Drab (Adj.) : without interest/ colour; dull and boring Directions : Choose the one which best expresses the MEANING of the given word (NICL (GIC) AO (Finance) Exam. 08.09.2013) 152. PROGNOSIS (a) Forecast (b) Diagnosis (c) Preface (d) Identity Ans: (a) Forecast Prognosis (N.) : an opinion based on medical experience; forecast. 153. BASTILLE (a) Prison (b) Fortress (c) Jail (d) Fop Ans: (d) Fop Fop (N.) : A man who is too interested in his clothes and the way he looks. Bastille (N.) : fortress, a building or place that has been made stronger and protected against attack, jail, prison. 154. ECSTATIC (a) Bewildered (b) Animated (c) Enraptured (d) Wilful Ans: (c) Enraptured Enraptured (Adj.) : filled with great pleasure, enchanted. Ecstatic (Adj.) : very happy, excited and enthusiastic. 155. IMPULSIVE (a) Wary (b) Deliberate (c) Rash (d) Impressive Ans: (c) Rash Impulsive (Adj.) : acting suddenly without thinking, rash, impetuous. 156. AUREATE (a) Gilded (b) Brilliant (c) Resplendent (d) Archaic Ans: (a) Gilded Gilded (Adj.) : covered with a thin layer of gold. Aureate (Adj.) : made of gold, decorated in a complicated way. Resplendent (Adj.) : brightly coloured in an impressive way Archaic (Adj.) : old and no longer used; very old-fashioned Directions: Choose the word which is not a SYNONYM for the given word (NICL (GIC) AO (Finance) Exam. 08.09.2013) 157. FLAKE (a) Sliver (b) Scurf (c) Chip (d) Bunting Ans: (d) Bunting Bunting (N.) : coloured flags to decorate. Flake (N.) : a small part Scurf (N.) : dandruff. Sliver (N.) : a small/thin piece of something that is cut/broken off from a larger piece Chip (N.) : a small piece of wood, glass, etc. that has broken/been broken off an Obj. Directions: Choose the one which best expresses the MEANING of the given word. (NICL (GIC) Administrative Officer Exam. 08.09.2013 Paper-I) 158. EXHORT (a) Coax (b) Recommend (c) Pressure (d) Push Ans: (a) Coax Exhort (V.) : to try hard to persuade somebody to do a something : urge; coax. 159. INFAMY (a) Glory (b) Notoriety (c) Integrity (d) Familiarity Ans: (b) Notoriety Infamy (N.) : state of being well known for something bad or evil; evil behaviour; an evil act; notoriety. 160. INTREPID (a) Fearless (b) Hesitant (c) Extrovert (d) Rash Ans: (a) Fearless Intrepid (Adj.) : very brave; not afraid of danger or difficulties; fearless. 161. RELIEVED (a) Backed (b) Exempted (c) Supported (d) Calmed Ans: (b) Exempted Relieved (Adj.) : feeling happy, exempted. 162. REPARTEE (a) Celebrate (b) Refuse (c) Response (d) Question Ans: (c) Response Repartee (N.) : response; clever and amusing comments and replies that are made quickly. 163. ASSURED (a) Definite (b) Insured (c) Doubted (d) Confident Ans: (d) Confident Assured (Adj.) : confident in yourself and your abilities; guaranteed. 164. BARREN (a) Wholesome (b) Good (c) Unproductive (d) Profitable Ans: (c) Unproductive Barren (Adj.) : infertile; not good enough for plants to grow on it; unproductive. Directions : Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in bold. (NICL (GIC) Administrative Officer Exam. 08.09.2013 Paper-I) 165. CONSIDERATE (a) Lazy (b) Ignorant (c) Angry (d) Insensitive Ans: (d) Insensitive Insensitive (Adj.) : not realising or caring how other people feel. Considerate (Adj.) : always thinking of other people’s wishes and feelings; thoughtful. 166. CESSATION (a) Renewal (b) Commencement (c) Ongoing (d) Interruption Ans: (b) Commencement Commencement (N.) : beginning. Cessation (N.) : the stopping of something; a pause in something. 167. PROCRASTINATE (a) Expedite (b) Experiment (c) Exclude (d) Propagate Ans: (a) Expedite Expedite (V.) : to make a process happen more quickly; speed up. Procrastinate (V.) : to delay doing something that you should do. 168. FURTHEST (a) Closest (b) Longest (c) Greatest (d) Shortest Ans: (a) Closest Furthest (Adj.) : farthest (at or to the greatest distance). Directions: Choose the one which best expresses the MEANING of the word. (NICL (GIC) AO (Finance) Exam. 15.12.2013) 169. LURID (a) Abundant (b) Happy (c) Bright (d) Shocking Ans: (d) Shocking Lurid (Adj.) : sensational, wan; ghastly; too bright in colour that is not attractive; shocking and violent in a way that is deliberate 170. CREDENCE (a) Incredible (b) Corrupt (c) Virtue (d) Belief Ans: (d) Belief Credence (N.) : belief in something as true 171. SPRAY (a) Spurt (b) Squirt (c) Gush (d) Jewry Ans: (d) Jewry Jewry (N.) : Jewish people as a group. Squirt (N.) : spray; fast stream of liquid. Spurt (N.) : a sudden increase Gush (N.) : a sudden strong feeling Directions: Choose the word which is the exact OPPOSITE of the given word. (NICL (GIC) AO (Finance) Exam. 15.12.2013) 172. GARRULOUS (a) Talkative (b) Loquacious (c) Quiet (d) Weary Ans: (c) Quiet Quiet (Adj.) : making very little noise Garrulous (Adj.) : talkative; loquacious; talking a lot. 173. HYPOCRITICAL (a) Sincere (b) Gentle (c) Amiable (d) Dependable Ans: (a) Sincere Sincere (Adj.) : genuine; honest; showing what you really think or feel. Hypocritical (Adj.) : pretending to have moral standard. # Error Detection Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (lgnore the errors of punctuation, if any) 1. The rise of ATMs, telephone banking, the internet (a)/ and now smartphones has (b)/ led to a decline of 5 to 8 percent a year (c)/ in the number of visits by customers to branches.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 2. Sporting body such as FIFA (a)/ should be run transparently and rigorous standards (b)/ should be maintained to ensure that (c)/ sports are played in the right spirit. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) FIFA is one of the many sporting bodies. Therefore, Sporting bodies such as FIFA is the right usage. 3. Owing to the frequent fluctuations in electricity, (a)/ businesses in Africa are forced to (b)/ invest in generators thereby paying (c)/ exorbitant amounts for electricity. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) businessmen of Africa are compelled/ forced to is the right usage. 4. Without a reduction in imports, the decline (a)/ in the economy will be even great though (b)/ the central bank is positive that (c)/ the economy will recover by next year.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Comparative Degree i.e. in the economy will be even greater/ bigger though is the right usage. 5. Changing a company’s corporate culture (a)/ is difficult but not impossible (b)/ and introducing to systems such as (c)/ ‘pay for performance’ will help a company grow. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) The use of Prep to is superfluous. Therefore, and introducing (Gerund) systems such as is the right usage. Directions: In the following questions, read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (Ignore the error of punctuation, if any). 6. Many citizens are gravitating (a)/ towards the nation’s (b)/ second-largest State because it offer (c)/ ample job opportunities. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) gravitating to/towards (Phr.V) : to move towards somebody/something that you are attracted to Subj. (it) is Singular. Therefore, Singular Verb i.e. second–largest state because it offers is the right usage. 7. Most African nations were largely (a)/ shielded from the 2008 financial crisis (b)/ by China’s insatiable demand (c)/ for natural resources. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) shield something against something : to protect from danger, harm or something unpleasant. Therefore, shielded against the 2008 financial crisis is the right usage. 8. Skeptics worries that the devaluation (a)/ of the country’s currency is (b)/ a desperate move to (c)/ bail out struggling exporters. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Singular Subj. agrees with Singular Verb and Plural Subj. agrees with Plural Verb. Therefore, A skeptic worries/Skeptics worry that the devaluation is the right usage. 9. Consumers are constantly been (a)/ encouraged to take (b)/ advantage of the (c)/ lowered interest rates. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Present Perfect Continuous (Passive) i.e. Consumers have constantly been encouraged is the right usage. 10. Emerging economies are (a)/ dominating the news (b)/ but for (c)/ all the wrong reasons. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error Directions: In the following questions, read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (Ignore the error of punctuation, if any) 11. Students who dread not making it to school (a)/ before time 6 : 55 a.m. assembly, may have find it comforting (b)/ that a scientist wants to prove that schools (c)/ deprive children of much needed sleep by starting early. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Use of have is incorrect. The sentence is in S.Pr.T. Therefore, may find it comforting is the right usage. 12. While the real estate market has being (a)/ stable, it’s time to purchase a property now (b)/ and enjoy the benefits (c)/ when prices escalate. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) It is not proper to use being in AV. Therefore, while the real estate market has been is the right usage. 13. Taxi-hailing ventures are significantly (a)/ increasing the number of cabs (b)/ that offer free Wi-Fi, (c)/ following the success of pilot projects. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 14. Organic milk has (a)/ higher Omega-3 fat levels, (b)/ but probability not enough (c)/ to make a difference. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) but probably (Adv.) not enough is the right usage. It is not proper to use probability (Noun). probability (N.) : likelihood; how likely something is to happen probably (Adv.) : used to say that something is likely to happen or to be true 15. By early next week, (a)/ the State Government is likely (b)/ of declare (c)/ a drought in 8000 villages. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) Infinitive Þ to + V1 Therefore, to declare is the right usage. Directions: In the following questions, some parts of the sentences have errors and some are correct. Find out which part of a sentence has an error. If a sentence is free from errors, your answer is No error. 16. How serious is the country’s (a)/ economic problems, and how (b)/ big an impact will these (c)/ have on the world economies? (d)/ No error. (e) Ans: (a) Verb should agree according to the number of problems. Therefore, How serious are the country’s economic problems is the right usage. 17. Shuber, the taxi service provider, is (a)/ growing like a weed, (b)/ spending millions of rupees (c)/ to establish its roots in the country. (d)/ No error. (e) Ans: (d) Gerund i.e. in establishing its roots in the country is the right usage. It is not proper to use an Infinitive here. 18. The survey asked respondents (a)/ from more than 50 countries to (b)/ identify kinds of people (c)/ they would want of neighbours. (d)/ No error. (e) Ans: (d) they would want as neighbours is the right usage. 19. The pace and scale of (a)/ the country’s economic transformation (b)/ have no (c)/ historical precedent. (d)/ No error. (e) Ans: (c) Subj. The pace and scale is Singular. Therefore, Singular Verb i.e., has no is the right usage. 20. The countries most (a)/ affected by the economic slowdown (b)/ are likely to be (c)/ those whose export raw materials. (d)/ No error. (e) Ans: (d) Relative Pronoun, which i.e., those which export raw materials is the right usage. Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (lgnore the errors of punctuation, if any) (Pre.) 10.10.2015 Ist Sitting) 21. Insurance Ombudsmen have (a)/ sought more power to settle higher (b)/ claim cases as the number (c)/ of complaints continue to rise. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Structure of clauses with the number of + Noun is as follows : the number + of + Noun + Singular Verb Therefore, Singular Verb i.e. of complaints continues to rise is the right usage. 22. The rising cases of dengue across (a)/ many Indian states has fastly (b)/ turned into new business opportunities (c)/ for pharma, FMCG and insurance. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Subj. (The rising cases) is Plural. Therefore, many Indian states have (Plural) fast (Adv.) is the right usage. 23. Earlier studies have shown (a)/ that even drinking water, beverages and soft drinks (b)/ were not totally (c)/ free of hazardous chemicals. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error. 24. Over the past two (a)/ months, the prices of oil has (b)/ surged due to (c)/ estimates of less production. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Subj. the prices is Plural. Therefore, months, the prices of oil have is the right usage. 25. With the clew of benefits and business friendly policies (a)/ acting as a magnet the government has succeeded in making (b)/ the state the more preferred destinations (c)/ for investment and business. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) the state the most preferred destination is the right usage. Before, Superlative Degree, the should be used. the state is Singular. Therefore, destination (Singular) will be used. Directions: In the following questions, read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error as your answer. Ignore the error of punctuation, if any. 26. The pledges that countries (a)/ are making to battle climate change (b)/ will still result in the world (c)/ heating up by more than 6 degree Celsius. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Look at the sentence : (i) As the climate warms up, the ice caps will melt. Therefore, warming up by more than 6 degree Celsius is the right usage. 27. When it come to helping (a)/ one another, it turns out (b)/ that some fish are better (c)/ at it than previously thought. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Subj.-it is Singular. Therefore, Singular Verb i.e. when it comes to helping is the right usage. 28. Every child in our (a)/ country has the right (b)/ to acquire quality (c)/ primary and secondary education. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 29. The club members are (a)/ socially responsible and (b)/ take part in (c)/ variety volunteering activities. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) voluntary (Adj.) : done willingly, without being forced. Therefore, a variety of voluntary activities is the right usage. 30. On Sunday night, (a)/ a rare astronomical phenomenon will have produce (b)/ a moon that will appear slightly bigger (c)/ than usual and have a reddish hue. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Structure of the sentence : Subj. + will/shall + V1 Therefore, a rare astronomical phenomenon will produce is the right usage. Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error as your answer. (lgnore the errors of punctuation, if any) 31. The economy is even weaker than (a)/ it looks at first sight (b)/ since official figures show that (c)/ investment and consumption lower than expected. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Auxiliary Verb i.e., investment and consumption are lower than expected is the right usage. 32. The popular misconception is that (a)/ corruption in sports is harmless as (b)/ it is a victimless crime (c)/ which can overlook. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) doer is hidden. Therefore, PV i.e., which can be overlooked is the right usage. 33. According to a consultant, big dams and (a)/ hydropower offer great potential and can provide (b)/ about 16 percent of Africa’s power by 2040 (c)/ compared to solar power which will provide only about 10 percent. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 34. Many of the services which were once (a)/ delivered on branches such as (b)/ international transfers or personal loans are now (c)/ being offered by new generation financial technology firms. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) It is Prep. related error. Therefore, delivered by branches such as is the right usage. 35. A system of secure employment (a)/ and performance appraisal that are linked (b)/ to age, not performance (c)/ have caused many Japanese firms to fail. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Infinitive without to i.e.,have caused many Japanese firms fail is the right usage. Directions: In the following questions, read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (Ignore the error of punctuation, if any.) 36. The next time you (a)/ are at the city airport, (b)/ apart of shopping for the usual, (c)/ you can also purchase a piece of art.(d)/No error (e) Ans: (c) apart from (Prep.) : except for; in addition to Therefore, apart from shopping for the usual is the right usage. 37. Despite being laid low by illness (a)/ in the run-up to the event,(b)/ the sportsman intend to give his best (c)/ on the upcoming championship. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) Singular Subj. agrees with Singular Verb. Therefore, the sportsman intends to give his best is the right usage. 38. After staying together (a)/ for several years, the actress (b)/ finally separated from her husband (c)/ for good in 2004. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) in 2004 for good is the right usage. for good (Id.) : permanently 39. The city’s young women (a)/ are going out and buying (b)/ diamonds themselves, as gifted (c)/ diamonds by men is such passed. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) come to such a pass (Id.) : to reach a sad or difficult state Therefore, diamonds by men is such a pass/has come to such a pass is the right usage. 40. After swung between playing (a)/ positive and negative characters, (b)/ the actor is set to attempt comedy (c)/ for the first time on small screen. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Therefore, After swinging (Gerund) between playing is the right usage. 41. Research shows that people (a)/ who are able to responding (b)/ more quickly to questions are (c)/ perceived as more charismatic. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Infinitive i.e., who are able to respond is the right usage. 42. His wife’s untimely death (a)/ in a plane crash had him (b)/ to the supportive actress, who (c)/ lend him a shoulder to cry on. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) The sentence shows Past time. Therefore, lent (V2) him a shoulder to cry on is the right usage. 43. Staying healthy (a)/ and high spirited (b)/ is not (c)/ very difficult. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) and highly (Adv.) spirited (Adj.) is the right usage. As, an Adj. is always qualified by an Adv. 44. Like against (a)/ a fixed interest rate loan, (b)/ a floating interest rate loan offers (c)/ flexibility to borrowers. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) unlike (Prep.) : Different from a particular thing; used to contrast somebody/something with another person/thing. Therefore, Unlike will replace Like against. 45. The director refused (a)/ to meet his critics (b)/ and did not respond to (c)/ any of their letters. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, mark No error. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any) 46. Children love sweets,(a)/ but have you ever wondered (b)/ why some children demands (c)/ more sugary treats than others? (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) Subj. some children is Plural. Therefore, Plural Verb i.e. why some children demand is the right usage. 47. The actor, who (a)/ arrived on only ten minutes (b)/ before the actress, (c)/ left before the event ended.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Use of on (Prep.) is superfluous. Therefore, arrived only ten minutes is the right usage. 48. It is a little lately to play ‘Secret Santa’ (a)/ with your co-workers, but that is not to say (b)/ that you cannot still give them a surprise gift (c)/ and make their day.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) lately (Adv.) : recently; in the recent past. late (Adj.) : near the end of a period of time. Therefore, It is a little late to play is the right usage. 49. The actor was photographed (a)/ while dining at (b)/ a five star restaurant and was (c)/ quite annoyed on it.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) It is Prep. related error. annoyed (Adj.) agrees with at (Prep.) Therefore, quite annoyed at it is the right usage. 50. Drinking herbal tea (a)/ can help you (b)/ calm down during (c)/ a stressful time.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 51. The initial calls (a)/ of emergency (b)/ sent the police (c)/ into a fizzy.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) fizzy (Noun) : sparkling ; having bubbles of gas. frenzy : a state of great activity and strong emotion that is often violent Therefore, into a frenzy is the right usage. 52. The Government sought (a)/ an early release of funds (b)/ to expediting the construction of (c)/ five new medical colleges in the state.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) Infinitive = to + V1 i.e. to expedite the construction of ….. is the right usage. 53. Did the co-pilot of (a)/ the ill-fate plane (b)/ that crashed come in as (c)/ a last minute replacement?(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Ill-fated (Adj.) : not lucky and ending sadly. Therefore, the ill-fated plane is the right usage. 54. Agitated teachers, (a)/ surrounded the homes of (b)/ some of the ministers, demanding (c)/ regularisation of their jobs.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) surrounded the residences of is the right usage. Look at the sentence : (i) 10, Downing street is British Prime Minister’s official residence. (not home) 55. When the actor (a)/ came to know that (b)/ the director was shooting at the same studio, (c)/ he dropped in for a visit. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) It is Prep. related error. at (Prep.) is used for a point and in (Prep.) is used for an enclosed space. Therefore, the director was shooting in the same studio is the right usage. Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error if any will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part will be the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (e). i.e. ‘No error’. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any) (SIDBI Officer Online Exam.24.02.2016) 56. In cities people don’t (a)/always have the time to (b)/ catch up with old friends or (c)/spend times with their family. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Time is an uncountable Noun. Therefore, spend time with their families …… should be used here. 57. The band have been (a)/performing at many cause oriented concerts (b)/to encourage people to come forward and (c)/lend their support to the noble cause.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) the band has singular sense. Therefore, singular verb i.e. The band has been …… should be used. 58. As market leaders (a)/we have always been at (b)/the forefront of creating awareness (c)/between the public.(4)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) For more than two persons/things, among i.e. among the public…. should be used. 59. If the IPL has succeeded in drawing (a)/an audience across the country, it is because (b)/cricket has always had a strong foundation (c)/and a dedicated audience.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 60. In view of the intense cold wave conditions (a)/prevailing in the state, the government declared (b)/holidays in all the schools (c)/for a period of ten days.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Present Perfect i.e. ….. the government has declared …… should be used. Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any). (United Bank of India PGDBF Manipal Exam,07.08.2016) 61. The government is working (a)/ with the states to introducing (b)/ a single e-form for (c)/ doing business anywhere in India. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Infinitive = to + V1 Therefore, with the states to introduce a single e-form for ……. should be used here. 62. The government formed (a)/a panel to keep closed watch (b)/ on the bird flu situation (c)/ in the city. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) a panel to keep a close watch ……. should be used. A close watch = a minute/ careful observation. 63. The Sheriff of Nottingham has been placed (a)/ many rewards for (b)/ the capture of Robin Hood (c)/ but nobody had ever caught him. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) AV i.e. The Sheriff of Nottingham had placed (Past Perfect) …… should be used. The sentence shows past time. 64. The portal will (a)/ also soon shifted (b)/ to an open source (c)/ multi-platform system/ browser. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) PV Þ Subj. + will/ shall + be + V3 Therefore, also be soon shifted ….. should be used here. 65. A demonstration during (a)/ the dismantling of half (b)/ of the Jungle migrant camp (c)/ in the city on February 2016. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) point of time is not evident. Therefore, in the city in February 2016 …… should be used here. Directions: Read this sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistakes/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation. If any) 66. For almost three decades, central bankers (a)/ have agreed that one of the best way (b)/ to stabilise an economy is (c)/ to aim for a specific ‘inflation target’.(4)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) One of is followed by Plural Noun/Pronoun should be used. Therefore, have agreed that one of the best ways (plural) should be used here. 67. Consulting firms estimates that about140 billion (a)/ of the world’s IT budget of $34 trillion will be spent (b)/ on cloud computing this year alone (c)/ a number which is expected to grow tenfold by next year. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Plural Subj. agrees with Plural verb. Therefore, consulting firms estimate that….. should be used here. 68. In this state, a mere (a)/ five percent of the food been consumed (b)/ is grown locally, compared (c)/ to 81 percent in the other states.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) five per cent of the food being consumed should be used. 69. After years of economic stagnation (a)/ and questionable lending, (b)/ bad loans at Italian banks (c)/ have pile up.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Look at the structure : Subj. + has/have + V3 Therefore, have piled up ….. should be used here. 70. The main reason for Britain’s success (a)/ at the Olympics was (b)/ the efficient allocation of fund toward (c)/ equipment, facilities and training for athletes.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 71. Over thirty years ago, Chile created (a)/ a pension system in which workers (b)/ had to save for their own retirement by paying (c)/10 percent of its earnings into individual accounts.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) 10 per cent of their (possessive) earnings into individual accounts …… should be used. 72. The cement industry is one of (a)/ the world’s most polluting industries (b)/ and it accounts five percent of (c)/ manmade carbon dioxide emissions each year.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) prep. ‘for’ should be used. Therefore, and it accounts for (= to be the cause of something) five per cent of …… should be used. 73. Under the ‘Dodd-Frank’ Act, a law aimed (a)/ mainly at tightening the regulation of companies, (b)/ firms in the United States had to be able (c)/ to show how the minerals used in their products are from.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) to show where the mine ….. should be used. 74. Launching a satellite into space (a)/ remained a risky and hideously (b)/ expensive proposition, only taken (c)/ up by governments and a few companies.(d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Present Simple/Present Perfect should be used. Therefore, remains/ has remained a risky…. should be used. 75. Under the terms of the policy, (a)/ a payment has been triggered only (b)/ if more than 1.39 million people (c)/ are affected by the drought. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) In such structures Future Simple i.e. a payment will be triggered only should be used. Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select that part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.) ) 76. A lot of research has been (a)/ conducted on the field human (b)/ resources for understanding what creates (c)/ work culture in an organisation. (d)/ No error. (e) Ans: (c) Here not a Gerund but an infinitive should be used because purpose is obvious. Therefore, resources to understand what creates… should be used. 77. During our visit to the hill station, we (a)/ came across signboards which read that (b)/ the area where we was (c)/ under observation by the neighbouring country. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) the area was/the area we were, was should be used. 78. No matter what people opine about (a)/ the stern measures taken against (b)/ traffic signal violators, taking such an (c)/ action have been pending since long. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) Subj. (taking such an action) is singular. Therefore, singular verb i.e., action has been pending for long… should be used. 79. Though these buildings have been given (a)/ clearance by fire safety officials, any (b)/ layman can understand that hardly (c)/ any fire safety norms have followed. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) any fire safety norm has been followed (passive voice)/any fire safety norms have been followed should be used. 80. Hardly he had entered the building (a)/ when the security guard called and (b)/ informed him that he had left his (c)/ car door open in the parking lot. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Inversion i.e., Hardly had he entered the building… should be used. 81. The new variety of genetically modified (a)/ crops is being extremely successful in (b)/ curbing the usage of (c)/ pesticides and increasing the per unit output. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Present Simple i.e., crops is extremely successful in… should be used. 82. Air pollution in the city rises (a)/ beyond the permissible limits every winter (b)/ as the pollutants cannot escape from the (c)/ atmosphere due to radial inversion. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 83. Globally, the Indian market is the second (a)/ largest user of mobile phones, with more than (b)/ a billion people using mobile (c)/ phones for calling and internet purposes. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 84. After having working for five (a)/ years in a private firm, Karan (b)/ got down to preparing for (c)/ various bank entrance examinations. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) After working for five/Having worked for five… should be used. 85. Those who want to do good are (a)/ neither selfish nor in a hurry because (b)/ they know what it requires a long (c)/ time to impregnate people with good. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) connective that (Noun clause) i.e., they know that it requires a long… should be used. Directions: Identify the error in the sentences given below, if there is no error, choose option (e). ) 86. (a) The need to set up (b) a good library in the locality (c) has been in the minds of people (d) for some time now (e) No error Ans: (e) No error 87. (a) Most people would have (b) attended the union meeting (c) if they had (d) had longer notice of it. (e) No error Ans: (d) Earlier = before the present time Longer = for a long time Therefore, had earlier notice of it …… should be used here. 88. (a) He took to (b) reading Times (c) for better knowledge (d) of the facts. (e) No error Ans: (b) Definite article ‘the’ should be used before a newspaper. Therefore, reading the Times should be used here. 89. (a) When children have difficulty understanding (b) a certain mathematical process, it is often because (c) their teachers do not understand it conceptually (d) themselves and do not present it in a way that children can understand. (e) No error. Ans: (a) It is prep. related error. Therefore, children have difficulty in understanding shoiuld be used here. 90. (a) Studies show that the lives of millions of mothers (b) and their children could be saved if countries would (c) invest in programs that ensures a healthy pregnancy, (d) and safe childbirth. (e) No error. Ans: (c) antecedent of that is programs (plural). Therefore, in programs that ensure a healthy pregnancy should be used. 91. (a) Film viewers claim that (b) the number of scenes depicting alcohol consumption (c) have increased dramatically over (d) the last decade. (e) no error Ans: (c) The number of should be followed by plural Noun/ Pronoun and singular verb. Therefore, has increased dramatically over ….. should be used. 92. (a) Forty percent of the people alive today have (b) never made a phone call, but (c) thirty percent still have no electricity connections (d) to their homes. (e) no error Ans: (b) To show contrast but should be used. The sentence has no contrast. Therefore, never made a phone call and …… should be used. 93. (a) Workers with less (b) personal problems are (c) likely to be (e) more productive in their work. (e) no error. Ans: (e) No error 94. (a) Everyone who visits Singapore (b) is impressed by its cleanliness, (c) which is mainly a result of rigorous implementation (d) of their strict laws. (e) No error Ans: (d) of its (Singapore) strict laws ….. should be used. 95. (a) The bridal dress was (b) most unique: the prince (c) designed it and his (d) mother provided the lace fabric. (e) No error Ans: (b) generally unique; the prince should come. Unique = very special or unusual. Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any). 96. In a short span of time, this start-up (a)/ website has entrenched itself as the (b)/ go-to abode for cloth that are (c)/ well-designed with care and attention. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) go–to–abode for clothes that are should be used. 97. The battery-operated scooter (a)/ equipped on Lithium- ion batteries that (b)/ provide it with a longer life (c)/ as compared to the conventional ones. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Equip (Verb) = to provide with the things that are needed for a particular purpose or activity. It is prep. related error. Therefore, equipped with Lithium–ion batteries that ….. should be used here. 98. Despite being such a small (a)/country, Japan have been gone on to conquer (b)/ Southeast Asia almost entirely (c)/ during the mid-twentieth century. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) The sentence shows past time. Therefore, country, Japan went on conquering (Gerund) should be used. 99. Scientists are increasingly concerned (a)/ about the potential long-term effects (b)/ of global warming on our (c)/ natural environment and on the planet. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) It is an error of repeated prep.. Therefore, natural environment and the planet ….. should be used. 100. The most powerful advantage (a)/ of the internet is that it (b)/ decentralises work centres and (c)/ therefore makes widespread empowerment. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Powerful = influential; having great power; muscular. Therefore, The most important advantage …… should be used here. 101. The youngster has proven his ability as (a)/ an aggressive sportsperson and age being (b)/ on his sides, he has a huge (c)/ chance of succeeding in the near future. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 102. Ever year in summer, many (a)/ tourists visit to Kumartull in North (b)/ Kolkata to watch the artisans (c)/ prepare the idols of Goddess Durga. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Every year in summer, many ….. should be used. 103. A partnership has been signed by (a)/ an Indian pharmaceutical company with (b)/ a one from Japan in order to (c)/ develop a vaccine for the chikungunya virus. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) definite article i.e., the one from Japan in order to ….. should be used. 104. The new government has repealed (a)/ the policy of free speech in (b)/ the country, which has invited (c)/ nationwide criticism from all and sundry. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (e) No error 105. Nothing can be built in this area since (a)/ its soil is saline and contains minerals that (b)/ would eat into any concrete structure (c)/ that coming into contact with this soil. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) antecedent of that is structure (singular). Therefore, that comes into contact with this soil ….. should be used. Directions: In the following questions, one part of the sentence may have an error. Find out which part of the sentence has an error and choose the option corresponding to it. If the sentence is free from error, choose the “No error” option. 106. Despite having been inspected (a)/ and pronounced safe earlier, (b)/ the century old bridge collapse after (c)/ a train went across it. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) The sentence shows past time. Therefore, Past Simple i.e. the century old bridge collapsed after …. should be used. 107. The study published last year revealed (a)/ that the use of body cameras has (b)/ resulted in sharply dropping (c)/ false complaints against the police. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Reporting Verb is in Past Tense. Therefore, Reported Speech will also be in Past Tense. Therefore, that the use of body cameras had …. should be used here. 108. At present when urban planners (a)/ try to understand the patterns (b)/ of activity in a district (c)/ they do it by conducting surveys. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) of activities (Plural) in a district … should be used 109. The Prime Minister has stated that changing (a)/ the ‘overwork work culture’ in Japan (b)/ is one of the main arms of the labour reforms (c)/ he plans to introduce next year. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) Overwork (Noun) = the fact of working too hard. Therefore, overwork cultule …. should be used. 110. Just over a year ago, policymakers were worried (a)/ about China’s tumbling stock markets, (b)/ but now it is China’s property market (c)/ that causing worries at home and abroad. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (d) The second part of the sentence relates to present. Therefore, Present Progressive i.e. that is causing worries at home and abroad …. should be used. 111. Typical measures that schools employ to (a)/ boost results include putting the best Teachers (b)/ in charge of students whom are about to take tests (c)/ and cutting the time devoted to activities unrelated to exams. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (c) Who is used to show which person or people you mean. Therefore, in charge of students who are about to …. should be used. 112. This is Africa’s largest and (a)/ most profitable of airline, earning (b)/ more than all its rivals (c)/ across the entire continent. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) use of prep. ‘of’ is superfluous. 113. The government is hoping (a)/ to raise the electricity generated (b)/ from nuclear plants from (c)/ 25 per cent to 50 percent since 2020. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (b) not V3 but Noun i.e. to raise the electricity generation (Noun) should be used. 114. Ask economists how best to (a)/ reduce pollution and the chances (b)/ are; that they will recommend (c)/ taxing carbon emissions. (d)/ No error (e) Ans: (a) Ask economists what is the best way to …. should be used. 115. Foreign investors already own (a)/ about half of the firm (b)/ which has a market valuation (c)/ of more than$9 billion. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any).
(Indian Bank PO (Pre.) Exam, 21.01.2017 (Ist Sitting)
)
116. Many citizens are gravitating (a)/ towards the nation’s (b)/ second-largest State because it offer (c)/ ample job opportunities.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
second-largest state is in singular form. Therefore, it offers (singular) …. should be used.
117. Most African nations were largely (a)/ shielded from the 2008 financial crisis (b)/ by China’s insatiable demand (c)/ for natural resources.(d) No error (e)
Ans: (c)
cause is evident. Therefore, due to China’s insatiable demand …. should be used.
118. Skeptics worries that the devaluation (a)/ of the country’s currency is (b)/ a desperate move to (c)/ bail out struggling exporters.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Skeptic (Noun) = a person who usually doubts that claims are true. Therefore, Skeptics (plural) worry (plural) that …. should be used here.
119. Consumers are constantly been (a)/ encouraged to take (b)/ advantage of the (c)/ lowered interest rates.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
consumers are constantly being/consumers have constantly been …. should be used.
120. Emerging economies are (a)/ dominating the news (b)/ but for (c)/ all the wrong reasons.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
121. With 80 per cent of the working age population, (a)/ already employed, there is limited room (b)/ for employment growth to contribute strong about (c)/ economic activities in the future.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
An Adv. modifies a verb. Therefore, for employment growth to contribute strongly (Adv.) to/towards …. should be used here.
122. The global economy, slaved by (a)/ stagnation in Europe and Japan, is being (b)/ further hampered (c)/ by England’s decelerating growth.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Enslave = to make somebody/something completely depend on something so that they cannot manage without it. Therefore, The global economy enslaved by …. should be used here.
123. The country’s economic growth (a)/ could be fade dramatically (b)/ as the years to come (c)/ owing to an aging population.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
Fade = to become/make something become less bright. Therefore, can (could) fade dramatically ….. should be used here.
124. The country’s economic growth will (a)/ largely be stable in the third quarter (b)/ as the impact of a stock market plunge (c)/ is been lessened.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
Lessen = to become/make something become weaker; diminish. Therefore, has lessened/has been lessened ….. should be used here.
125. A major component supporting (a)/ the nation’s rapid (b)/ economic growth has (c)/ been growth of exports.(4)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
has been the growth of exports …. should be used.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any)
(Indian Bank PO (Pre.) Exam, 21.01.2017 (2nd Sitting)
)
126. Though the country (a)/has abundant coal reserves (b)/it has been imported coal (c)/at a high cost. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (c)
progressive tense should be used. Therefore, it is importing coal/it has been importing coal …. should be used. Subejct + have/has + been + V-ing Þ AV
127. Financial institutions are hiring (a)/and training relationship managers (b)/to innovatively sell (c)/products to customers. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (e)
Innovative (Adj.) = advanced and original; featuring new methods.
128. An incident when my youth taught (a)/me to stand up and (b)/ do what is right even if (c)/ others do not agree with me. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (a)
An incident of (during) my youth taught should be used.
129. As I had learnt (a)/Sanskrit in school (b)/I could understood (c)/many Indian languages. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (b)
Look at the structure : Subj. + could/would + V1 Therefore, I could understand ….. should be used here.
130. The insurance industry in (a)/ India is underwent (b)/ many changes in (c)/ the past few years. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (b)
The past relates to the present. Therefore, Present Perfet i.e. India has undergone ….. should be used here.
131. The Minister praised the (a)/ record voter turnout and calling it (b)/ a victory for democracy irrespective (c)/ of the outcome. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (b)
The first clause is in Past Simple. Therefore, record voter turnout and called (V2) it ….. should be used here.
132. Professionals with (a)/ knowledge of child rights (b)/ alone should be appointed (c)/ on child protection units. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (d)
It is a prep. related error. Therefore, to child protection units ….. should be used here.
133. While the students of the school (a)/ are gearing up to learn a new language (b)/ those already learning the language (c) are a perturb lot. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (d)
Perturbed (Adj.) = anxious or unsettled; upset; worried. Look at the sentence : He didn’t seem unduly/overly pertuubed by the news. Therefore, are a perturbed lot (a particular group) should be used here.
134. The two brothers were (a)/ caught while trying (b)/ to steal gift packets (c)/ from a marriage hall. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
135. Gift lenders are (a)/ keenly studying RBI’s guidelines (b)/ as several about these can soon apply (c)/ for licenses for small banks. (d) No error (e)
Ans: (c)
It is a prep. related error. Therefore, as several of these can soon apply ….. should be used.
Directions:
In the following questions, some parts of the sentences have errors and some are correct. Find out which part of a sentence has an error.
If a sentence is free from error, your answer is No error.
(Ignore errors of punctuation, if any)
136.
After his term in the Department of Defence (a)/ he was appointed Secretary of Energy (b)/a job in which he was strongly supported the use (c)/ of alternate sources of energy such as nuclear energy. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
not Passive but AV should be used. Therefore, a job in which he strongly supported the use is the right usage.
137. As GDP growth is half of what it (a)/ is just a few years ago, the country (b)/ desperately needs to cut red tape and improve (c)/ infrastructure to boost investment and growth. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
The Clause shows Past time. Therefore, was just a few years ago is the right usage.
138. When elections in the country are due shortly (a)/ people are determined to register as voters and to vote for (b)/ candidates based on their track record and the programmes (c)/ that they intend to implement for the betterment of the country. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
repetition of to is improper. Therefore people are determined to register themselves as voters and vote for is the right usage.
139. At least a quarter of the World’s corals have lost (a)/ over the past twenty-five years and as climate change warms (b)/ the oceans the additional carbon dioxide wi ll make (c)/ the water more acidic further destroying coral reefs. (d)/ No error (e)
106 (a) Passive i.e., At least a quarter of the world’s corals have been lost is the right usage.
140. The Prime Minister’s speech laid out how (a)/ it is important to encourage female participants (b)/ in the economy yet the percentage of female lawmakers in (c)/ the lower house of parliament has fallen to 8 percent. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
Reporting Verb is in Past tense. Therefore, it was important is the right usage.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it.
The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (lgnore the errors of punctuation, if any)
141.
He identified the most important machines required (a)/ for modern life and worked in making a prototype (b)/ ‘do it yourself’ version of each because he believed that if people (c)/ could build these themselves, it would improve their way of life (d)/ No error (e).
Ans: (b)
for modern life and worked to make/ succeeded in making a prototype is the right usage.
142. Natural disasters will not turn into a catastrophe (a)/ if we invest in building infrastructure that (b)/ can withstand the devastating impacts of storm (c)/ which have became more severe (d)/ No error (e).
Ans: (d)
Past Participle form of Verb i.e. which have become (V3) more severe is the right usage. Structure of sentence in Present Perfect Tense : Present Perfect Þ Subj. + has/have + V3
143. Many goods are being manufactured quickly without (a)/ any regard for quality and as consumers we must be (b)/aware of our rights and the government (c)/ should penalise them who indulge in unscrupulous business practices (d)/ No error (e).
Ans: (e)
No error
144. The European Central Bank has said that if all (a)/ Euro-zone nation continue to carry out (b)/ economic reforms as Portugal and Ireland have (c)/ Central Bank will guarantee future bailouts (d)/ No error (e).
Ans: (b)
Plural Noun i.e., Euro-zone nations continue to carry out is the right usage.
145. While farmers are struggling (a)/ to cope with severe drought (b)/ crop companies are researched (c)/ ways to breed crops that thrive in drought (d)/ No error (e).
Ans: (c)
crop companies are researching (into) is the right usage. The use of PV is improper.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, the answer is No error. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.)
146.
In India working woman (a)/ lead a life of dual responsibilities (b)/ if they are married (c)/ and have a family, (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Plural Subj. i.e. In India working women is the right usage. The sentence shows Plural sense.
147. Though, she has aptitude (a)/ in mathematics I won’t allow (b)/ her to take it up as a subject of study for the Master’s Degree (c)/ because I know the labour involved will tell upon her health. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
It is Prep. related error. Therefore, for mathematics I won’t allow is the right usage. Look at the sentence : (i) She showed a natural aptitude for the work.
148. The RBI has proposed to introduce (a)/ polymer notes after taking into considering (b)/ the cost and longevity (c)/ associated with their manufacturing. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
polymer notes after taking into consideration (Noun) is the right usage. take something into consideration = to think about and include a particular thing when you are making a decision.
149. Over the next five years (a)/ the government needs to invest (b)/ at less 350 billion dollars (c)/ in rural infrastructure. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
at least 350 billion dollars is the right usage. At least : not less than.
150. Money from poor countries (a)/ is flowing into richer ones (b)/ in large part due to the active purchase (c)/ of foreign assets by central banks, (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
in large amount is the right usage.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, Select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any)
151.
It was evident that (a)/ the man could not control (b)/ his emotions as he thanked (c)/ the donor’s family for saving his life. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
152. Eating a lot of (a)/ processed meat can (b)/ led to micro-nutrient deficiencies (c)/ and cause hunger. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
Subj. + can + V1 (Infinitive without to). Therefore, lead to micro-nutrient deficiencies …… should be used here.
153. Children will (a)/ be provided with (b)/ energy-dense oral nutritional supplements (c)/ and medicines. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
Rich = containing or providing a large supply of something. Therefore, energy-rich oral nutritional supplements ….. should be used here. Dense = containing a lot of people, things, plants etc.
154. Aided by the cheerful company (a)/ of her new found friends, (b)/ the actress opens up about (c)/ coming to terms on her father’s demise. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
Open up = to start business. It is prep. related error. coming to terms after her father’s demise ….. should be used.
155. Ministers and Officers have been (a)/ asked on refraining from (b)/ making any statement which could (c)/ damage the peace process. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
infinitive i.e. asked to refrain from …… should be used. Purpose is evident.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (e) i.e., No error. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.)
156.
However, while the younger generations are often accusing for (a)/ actively adhering to this technology (b)/ based lifestyle, the study showed (c)/ that 38% of year olds claim to feel overwhelmed. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
…… are often accused of ….. should be used. Clearly, PV should be used.
157. The economy of a country is literary (a)/ a backbone to its existence and it helps (b)/ determine overall health (c)/ and growth of a nation. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
an Adv. i.e., The economy of a country is literally …. should be used. Literally = in a literal way; exactly. Look at the sentence : The word ‘planet’ literally means ‘wandering body’.
158. A thief runs away from a police station with a uniform (a)/ speed of 100m/minute and after one minute a policeman runs behind the (b)/ thief to catch him at speed of 100m/minute in first (c)/ minute and increases his speed 10m each succeeding minute. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
definite article ‘the’ i.e., thief to catch him at the speed of 100m/minute in the first ….. should be used.
159. Now-a-days people are really (a)/ afraid of the terrorism and terrorists (b)/ attack all time. It has become a warm (c)/ topic as it is a big social issue. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
160. With the decline of cottage (a)/ and handicraft industries, the traditional (b)/ economy base of country (c)/ was in bad shape. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
Here Adj. i.e., economic base of country’s should be used. An Adj. is used to qualify a noun.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any).
161.
The progress of the southwest monsoon (a)/ is relatively slow as it is (b)/ not getting a favourable system (c)/ for move forward.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
Infinitive Þ to + V1 to move forward…… should be used here.
162. Authorities have (a)/ derived requests (b)/ for private hospital care (c)/ to the accuse. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
The accused = a person who is on trial for committing a crime. Look at the sentence : The accused was found innocent.
163. The drive intended to creating (a)/ an awareness of (b)/ the perks of riding two wheelers (c)/ without a helmet. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
The drive intended to create (Infinitive)….. should be used. Purpose is obvious. Look at the sentence : The writer clearly intends his readers to identify with the main character.
164. Gold continued its rising streak (a)/ for the fourth straight session (b)/ to reclaim the (c)/ psychologically significant thirty thousand mark.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
165. The system, which keeps (a)/ a record for personal and professional details (b)/ of all community members, (c)/ was hacked.(d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
It is prep. related error. Therefore, a record of personal…. should be used. Look at the sentence : You should keep a record of your expenses.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.)
166.
Since the films are (a)/ so similar, it is (b)/ you who has infringe (c)/ our client’s copyright. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
The antecedent of relative pronoun ‘who is you. Therefore, Plural Verb i.e., you who have infringed (V3) should be used.
167. The company has been (a)/ testing upfront fares for (b)/ a small segment of (c)/ riders across five cities. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
It is prep. related error. Therefore, testing upfront fares on … should be used here. Look at the sentence : Children were tested on core Subj.s.
168. Over 2 lakh students (a)/ had applied, seeking enter (b)/ to various streams (c)/ in junior colleges in the city. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
have applied, seeking admission (Noun) ….. should be used. The Past relates to Present. Moreover, gerund should be followed by a Noun.
169. Analysts said (a)/ that a lack of (b)/ transparency in the selection process (c)/ was a worry. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
that the lack of ……. should be used. Certainty is evident.
170. The growing fixation on super speciality doctors (a)/ has meant a proportionate (b)/ dwindling on the ranks of (c)/ the good old fashioned general practitioners. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any).
171.
The fare will be calculated (a)/ on the basis of (b)/ expected travel time distance (c)/ and traffic where applied. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
and traffic where applicable/wherever applicable should be used. Applicable (Adj.) = that can be said to be true in the case of something; relevant. Look at the sentence : Give details of children where applicable.
172. Junior colleges sees (a)/ marginal violations in (b)/ minimum score cap for arts, (c)/ science and commerce streams. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Plural Subj. agrees with plural verb. Therefore, Junior colleges see should be used.
173. The actor has (a)/ filed a case (b)/ against the director and (c)/ has sought a written apology. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
Repetition of has is not needful as has has been used earlier with Subj.. Therefore, sought (for) a written apology …. should be used.
174. The practice of big pharma companies (a)/ offering kickbacks to (b)/ prescribing physicians may not be (c)/ a breach of ethics. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
prescribed physicians may not be …. should be used. Look at the sentence : The prescribed form must be completed and returned to the office.
175. The government has narrowed (a)/ its list of candidates (b)/ to become the next (c)/ governor of the RBI. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
to select/appoint the next …. should be used. Select = to choose from a group of people.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it or a wrong word has been used. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence which has been printed in bold and has been numbered (a), (b), (c) or (d). If there is no error, the answer is No error. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.)
176.
The convergence of (a)/ Indian accounting standards with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) beginning (b)/in April is expecting to (c)/ see power companies struggling with (d)/ significant first-time adoption impact. No error (e)
Ans: (c)
in April is expected to is the right usage. to be expected (Idiom). It means : to be likely to happen Look at the sentences : A little tiredness after taking these drugs is to be expected.
177. Researchers at (a)/ the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, are mapping (b)/India’s solar hot spots-where round-the-year (c)/ sunlight makes it viable of (d)/companies to set up solar power plants. No error (e)
Ans: (d)
Here,viable for is the right usage.
178. Though their qualifications span a diverse (a)/ range, there is an equal (b)/ number of graduates and those who have just completed School, each set (c)/making up (d)/ close to 30% of these households. No error (e)
Ans: (d)
makes up is the right usage.
179. As if (a)/ the most dangerous moment for any dictatorship is when (b)/ it starts to (c)/reform, North Korea looks ready to turn that truismon its head. (d)/No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Use of as is superfluous. if is the right usage.
180. It so happens (a)/ that this happy campy ritual is their way of life (b)/ and one into which (c)/ they don’t particularly welcome (d)/ voyeuristic intrusions. No error (e)
Ans: (c)
one in which is the right usage.
Directions:
In the following questions, read this sentences to find out whether there is any error in it.
The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. If there is no error, select No error. (ignore the error of punctuation, if any)
181.
The civic body has working/ towards ensuring zero waste dumping/ from fish markets by scientifically processing/ leftovers from these areas. (a) The civic body has working (b) towards ensuring zero waste dumping (c) from fish markets by scientifically processing (d) leftovers from these areas. (e) No error
Ans: (a)
Present Continuous/Perfect Continuous i.e. The civic body is/has been working is the right usage.
182. Scientists have created/ the blackest material ever made,/ which is as dark that it can absorb/ almost all light that hits it. (a) Scientists have created (b) the blackest material ever made (c) which is as dark that it can absorb (d) almost all light that hits it (e) No error
Ans: (c)
So… that is correct form of Connective. Therefore, which is so dark that it can absorb is the right usage.
183. The European Union is keen on/ seeking cooperation from/ Indian Universities in order to welcome/ more students to tap the resources available abroad. (a) The European Union is keen on (b) seeking cooperation from (c) Indian Universities in order to welcome (d) more students to tap the resources available abroad. (e) No error
Ans: (e)
No error
184. The district police arrested/ five students for alleged obtaining/ admission to colleges/ by producing fake documents. (a) The district police arrested (b) five students for alleged obtaining (c) admission to colleges (d) by producing take documents (e) No error
Ans: (b)
five students for allegedly obtaining is the right usage. Adj. (alleged) is used to qualify a Noun.
185. With the new technique,/ one person’s face appears seamlessly/ on another person’s face, even if the second/ person is not smilingly at all. (a) With the new technique (b) one person’s face appears seamlessly (c) on another person’s face, even if the second (d) person is not smilingly at all (e) No error
Ans: (d)
person is not smiling at all is the right usage.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence.
If there is no error, the answer is No error. (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any)
186.
Most people do not (a)/ realise that medical emergencies are (b)/ nearly always be correctable, (c)/ if detected early. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
nearly always correctable is the right usage. Use of be is superfluous.
187. Over the last fifteen years, (a)/ a significant body of research has (b)/ demonstrated that each of us (c)/ is a disturbingly unreliably rater of other people’s performance. (d)/ No error. (e)
Ans: (d)
is a disturbingly unreliable (Adj.) rater of is the right usage. Adv. modifies an Adj. also
188. Children who make heart healthy (a)/ choices reduces their chances of (b)/ developing heart diseases (c)/ later in life. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
Subj. (children) is Plural. Therefore, Plural Verb i.e. choices reduce their chances of is the right usage.
189. India is one of the (a)/ biggest oil importers, but (b)/ is this practices good (c)/ for the country and its people. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
is this practice (Singular) good is the right usage.
190. The internet project envisages (a)/ the use of highaltitude balloons to providing (b)/ affordable internet to around five billion people (c)/ globally, who currently have no access. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
Infinitive = to + V1 i.e. the use of high altitude balloons to provide is the right usage.
Directions:
In the following questions, some parts of the sentences have errors and some are correct.
Find out which part of a sentence has an error. The number of that part is your answer. If a sentence is free from errors, your answer is (d) i.e. No error.
191.
The day after the attack, (a)/ the seniors asked their colleagues (b)/ to not turn (c)/ up for work. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
not + infinitive i.e., not to turn …. should be used.
192. In the early 90s, (a)/ a noted architect photographed (b)/ the water bodies nestled (c)/ inside the textile mills of Mumbai. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
a noted architect designed ….. should be used.
193. The Supreme Court passed (a)/ an order for all state governments (b)/ to construct shelters with (c)/ a capacity around 100 persons per one lakh population. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (d)
a capacity of about 100 persons per lakh ….. should be used.
194. The Wrestling den is (a)/ almost so large as (b)/ the mud pit in (c)/ which its wrestlers train. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
as …. as i.e., almost as large as ….. should be used.
195. Have the pressure of crossing over (a)/ to the digital been difficult (b)/ for a firm that ironically democratised the photographic image (c)/ with its low–cost cameras? (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Had the pressure of crossing over ….. should be used.
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistakes/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the number of the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation. If any)
196.
One way of dealing with such a (a)/ situation is by issuing a legal notice (b)/ to the accused, when the other is (c)/ to settle the matter amicably (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
situation is to issue/issuing a legal notice should be used. The use of prep. ‘by’ is superfluous.
197. The shrewd manager left Samarth (a)/ with no choice however to reign from (b)/ the post by transferring him to (c)/ an entirely remote and hostile location (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (b)
The sentence shows contrast. Therefore, with no choice but reign over the post …. should be used.
198. It is ironic that the management (a)/of the organisation refuses to adhere (b)/ to the same standards of corporate governance (c)/that it requires of companies deals with it (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
that requires of companies’ deals with it …. should be used.
199. With so lowly call rates, the new (a)/ telecom service company is definitely going (b)/ to give the current market leaders a (c)/ run for their money and market share (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Lowly (Adj.) = humble; obscure. with so low call rates, the new …. should be used.
200. As retailers may well be on their (a)/ way to experiment with the change in policy (b)/ for the next few months, consumers may also take (c)/ time to get used to late night shopping (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (e)
No error
Directions:
Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select ‘No error’ as your answer. Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.
201.
The moment which began to help (a)/ the commoners fight (b)/ against the oppressive regime, eventually (c)/ turned into a terrorist organisation. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (a)
Movement (Noun) = organised activity. Moment (Noun) = very short period of time. Therefore, the movement which began to help …… should be used here.
202. The new policies that have (a)/ been formulated by the government (b)/ recently aim at bring in (c)/ transparency within the system. (d)/ No error (e)
Ans: (c)
A Gerund should follow aim at,